B.SC –I INSTRUMENTATION
FIRST PAPER – Metrology 50
SECOND PAPER- Mechanical Measurements 50
THIRD PAPER- Basic Electronics and instrumentation 50
A- Mechanical instrumentation laboratory 15
B- Basic Electronics laboratory 15
C-Project work and evaluation of report 10
D-Record internal assessment 10
B.Sc –I INSTRUMENTATION
PAPER I: METROLOGY
Measuring systems and precision instruments, Measuring with rules. Mathematical
concepts .Limiting mean, range, variance. Standard deviation,
Normal distribution ,confidence intervals. Principals of sampling.
Standards of measurements. Standard of length, end standards.
Vernier calipers, fixed gauges, inside, depth and height gauges. Gauge blocks
surface plates, micrometers. Angular measurement, sine bars, angle gauges, levels,
clinometers ,auto-collimators,taper gauges. Direct measuring tools and instruments.
Optical projectors and microscopes. Horizontal,vertical and cabinet profile
projectors. Tool makers and workshop microscopes. end standards, end bars, slip
Compariaon measurements, comparators,pnuematic, electric and electronic
comparators. Limits, fits and tolerances. Interchangeability ,types of fits.
Interferences surface characteristics.
Alignment testing, machine tools alignment, machine beds, alignment of axis(
spindle axis and bed, spindle axis and line of centers), axis slip and calibration of
lead screw, alignment telescope. Interferometers, ultrasonic pulse echo and
resonance gauging, optical alignment. Equipment and methods Surface texture
measurements and gauging, profilometers. Testing of screw threads. Pitch and angle
error. External and internal tread gauges. Testing of gears ,involute geometry,
runout, pitch ,profile, lead ,backlash, tooth thickness ,roundness measurements.
Engineering metrology R.K.Jain . khanna publishers delhi 1973.
PAPER –II MECHANICAL MEASURMENTS
Introduction types and applications of measurement. Instrumentation- configuration
of measuring instruments – static and dynamic performance. Characteristics of
instruments – analysis of experimental data .
Measurement of displacement ,area and velocity (electrical and mechanical methods,
planimeters , stroboscopes, revolution counters, tachometers)
Measurement of force, torque , shaft power and strain(strain gauge, differential
transformer and piezoelectric types of transducers , dynamometers). Measurement of
pressure (dead weight gauges, manometers electrical pressure pickups ,bourdon
tubes ,high pressure measurement ,low pressure(vacuum measurement)
Measurement of sound- level meter, microphones. Measure of flow ,pitot –static
probes, venturi , orifice and nozzles, rotameters , vane ,hot sphere, hot-wire, hot-film
anemometers ,ultrasonic techniques)
Measurement of temperature and heat flux(thermocouples, resistance thermometry,
radiation thermometry, heat flux sensors). Miscellaneous measurements( time,
frequency ,phase angle ,liquid level ,humidity)
1- Doeblin , E.V., Meaurment systems – Application and design, McGraw Hill
2- O’Higgen, P.J. basic Instrumentation, McGraw Hill 1966.
PAPER III-BASIC ELECTRONICS AND INSTURMENTATION
Resistors, inductors and capacitors- general information , symbol, colour code
,types. Physical properties of resistors – temperature dependence (Thermistor ) ,
light dependent (LDR) , voltage dependent(VDR). Characteristics properties, use
and response of inductors and capacitors. Technical specifications – wattage
working voltage. Method of measurement(very low, very high) , AC fundamentals.
Network theorems – Superposition, Maximum Power Transfer, Thevenins theorem ,
Norton’s theorem, Millman’s theorem ( simple exercises)
A.C.Circuits – Resistance , inductance , energy store in capacitance , series circuit
,RL,RC, and RLC circuits. Power triangle – Series, parallel circuits.
Admittance(Exercises). Resonance in A.C. Circuits Series Resistance, Freq. vaiation
, selectively ,Q factor, Half power frequency, Bandwidth, parallel resonance, two
branch parallel circuits, Resistance variation, Resonance at all frequencies , Tuned
Amplifiers – different terms used in amplifiers , such as signal, source, input ,output
voltage and current gain, power gain, decibel, input and output impedance.
Classification according to frequency response ,R-C coupled , class A . Common
emitter amp, introduction to Class B and C.
Power supplies– Transformer, ratings, specifications, V1/V2= I2/I1=N1/N2 Etc.
Efficiency and losses. Rectifiers ( full wave , half wave , filters). Regulation(line and
regulation). Three pin regulators and black box(Ideal constant voltage source, ideal
constant current source concept). Measuring Instruments – Moving coil , moving
iron , dynometer, thermal ammeters, voltmeter, wattmeter, Megger, d.c.
potentiometer, input output impedance.
