LANGUAGE

Document Sample
LANGUAGE Powered By Docstoc
					LANGUAGE ! Correlation to Alabama Course of Study: English Language Arts K – 12

Prepared by Sopris West Educational Services

LANGUAGE ! Correlation to Alabama Course of Study: English Language Arts
LANGUAGE ! is a 54-unit curriculum divided into three levels each of which is 18-units long. LANGUAGE ! was designed as a comprehensive literacy intervention curriculum for delayed readers, writers, spellers and speakers of English. Mastery-based learning allows the teacher to proceed at a rate that is appropriate for the student, therefore, pacing through the curriculum is dependent on student performance and needs. As a rough guideline, the curriculum was designed for students to progress at the rate of one level per year. The instructional approach to the curriculum is concept-driven, multisensory, and mastery-based. Many of the instructional activities are repeated within and across units. This repetition helps place the emphasis on the new concepts, content and skills rather than on the particular instructional tasks. That is, the content changes, the tasks do not. The Lesson Plans for each unit provide teachers with a guideline for distributing the content of the curriculum and for utilizing a variety of instructional activities. In addition, the Lesson Plans indicate the points at which the mastery tasks should be presented. As a result, there is redundancy of activities in the alignment. Due to this redundancy, only examples are provided rather than an exhaustive list of all citations. (i.e., ―see J&J Language Reader, Book D, pages 22–23‖) As an intervention curriculum, the approach to this correlation has been to match the content of LANGUAGE ! with the Alabama Course of Study: English Language Arts keeping in mind that the grade level is less relevant in a curriculum with an intervention focus. The LANGUAGE ! concepts, content and skills have been correlated with the best match with the Alabama Course of Study: English Language Arts regardless of the grade level at which that standard occurs. The goal of an intervention curriculum is to cover the standards in an efficient and effective manner to accelerate learning. Kindergarten LANGUAGE ! alignment

Students will:
1.

Exhibit phonemic awareness by identifying and categorizing phonemes, by orally blending phonemes into one-syllable words, by segmenting one-syllable words into phonemes, and by rhyming.

Instructor’s Manual
Students learn phonemic awareness by identifying and categorizing phonemes. Beginning in Unit 1, Level 1, each unit’s Words to Read and Spell are listed in word families (see Instructor’s Manual Level 1, Instructional Content, Words to Read and Spell box, page 26). These same word patterns are present in the phonemic awareness drills: the exercises done using spoken language to manipulate sounds. Students orally identify, categorize, blend, segment, and count the phonemes in one-syllable words.

Sounds and Letters for Readers and Spellers
Teacher-directed phonemic awareness drills, Units 1–18, allow students to practice and understand that

1

spoken words are composed of phonemes (see Unit 1: Stages 1–9, pages 9–13, Sounds and Letters for Readers and Spellers Book). Stage five focuses on generating rhyming words (see page 11, stage 5, Sounds and Letters for Readers and Spellers Book).

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Phonemic Awareness Activities (Level 1 Lesson Plan Activities, Step 2, pages 31, 33) provide practice in manipulating sounds within words (pages 189–190), including practice with rhyming words. Practice with rhymes in complete phrases and sentences is accomplished using the Create a Poem activity (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 155). 2. Demonstrate letter-sound association by matching letters to corresponding spoken sounds and blending letter sounds into onesyllable words, using printed materials. Examples: initial consonant sounds, final consonant sounds, medial short vowel sounds

Instructor’s Manual
Students learn that spoken words are composed of phonemes that can be produced, replicated, segmented, blended, and manipulated (see Instructor’s Manual Level 1, Unit 1 Map— Phonemic Awareness Strand, page 20).

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Students demonstrate letter-sound association by writing letters (graphemes) to correspond with spoken sounds using the Say and Write activity. (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 200).

Lesson Plans
Instruction is presented in every lesson based upon the Steps From Sound to Text, which are phonological concepts, phonemic awareness, phoneme-grapheme correspondence, word recognition/spelling, vocabulary, text reading, and English/Language Arts. Students learn the graphemes that represent each phoneme in Step 3 of the Steps From Sound to Text (see Lesson Plans, Unit 1, Step 3, page I-2).

