An Introduction to S88

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  AN INTRODUCTION TO S88
An Introduction to S88
CHICKEN CURRY WITH RICE




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INGREDIENTS
    • Chicken Curry                             • Rice
         – 1.6 Kg chicken                          –400g basmati rice
         – 6 garlic cloves                         –100ml butter
         – 4 medium sized onions                   –1.5l water

         – 5oml/ 2oz clarified butter
         – 1.5ml/ 1/2tsp chilli powder
         – 4 cardamom pods
         – 3 cloves, salt
         – 25mm/ 1 in cinnamon stick
         – 150ml/ 5 fl oz natural yoghurt
         – 10ml/ 2tsp white malt
         – 10ml/ 2tsp sugar|
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PREPARE CHICKEN CURRY
        • Fry
                – Add the butter to a large saucepan over medium heat
                – When hot, add the onions and garlic and fry for 30 seconds
                – Add chili powder, cardamom, cloves, cinnamon, yoghurt,
                  vinegar,salt and sugar
                – Stir for 60 seconds and add chicken
                – Wait until all the liquid evaporates

        • Simmer
                – Add 100ml water to pan
                – bring this to boil
                – lower heat
                – Simmer until oil separates from the gravy
                – Serve with the rice
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PREPARE RICE
   • Soak
            – Soak the rice in cold water for 1/2 hour ensuring rice is fully covered
      •   Boil
            – Add water to a pan
            – Bring to boil
            – Drain the rice and add to the pan
            – Boil for 10 minutes or until rice grains begin to expand and change their
              texture
            – Transfer the rice to a colander
      •   Simmer
            – Add the butter and 10ml of water to the pan
            – Heat until butter melts
            – transfer half the mixture to a cup and the rice to the saucepan
            – pour the butter mixture over the rice
            – Cover the pan and simmer for 20 minutes on low heat
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EQUIPMENT



         • 2 Large saucepan or flameproof casserole
         • Gas or electric cooker
         • Measuring spoons
         • Ladle
         • wooden spoon
         • Chopping board
         • Sharp Knife


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PROCESS DEFINITION

       A process is a sequence of chemical, physical or
       biological activities for the conversion, transport or
       storage of material or energy.
       A process can be classified as:

           < Continuous process
                Materials are passed in a continuous flow through processing equipment

           < Discrete parts manufacturing processes
                Products are classified into production lots. A specific quantity of product
                moves as a unit

           < Batch processes
                Are the production of finite quantities of materials by subjecting input
                materials to a defined order of processing actions using one or more
                pieces of equipment.

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PROCESS MODEL

                                                                     Chicken curry with
                 Process                                             rice

    Consists of an
    ordered set of
                               Is a part of a process that usually   Prepare chicken curry
                     Process
                               operates independently from           Prepare rice
                      Stage
                               other process stages.

    Consists of an
    ordered set of

                  Process      Usually results in a chemical or      Fry
                 Operation     physical change in the material       Simmer
                               being processed.
    Consists of an
    ordered set of

                     Process   Describe minor processing             Add butter

                      Action   activities those are combined to      Heat
                               make up a process operation.
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PHYSICAL MODEL

                               Contains all the units, equipment   Kitchen
                  Process
                               modules required to make one or
                    Cell
                               more batches.

       Must contain

                               One or more major processing        Large saucepan
                      Unit     activities can be conducted in a    Frying pan
                               unit.


       May contain
                               Can carry out a finite number of                        Enterprise
                Equipment                                          Cooker
                               specific minor processing
                 Module                                                                   Site
                               activities such as dosing or
                               weighing.
                               Can be exclusive or shared use.                            Area
       May contain

                     Control   Is a collection of sensors or
                                                                   Heat control knob
                     Module    actuators. One or more
                               combined.
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PROCESS CELL CLASSIFICATION: by number of products


           < Single product
                Produces the same product in each batch.

                Variations in procedures and parametres are possible.


           < Multi product
                Produces different products utilizing different methods of production or
                control.

                There are two possibilities:
                - all products are produced with the same procedure using different
                  formula values (varying materials and/or process parameters)
                - the products are produced using different procedures.

                Variations in procedures and parametres are possible.

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PROCESS CELL CLASSIFICATION: by physical structure


           < Single path
                Is a group of units through which a batch passes sequentially.
                Several batches may be in progress at the same time.


           < Multiple path
                Consists of multiple single-path structures in parallel with no product
                transfer between them.


           < Network path
                The paths may be either fixed or variable. The sequence may be
                determined at the biginning or be totally flexible.
                The units may share raw materials and product storage.




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PROCEDURAL CONTROL MODEL

                                                              Procedure for making
          Procedure                                           Chicken curry with rice


 Consists of an
 ordered set of
                        Is a ordered set of operations that   Procedure for making
               Unit                                           chicken curry
                        causes a contiguous production
            Procedure                                         Procedure for making
                        sequence to take place in a unit.
                                                              rice
                        Example: Polymerize, Dry
 Consists of an
 ordered set of
                        Is a ordered set of phases that       Procedure for Fry
           Operation    defines a major processing            Procedure for Simmer
                        sequence involving chemical or
                        physiscal changes in materials.
 Consists of an         Example: Preparation, React
 ordered set of
                        Accomplish a process-oriented task.   Procedure for Add
              Phase                                           butter
                        Example: Setting, Enabling, HMI
                                                              Procedure for Heat
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FUNCTIONALITIES FOR BATCH CONTROL

           < Basic control
                Comprises the control dedicated to establishing and maintaining a
                specific state of equipment and process.
                Includes control loop or interlocks, Triggers corrective actions,
                Responds to operator commands.