1. Basic Electronics by Benard Grob.
2. Basic Electronics by Malvino.
3. Electrical measurements by Golding.
B.SC. Part –I (Instrumentation)
(A)Mechanical instrumentation laboratory
1. General awareness about Instruments Mechanism: Materials for
instruments, bearings, locks and stops, coupling , clutches, energy storing
elements, joining functional mechanisms ,elements in high speed mechanisms,
elements of workshop technology.
2. Insturmentation Drawing: Conventional representation of common elements
of instruments. External and internal threads ,slotted head, square and flat ,
radial ribs, senafed and pinion, bearings( ball and rollers), knurling, helical
springs, compression springs with square and circular sections, tension
Gears: spur/Helical gears, screw gears, rack and pinion,bevel gears(assembly)
Worm and worm wheel. Geomatric drawing, orthographic projections,
sections, pictorial drawing.
Proportionate sketch and isometric views of the insruments: Voltmeters ,
single phase energy meters, ammeuers, watt meters , pressure gauge and
technometers. Draft and pressure measuring devices , flow meters, pyrometer,
control valves and actuator. I.S.A. symbol for instrumentation flow plan.
3. Experiment in Metrology: Use and technique of measurments for-
i- Double ended plug gauge
ii- Micrometer calibration
iii- Plain ring gauge
iv- Taper plug gauge
v- Straight edge
vi- Plug gauge on a comparator
vii- Sine bar
4. Mechanical Measurements:
i- Measurements of temperature
ii- Flow pressure
(B) Basic Electronic Laboratory
1. Familiarity with general components: R,L,C Relays, Microphones,
Switches: SPDT,DPDT,Band Switches,Touch Switches, Thumb Wheel,
Micro Switches specifications. Batteries, Dry cells, Lead acid, accumulators,
nickel-cadmium, standard cell.
Fuses: Fast and slow fuses,pilot lamps, LED(Specifications)
Note: The familiarization may preferably be given.
2. Electronic Experiments :
i- Junction diode characteristics
ii- Half wave rectifier
iii- Full wave rectifier
iv- Bridge rectifier
v- Different filter configurations
vi- Three PIN regulators(+ve and –ve regulators)
vii- To check the line and load regulations
viii- Mains stabliser for home appliances
B.SC –II INSTRUMENTATION
First Paper: Digital Electronics 50
Second Paper: Microprocessor 50
Third Paper: Instrumentation System 50
A- Digital Lab 15
B-Microprocessor Lab 15
C-Project work and evaluation of project 10
D-Record Internal Assessement 10
B.Sc –II INSTRUMENTATION
FIRST PAPER: DIGITAL ELECTRONICS
NUMBER System and logic gates . introduction to decimal,binary, octal,
hexadecimal number system. BCD codes interconversion of binary decimal. BCD,
octal and hex. Parity. Excess-3 and Grey. Simple binary arithmetic. Introduction to
excess-3 arithmetic. Positive and negative logic. Different logic gates such as
AND,OR,NOT,NOR,NAND,EX-OR,EX-NOR ,symbols and truth tables.
Introduction to different logic families(RTL,DTL,TTL,ECL,C-MOS) merits and
demrits. Case study:TTL,NANDgate. Multimeter input transistor, phase splitter,
totem pole and open collector output concept. Bascic concepts of Fan-in and Fan-out
sinking sourcing of current.
Boolen Algebra and Combinational logic:Boolen axioms D’Morgans theorem
Statement , Verification and Application .Universal gates (NOR and NAND) its
importance .Prove that any logic gate can be implemented by use of universal gates
Simple combinational logic implementations. Karnaugh Mapping upto four variable
(SOP and POS). Ones compliment, half adder, full adder, half subtractor and full
subtractor. Sequential Logic : Different flip-flops,such as RS,clocked RS,J-K (race
around condition), Master slave J-K,D-type and T-type flip-flops. Explain D-type as
a delay element.
B.Sc –II INSTRUMENTATION
SECOND PAPER: MICROPROCESSSOR
Introduction:What is microprocessor? Need of microprocessor in Instrumentation .
Advantage of microprocessor based instrumentation over conventional
instrumentation . Review of digital electronics :Shift registers, counters,trisate buffer
and multiplexed display systems.
Microprocessor Architecture: Memory Organization : Types of
memories(RAM,ROM,EPROM,PROM,DRAM). Basic concept of memory
organization (Number of address lines required arrangement of memory
cells,control lines,memory extension). Concept of control lines such as Read-Write
chip enable. Register to Register transfer via Data bus. Arithmetic and Logic
Unit(ALU):Function of ALU,Detail design of a small “ALU”,An”ALU” which
performs four basic(4 bit)operations(ADD,SUBT,OR,AND).Need for Instruction
Decoder .Integration of ID with “ALU” with control signal.