Sounds and Letters for Readers and Spellers
Teacher-directed phonemic awareness activities help students practice and understand that spoken words are composed of phonemes (see Unit 1: Stages 1–9, pages 9–13). These activities are practiced daily. Stage 4: Phoneme Blending focuses

2

on blending phonemes in the unit’s vocabulary words (see Sounds and Letters for Readers and Spellers, Unit 1, Stage 4, pages 10–11). Students learn to isolate initial, final, and medial short vowel sounds in Stage 2, Phoneme Isolation (see Sounds and Letters for Readers and Spellers, Unit 1, page 9, Stage 2).

Student Mastery Book
Students demonstrate knowledge of beginning, middle, and ending sounds on some of the mastery tasks (see Student Mastery, Book B, Unit 10, Task 1 A, B, C, Phonemic Awareness, pages 51–52). Students demonstrate knowledge of blending letter sounds into one-syllable words, using printed materials. (see Student Mastery, Book B, Task 3, Unit 9).

3.

Identify upper- and lower-case letters.

Instructor’s Manual
Students learn the graphemes that represent each phoneme and that the letters can be written in either uppercase or lowercase (see Instructor’s Manual Level 1, Unit 4—Map—Phoneme-Grapheme Correspondences and Orthography Strands, pages 80–81, 86–87).

Student Mastery Book
Students practice the uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet (see Student Mastery, Book A, Unit 4, Tasks for Mastery #7, page 49).

Sounds and Letters for Readers and Spellers Cards
Students identify upper- and lower-case letters using the Sounds and Letters for Readers and Spellers cards. Step 3 in teaching the lesson plans, includes the grapheme/phoneme activity, See and Say, in which students are shown the grapheme for each phoneme. The cards are designed with the lowercase letter on one side and the upper-case letter on the reverse side (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 200 and Sounds and Letters for Readers and Spellers cards, Unit 2 cards).

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Students learn to identify upper- and lower-case letters using the See and Say activity, which is an integral part of Step 3 in every lesson (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page

3

201, See and Say). Students learn to identify upper- and lower-case letters associated with phonemes using Say and Write (page 200), Learning the Code (page 172 and student reproducible page 243), and Listening for Sounds in Words—Sheet B (page 173 and student reproducible page 247). (see pages listed in the Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers) 4. Use words that describe and represent real-life objects and actions. Example: using words that describe location, size, color, and shape

Instructor’s Manual
In all units, students are exposed to the reading of classic literature, popular titles, and academic text as well as J & J Readers. Students are asked to paraphrase, describe, and reiterate the stories, both fiction and non-fiction. (see Instructor’s Manual Level 1, Unit 3 Map—Text Reading Strand, pages 60–61).

Lesson Plans
All LANGUAGE ! Lesson Plans include a Read Aloud component as part of the Text Reading and Comprehension step of the plan. Teachers read works of choice to students and allow students to summarize and describe.

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Students answer questions about stories they have heard using activities such as Check It (see page 152) and Story Structure Maps (see page 205), allowing differentiation between real and pretend. Word Walls are encourage through the activity, Bank It, in which students are encouraged to generate lists of words and ideas to which they have been exposed. Examples are: color words, number words, shapes, sizes, etc. (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 147, Bank It). 5. Demonstrate comprehension of passages heard by retelling stories and by answering questions.

J& J Language Readers
Each story includes a title and picture, a story summary, a story with pictures, and further activities to enhance comprehension. Each story in the J & J Readers begins with the teacher reading the story summary to the students. Students are encouraged to retell, summarize, paraphrase, and predict. Students demonstrate comprehension of passages heard by retelling stories and then by answering the Language Expansion Questions at the end of the stories. (see J & J Language Reader, Book A, Unit 6, pages 172–177).

4

Instructor’s Manual
In all units, students are exposed to the reading of classic literature, popular titles, and academic text as well as J & J Readers. Students are asked to paraphrase, describe, and reiterate the stories, both fiction and non-fiction. (see Instructor’s Manual Level 1, Unit 6 Map—Text Reading and Comprehension Strands, pages 128–129; Lesson Plans, Unit 1, Step 6, daily)

Lesson Plans
All LANGUAGE ! Lesson Plans include a Read Aloud component as part of the Text Reading and Comprehension step of the plan. Teachers read works of choice to students and allow students to summarize and describe (see Lesson Plans, Unit 3, Step 6).

