Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out

anaesthetics 1

VIEWS: 34 PAGES: 14

  • pg 1
									Classification
Inhalational
     

Nitrous oxide Ether Halothane Enflurane Isoflurane Desflurane



Sevoflurane

Intravenous  Thiopentone sodium  Methohexitone sodium  Propofol  Diazepam  Lorazepam  Midazolam  Ketamine  Fentanyl

Inhalational anaesthetics
Ether  Inflammable irritating volatile liquid  Cheap Nitrous oxide  Non inflammable, non irritating gas  Low potency anesthetic  Good analgesic  Poor muscle relaxant  Quick onset of action  Rapid recovery

Second gas effect


During induction Anaesthetic 70-80% N2O + G.A alveoli 1 litre/min blood

1litre/min

Faster induction

Diffusion Hypoxia
Discontinuation N2 O Alveoli Alveolar O2

Uses


Carrier and adjuvant to other anesthetic (70% N2O + 25 -30% O2 + 0.2-2% another anesthetic) Dental and obstetric analgesia ( N2O + O2 )



Halothane



   

Potent Anesthetic Poor analgesics and muscle relaxant Dilates bronchus Inhibits uterine contraction Depresses heart Dilates Vessels BP

Adverse Effects
  

Hepatitis Malignant Hyperthermia Tachyarrhythmias

Thiopentone Sodium




Produces unconsciousness in 15-20 secs High Lipid Solubility Brain Rapid Slow Muscle, fat Blood Consciousness

Thiopentone Sodium
 




Poor analgesic Weak muscle relaxant Vasodilator Adverse Effects
Laryngospasam Shivering Delirium Porphyria



Drug interaction

Slower acting drugs


1.
2.


1. 2.

Benzodiazepines Poor analgesic i.v injection produces sedation, amnesia and unconsciousness Uses Component of balanced anaesthesia During local anaesthesia, ECT, fracture setting

Dissociative anaesthesia







Analgesia, immobility, amnesia (1-2 hrs), feeling of dissociation (< 1 min) Drug: Ketamine Uses Burn dressing Short operations Head an neck surgery Adverse effects: Delirium, hallucination, involuntary movements

Fentanyl








An opioid Patient will be drowsy, conscious and cooperative Used in combination with benzodizepines for burn dressing, endoscopies Adverse effects Nausea, vomiting, itching

Preanaesthetic medications


1.

2.

 

Anticholinergics - atropine or hyoscine To prevent laryngopasam, bradycardia and hypotension To reduce salivary and bronchial secretions H2 blockers: Ranitidine, famotidine Proton pump inhibitors: Omeprazole, pantoprozole



Antiemetics: metoclopramide, domperidone, ondensetron

 

Sedative – antianxiety drugs:
Diazepam, lorazepam, promethazine smoothen induction, amnesia Opioids: Morphine, pethidine Neuroleptics: Chlorpromazine, haloperidol

 


								
To top