Control and Timing Unit :Need for this unit,concept of sequence of execution of an
instruction. Detail design of control unit . Integration of the Memory unit ,ALU,and
Control and Timing unit.
Introduction to 8085 Architectue :Block diagram, Address Bus,Control Bus , Data
Bus, Need to multiplex address and data bus. Memory organization(with emphasis
on demultiplexing address and data bus during memory read or memory write.
Control and timing unit. ALU Registers,Flags ,memory mapped I/O and I/O mapped
I/O. Insrtuction set : Intoduction, classification of insrtution set, op-code formal
some basic instructions I-Data transfer instructions, this must include a- Immediate
Addressing b-Register Addressingt c- Direct Addressing d- Indirect Addressing II-
Arithmetic and Logic Insrtuctions ADD,SUB,AND,OR,XOR,CMP.
B.Sc –II INSTRUMENTATION
THIRD PAPER: INSTRUMENTAION SYSTEMS
Analytical Instrumentation : Introduction to Instrumentation system: need for an
integrated approach. Analytical instruments:Working principlas operation and data
analysis of the following instrument Spectrophotometers , Atomic Aborption
Spectrometer electron microscopes.
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometer :Principal of operation sample
preparation and data analysis stability of magnetic fields and electronics. Mass
Spectrometer :Application areas ,working principals of static and dynamic
instruments ,analysis of data ,X-Ray techniques and Introduction to radiography
fluorescence. Interpretation of data, Mossbauser Spectrometer .Principals of
operation measurement of radioactivity analysis of data.
Biomedical Instrumentation : Introduction to transducers and then application,
recording electrodes .EEG,ECG and other potentials working principals and
precaution. Blood pressure measurements. Introductin to hemodynamic.
Introduction to ultrasound and tomographic techniques. Interpretation of data and
precaution for measurements. Introduction to working principles and operation of
pacemakers, delibrillators, heart –lung and other ICU instrumentation.
Environmental Instrumention: General introduction to physical environment:
Physical aspects like pressure, temperature and humidity, noise , visbility, air quality
and water quality, Humid atmosphere Hygrometers and dew point instruments,
controlled humidity environment. Thermal comfort meter, heat stress monitor, and
temperature monitors. Wind velocity and effect on dispersion of pollutants
Cupanemometer, Hot wire anemometer, rider. Sound level meters. Tape recorders,
noise dosimeters, sound level monitors and acoustical calibators. Solar flux,
pyranometers and phrheliometers. Water quality by Turbidity meter, calorimeter.
PH meter microscopes, atomic absorption spectroscopy. Air quality measurement
using gas chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, gas
chromatography, mass spectrometry, conductivity meter, Particulate matter in air,
spoiling index and visibility. Congential environment for work artificial lighting
acoustic consideration and air conditioning.
DIGITAL AND MICROPROCESSOR
1. Basic gates AND, OR, INVERT NAND, NOR, EX-OR, EX-NOR (Truth Tables).
2. Combinational Logic:
Half Adder, Full Adder, Some simple combinational logic circuits.
3. Sequential Logic:
Asynchronous and Synchronous counters (Up/Down) Modulo, 3,5,7 counters
4. Multiplexer, Demultiplexer
5. Microprocessor 8085: Simple examples on
6. Microprocessor 8085: Other examples on
(i) Display generation
(ii) Keyboard recognition routines
(iii) Display of items mentioned in 5(i)
(iv) Interfacing of keyboard module
7. Control Timing: Sequence of execution of Instructions. Concept of Instruction cycle and
machine cycle. Various types of machine cycles along with associated control and status
signals (Op-code fetch, memory read, memory write, I/O Read, I/O Write, IO/M, S0, S1,
MR, MW, Detail timing diagram of some Instructions)
8. Advanced Instructions: Branching, Conditional unconditional subroutines: conditional and
unconditional concept of stack, need for stack pointer.
9. Interfacing: Concept of Interrupts, Classification of interrupts, various types of Interrupts
(5.5, 6.5, 7.5, TRAP, hardware). Software interrupts RST0 to RST7, Instructions associated
with interrupts (RIM, SIM, EI, DI).
10. Interfacing with peripherals: Concept of Input and Output ports. Study of 8255, 8279, 8253
(General description, how to programmed, usage). Interfacing of A/D and D/A converters.
1. Digital Electronics by Malvino and Leach
2. Digital principle and application by Malvino and Leach
3. Digital Electronics by V.K. Jain (TMH)
1. Microprocessor Architecture, Programming and Application by Gaonkar.
2. Digital Computer Electronics by Albert Paul Malvino (TMH) I Edition.
3. Microprocessors and Application by Mathur.
1. Air Pollution- Physical and Chemical fundamentals J.H. Seinfeld.
McGrawhill NY 1975.