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Students answer questions about stories they have heard using activities such as Retell It (see page 199), Check It (see page 152), and Story Structure Maps (see page 205), allowing differentiation between real and pretend. Word Walls are encouraged through the activity, Bank It, in which students are encouraged to generate lists of words and ideas to which they have been exposed. Examples are: color words, number words, shapes, sizes, etc. (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 147, Bank It). Students learn to Bank It in their Student Notebooks and Student Mastery Books, as well. (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, Student Notebooks, pages 213–217).

First Grade Students will:
1. Demonstrate phonemic awareness by isolating, deleting, and adding phonemes, by using onsets and rimes, and by identifying initial, medial, and final sounds in one-syllable words.

LANGUAGE ! alignment

Instructor’s Manual

Each unit’s Words to Read and Spell are listed in word families (see Instructor’s Manual Level 1, Instructional Content, page 26). This teaches the students to recognize the onset and rime. Students have the same lists of words in their Student Mastery Books (see Student Mastery, Book A, page 4). These same word patterns are present in the phonemic awareness drills: a set of exercises using spoken language to manipulate sounds. Students

5

orally identify, categorize, blend, segment, and count the phonemes in one-syllable words. (see below)

Sounds and Letters for Readers and Spellers
Teacher-directed phonemic awareness drills, Units 1–18, allow students to practice and understand that spoken words are composed of phonemes (see Unit 1: Stages 1–9, pages 9–13, Sounds and Letters for Readers and Spellers Book). Stage five focuses on generating rhyming words (see page 11, stage 5, Sounds and Letters for Readers and Spellers Book). Stage 2, Phoneme Isolation, of the Phonemic Awareness Drills, focuses on the student learning the beginning, medial, and final sounds in onesyllable words (see Unit 2: Stage 2, page 16, Sounds and Letters for Readers and Spellers). Stage 5, Rhyming, of the Phonemic Awareness Drills, focuses on the student to generate a rhyming word. (see Unit 2: Stage 5, page 17, Sounds and Letters for Readers and Spellers). Stage 6, Phoneme Deletion, of the Phonemic Awareness Drills, focuses on the student learning to delete a phoneme (see Unit 2, Stage 6, page 18, Sounds and Letters for Readers and Spellers). Stage 7, Phoneme Substitution, of the Phonemic Awareness Drills, focuses on the student learning to substitute a phoneme for a deleted phoneme (see Unit 2: Stage 7, page 18, Sounds and Letters for Readers and Spellers).

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Phonemic Awareness Drills (Level 1 Lesson Plan Activities, Step 2, pages 31, 33) provide practice in manipulating sounds within words (pages 189–190), including practice with rhyming words. Practice with rhymes in complete phrases and sentences is accomplished using the Create a Poem activity (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 155). 2. Utilize predictable letter-sound relationships to decode printed words, including words with consonant blends that require blending 3–4 phonemes into a whole word.

Instructor’s Manual
Using skills learned through the PhonemeGrapheme Correspondences and Word Recognition

6

Strands (see Instructor’s Manual Level 1, Unit 11 Map—Phoneme-Grapheme Correspondences and Word Recognition Strands, pages 256–259), students practice automatic decoding using phonics cues. Students learn to decode using consonant blends in Units 13–17. Units 1–14 and 16–18 focus on single syllable words, including consonants and initial consonant blends, digraphs (Unit 11), and short vowels (Units 1, 4, 8, 12, and 14). New words learned are practiced in the Fluency Builders for each unit (see Instructor’s Manual Level 1, Unit 11, pages 268–271).

J&J Language Readers, Units 1– 36: readability: DRP 22–52
J&J Language Readers are written using only words and sound-symbol relationships that have been directly taught. Because they are completely decodable, students are able to use them to practice fluent reading (see J & J Language Readers, Unit 11, Book B, pages 142–148).