           < Procedural control
                Directs equipment-oriented actions to take place in an ordered
                sequence to carry out a proccess-oriented task. Is made up of
                procedural elements:
                procedure, unit procedure, operations and phases.
           < Coordination control
                Directs, initiates, and/or modifies the execution of procedural control and
                the utilization of equipment entities.
                Example: supervising availability and capacity of equipment, allocating
                resources, arbitrating requests.


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MODELS RELATIONSHIP
     Procedural               Physical                         Process
       model                   Model                            Model
                                           Provides process
                   combined                   functionality
                     with a    Process       to carry out a
    Procedure(s)                                              Process
                                Cell(s)
                                           Provides process
                   combined                   functionality
       Unit          with a                  to carry out a   Process
   Procedure(s)                Unit(s)
                                                               stage
                                           Provides process
                   combined                   functionality
                     with a                  to carry out a    Process
    Operation(s)               Unit(s)
                                                              Operation
                                           Provides process
                   combined                   functionality
                     with a                  to carry out a   Process
      Phase(s)                 Unit(s)
                                                               Action
                                           Provides process
                   combined                   functionality
                     with a   Equipment      to carry out a   Process
      Phase(s)
                              Module(s)                        Action

                               Control
                              Module(s)   14
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EXAMPLE OF PHYSICAL MODELLING

                             Process Cell

                 Unit                       Unit

  EM              EM                 EM

  EM

  CM

  CM            CM      CM   CM     CM
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EXAMPLE OF HOW TO STRUCTURE UNITS

                EM




                                    EM


                CM




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EXAMPLE OF CONTROL MODULES
                                                     CM4




                       CM2
                                     D4
CM1                                  PID
                D1           D3
                 PID           PID
                                             CM3
                                              D5
                             D2
                                  HIC          HIC



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EXAMPLE OF CONTROL MODULES - DETAIL

   Treating as a control module simplifies the interface to
   this group of objects

   Commands                                          Status

            Circulate                                Circulating

            Pump to                                  Pumping
            Process                                  to Process


                Stop                                 Stopped
                                     FO




          Shutdown                                   Shutdown
                                          FC
                        Pump

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RECIPE DEFINITION


       A recipe is an entity that contains the minimun set of
       information that uniquely defines the manufacturing
       requirements for a specific product.


       Fundamental to the pratical application of recipes is the
       concept that different parts of an enterprise may need
       informations with different degrees of specificity and
       detail.

       The recipe contains neither scheduling nor equipment
       control.

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RECIPE TYPES

                                              includes     Product specific
                             General Recipe
Describe the                                               processing info
technique,
                              may be
that is,             transformed into
how to do in
principle                                     includes
                                Site Recipe               Site specific info


                              may be
                     transformed into

                                              includes      Process Cell
Describe the task,           Master Recipe                  specific info
that is,
how to do it with
the actual            is the basis for
resources
                                              includes   BatchID, in-process,
                             Control Recipe
                                                            operator info

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RECIPE CONTENTS CATEGORIES
           < Header
                Comprises the administrative informations. (RecipeId, productID, version)

           < Formula
                Includes process inputs, process parameter and process outputs.

           < Equipment requirements
                Constrain the choice of the equipment that will eventually be used to implement a
                specific part of the procedure.
                In the general and site recipe E.r. are specified in general terms.
                In the master and control recipe E.r. specifies allowable equipment in process
                cells.
                Control recipe may be used to include specific allocations of process cell
                equipment (reactor R-221).
           < Recipe procedure
                Defines the strategy to carry out a process.
                In general and site recipe R.p. are structured using levels defined in the process
                model.
                In the master and control recipe R.p. are structured using the procedural
                elements of the procedural control model, since these have a relationship to
                equipment.
           < Other information
                As regulatory compliance, safety, flow diagrams, labelling information
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GENERAL (SITE) RECIPE PROCEDURE
                           Functionality
        General Recipe    corrisponds to
                                            Process
                                                        Chicken curry with
          Procedure                                     rice

 Consists of an
 ordered set of

                         Provides process               Prepare chicken curry
       General Recipe                       Process
                            functionality               Prepare rice
       Process Stage       to carry out a    Stage

 Consists of an          Provides process
 ordered set of             functionality
                           to carry out a
       General Recipe                        Process    Fry
       Process Operat.   Provides process   Operation   Simmer
                            functionality
                           to carry out a
 Consists of an
 ordered set of

                                                        Add butter
       General Recipe                       Process
                                                        Heat
       Process Action                        Action
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                To be completed




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MASTER (CONTROL) RECIPE PROCEDURE

           Recipe                    Recipe for making Chicken curry
          Procedure                  with rice
                    Consists of an
                    ordered set of

        Recipe Unit                  Recipe for making chicken curry
         Procedure
                                     Recipe for making rice
                    Consists of an
                    ordered set of

           Recipe                    Recipe for Fry
          Operation
                                     Recipe for Simmer
                    Consists of an
                    ordered set of

           Recipe                    Add butter
           Phase
                                     Heat
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posted:10/31/2013
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