2. Meterological Instruments. W.E. Knowles Middleton and A,F, Spihans, University Toronto
3. H. Willard, L.L. Merrit, j.A. Dean. F.A. Settle, Instrumental Methods of Analysis- VI
4. Environmental Instrumentation. Frichtschen, L.J. and Gay, L.W.
5. Thermal Comfort, Fanger, P.O. 1982, Robert E. Krieger Publishing company, Malabar,
B.Sc. –III INSTRUMENTATION
Theory Papers: Max. Marks
I- Optical Instrumentation 75
II- Vacuum Instrumentation 75
III- Transducers and Signal Conditioning 75
Practical: Max. Marks
(A) Optics and Vacuum Laboratory 15
(B) Transducers laboratory 15
(C) Project- Work and Evaluation of Report 30
(D) Record and Internal Assessment 15
Summer Training after one Year and on the job training after second year and the project work
in the third year along with the entrepreneurship and desirable within the spirit of vocational
course and reports thereof should be prepared by the students. Campus interview may be
arranged during the course of third year and recommendation could be given by the faculty
members on the basis of the performance in the summer on the job training and the project
PAPER-I OPTICAL INSTRUMENTATION
Optical Components and their characteristics: Plane Mirrors, Achromatic Prisms, Direct
Vision Prisms, Right Angle Prisms, Roofs Prism, Erecting Prism Systems, Q Corner Prisms,
Beam Splitter Cubes, Curved Mirrors, Lenses, Opthalmic Lenses.
Testing Optical Components: Newton’s interferoscope , Fizeau interferometer, Twyman
Green interferometer, Mach- Zehnder Interferometer, Multiple Beam Interferometer, Fabry
Perot Interferometer, Polarization Interferometer, Shearing Interferometer, Autocollimators
Distance Measuring Interferometer. Bull Testing Comparators.
Fibre Optics: Principles of Optical Fibres. Materials for Optical Fibres. Production Of Optical
Fibres, Sources, Detectors, Couplings. Applications of Fibre Optics- Illuminators,
Communications, Fibre Optic Sensors.
Optical Instruments: Compound Microscope, Binocular Microscope, Projection Microscope,
Binocular, Telescope- Terrestrial and Astronomical, Profile Projectors.
Laser Instrumentation: Principles of Lasers, Construction of Laser. Application in Distance
PAPER-II VACUUM INSTRUMENTATION
Introduction to Vacuum- Fundamentals: Gas Flow Mechanisms, Conductance Calculations,
Concept of Throughput and pumping Speed.
Rotary, Roots and Oil Free Pumps.
Diffusion and absorption Pumps.
Turbomolecular, Cryo And Ion Pumps..
Gauge Calibration using Spinning Rotor, Diaphragm and Mcleod Gauges.
Vacuum Components- Traps, Baffles, Valves, Seals and Feedthroughs.
Vacuum Materials and Fabrication Techniques. High Vacuum System Design.
Vacuum Applications- freeze Drying, Food Processing Industry, Lamp Industry, Vacuum
Metallurgy, Vacuum Impregnation.
PAPER-III TRANSDUCERS AND SIGNAL CONDITIONING
Introduction: basic Concepts of Measurements . System Configuration (Generalized). Problem
Analysis (Minimum Performance Required etc.) . Basic Characteristics of Measuring Devices
such as Accuracy, Precision, Error, Intrinsic Absolute and Relative errors, Uncertainty and
random errors, Systematic and Instrumental error, Interference errors, Installing errors,
operational errors( Human errors).
Transducers Classification and instrumentation: Definition, Classification (active-
passive),Classification of Electrical Transducers, Dimensional Relationship such as force with
density, Stress etc.
Basic requirements of a Transducer (Ruggedness, Linearity) Explain Static and
I. Temperature: Thermocouple, Platinum Resistance, Thermistors (Lock- in- Amp
must be described in case an A.C. excitation in Bridge is used) . Merits and
II. Strain gauges: Different bridge configurations (Wheatstone, Quarter bridge,
Half bridge, Full bridge).
Methods Of Balancing. One Typical load cell Example.
III. LVDT for displacement or Acceleration Measurement, full Details
1. Instrumentation System: Zero Order, First Order, Second Order. System- Dead Time
Elements Specification and Testing of dynamic response.
Signal generation, Processing and conditioning: Sine wave generation and Amplitude stability,
Linear frequency control and quadrature output. Saw tooth wave (linear), Instrumentation
amplifiers, Characteristics, Linearisation, D.C. amplifiers, Amplitude modulation , Frequency
modulation, Pulse width modulators.