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Using the adult-student procedures of Choral Reading and Read It Again (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, pages 152 and 196– 197), students practice fluency with decodable, connected text material. 3. Demonstrate vocabulary skills by sorting words into categories and by deriving word meaning from context within sentences and paragraphs. Examples: categories—synonyms, antonyms, homonyms

Instructor’s Manual
Students learn that phonetically regular words have spellings that follow common phoneme-grapheme correspondences in English (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 3 Map—Word Recognition Strand, pages 58–59). New words learned are practiced in the Fluency Builders for each unit (see Instructor’s Manual Level 1, Unit 3, pages 68–71) Contractions (see Instructor’s Manual Level 2, Unit 30 Map—Mechanics Strand, pages 342–343), synonyms and antonyms (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, Relate It, pages 197– 198, 299), homonyms (see Instructor’s Manual Level 2, Unit 19 Map—Semantic Relationship Strand, pages 28–29 and Instructor’s Manual Level 2, Unit 25 Map—Vocabulary Development Strand, pages 190–191) are taught directly, so that students understand them. Words with multiple meanings are taught in every unit, from Unit 1 on (see Instructor’s Manual Level 1, Unit 1, Map— Semantic Relationship Strand, pages 24–25).

7

J&J Language Readers, Units 1– 36: readability: DRP 22–52
J&J Readers begin each story with a story summary (see J&J Readers, Book D, page 3). This establishes the story schema for the students before they read it, allowing them to use context clues to determine correct meanings of identified words within a reading passage.

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Students learn to categorize throughout the curriculum. Homonyms are targeted in Unit 25, and contractions in Unit 30 (see Concepts: Initial Introduction in LANGUAGE ! by Unit Chart, page 411, Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers). Students learn to graph/analyze synonyms and antonyms using an activity referred to as Relate It, in Unit 13 (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, Relate It, page 197 and 299).

4.

Read with comprehension a variety of firstgrade narrative and informational texts, recalling information, including the beginning, middle, and end while retelling a story.

Instructor’s Manual
Students learn the process of recalling, retelling, and summarizing. Beginning with Unit 3, students learn elements of story grammar (see Instructor’s Manual Level 1, Unit 12 Map—Comprehension Strand, pages 282–283), including characters and their traits, setting, sequencing of main events, and problems and solutions.

J & J Language Readers, Units 1– 36: readability: DRP 22–52
Students read the stories in the J & J Readers with comprehension. Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Retelling are all integral parts of effective delivery of this component. Students read and demonstrate comprehension during this process (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, instructions for Summarize It, Paraphrase It, and Retell It, pages 206, 187, and 199)and (see Book C, Story Summary, page 13 and Story, pages 12–18).

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Comprehension skills are enabled using the Masterpiece Questions and Answers process (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, pages

8

359–361). Students learn to question, predict, clarify, and summarize texts they read and to retell text, which is read to them. Comprehension is taught using the Benjamin S. Bloom Ladder of Taxonomy (Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 361). Visual organizers are also available to help students clarify what they know about text and to sequence events at the beginning, medial, and ending of the story, a process which also enables better comprehension. These are found in Map It process (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, pages 177–181 and 275, 279–291). Students can record main ideas and relevant, supporting details and facts using the Map It: Main Idea Map (Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 285). These can be arranged in chronological order using Map It: Process (Tim Sequence) Map (page 279). 5. Read with fluency simple passages containing simple sentences.

Instructor’s Manual
Students practice their word recognition skills by reading decodable, connected text in each unit of instruction at their levels of mastery (see Instructor’s Manual Level 1, Unit 7 Map—Text Reading Strand, pages 154–155). Students learn to read with fluency using Sentences for Dictation and Fluency (see Instructor’s Manual Level 1, Unit 3, Instructional Content, Sentences for Dictation and Fluency, page 67).

J&J Language Readers, Units 1– 36: readability: DRP 22–52
J&J Language Readers are written using only words and sound-symbol relationships that have been directly taught. Because they are completely decodable, students are able to use them to practice fluent reading with simple sentences, compound sentences, and complex sentences. Students begin reading simple sentences with Level 1, Unit 1, and continue to do so until the introduction of Compound Sentences in Unit 23, and Complex Sentences in Unit 44. (see J & J Language Readers, Unit 19, Book D, pages 2–9).

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Using the adult-student procedures of Choral Reading and Read It Again (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, pages 152 and 196– 197), students practice fluency with connected text material.

9

DRP Booklink (Degrees of Reading Power)
Students choose from an array of genres using the DRP—Booklink, a software used for the selection of student-appropriate reading/literature titles based on Degrees of Reading Power readability level, age appropriateness, interest categories, and specific interest categories (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 415–417). DRP— Booklink searches are denoted on unit maps (see Unit 6 Map—Text Reading Strand, pages 128–129).

Students will:
1.

Second Grade LANGUAGE ! alignment

Demonstrate phonological skills by manipulating the sounds and words of the English language and identifying syllables in two- and three-syllable words.

Instructor’s Manual

Each unit’s Words to Read and Spell are listed by spelling pattern (see Instructor’s Manual Level 2, Instructional Content, page 30). Students have the same table of words in their Student Mastery Book (see Student Mastery, Book D, page 4). Level 1, Unit 15 starts practice with spelling using syllable patterns (see Instructor’s Manual Level 1, Unit 15 Map—Syllabication and Spelling Strands, pages 360–361 and 364–365).

Sounds and Letters for Readers and Spellers
Students initially learn to demonstrate skills by manipulating the sounds and the words of English and identifying two syllable words in Unit 15. (see Sounds and Letters for Readers and Spellers, Unit 15, pages 93–99).

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Using Word Sorts (page 212), students create categories of basic phonetic and spelling patterns. Students can also use the Multisyllable Word Spelling Grid (pages 186, 295) to study syllables in words. Students learn the seven syllable types and the conditions which determine the syllable type beginning in Unit 15 with the concept of the Closed Syllable. Subsequently, Unit 19 targets the RControlled, Unit 20 targets the Open, Unit 21 targets the Final Silent-E, Unit 24 targets the Vowel Digraph, Unit 27 targets the Final Consonant +-le, and Unit 30 targets the diphthong syllable. Students learn mechanically to manipulate all syllable types

10

(see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 344).

2.

Apply phonetic strategies to decode unfamiliar and multi-syllable words, using graphophonemic clues and letter-sound correspondences, including diphthongs and digraphs.

Instructor’s Manual
Using skills learned through the PhonemeGrapheme Correspondences and Word Recognition Strands (see Instructor’s Manual Level 1, Unit 11 Map—Phoneme-Grapheme Correspondences and Word Recognition Strands, pages 256–259), students practice automatic decoding using phonics cues. Students learn one syllable words, including consonants, blends, digraphs, and short vowels. Units 1–14 and 16–18 focus on single syllable words, including consonants, consonant blends (Units 13 and 17), digraphs (Unit 11), and short vowels (Units 1, 4, 8, 12, and 14). Students learn to decode unfamiliar and multisyllabic words. Unit 15 starts practice with multisyllabic words. R-controlled vowels are taught in Unit 19. Long vowels are taught in Units 20, 21, and 24. Letter/sound correspondences are taught throughout the curriculum. Syllabication rules are taught beginning in Unit 15 (see Instructor’s Manual Level 1, Unit 15 Map— Syllabication Strand, pages 360–361). New words learned are practiced in the Fluency Builders for each unit (see Instructor’s Manual Level 1, Unit 11, pages 268–271). Students learn diphthongs oi/oy—ou/ow, which are taught separately in Units 30 and 31.

J&J Language Readers, Units 1– 36: readability: DRP 22–52
J&J Language Readers are written using only words and sound-symbol relationships that have been directly taught. Because they are completely decodable, students are able to use them to practice fluent reading (see J & J Language Readers, Unit 11, digraphs, Book B, pages 142–148).

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Using the adult-student procedures of Choral Reading and Read It Again (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, pages 152 and 196– 197), students practice fluency with connected text

11

material. Students apply phonetic strategies to decode unfamiliar and multi-syllable words, including those containing digraphs, diphthongs, blends, and clusters using the process of Divide and Conquer/and Patterns for Syllable Division (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, Divide and Conquer, page 158 and Patterns for Syllable Division, page 353). 3. Exhibit vocabulary skills by explaining simple common antonyms and synonyms, and using descriptive words. Examples: simple common antonyms—up – down, in–out, above–below

Instructor’s Manual
Students exhibit vocabulary skills by using and explaining antonyms and synonyms (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, Relate It, pages 197–198, 299), homonyms (see Instructor’s Manual Level 2, Unit 19 Map— Semantic Relationship Strand, pages 28–29 and Instructor’s Manual Level 2, Unit 25 Map— Vocabulary Development Strand, pages 190–191). These are taught directly, so that students understand them. Students learn descriptive words as adjectives in Unit 13, specifically which ones, what kind, and how many (see Instructor’s Manua Level 2, Unit 13—Map, Grammar Strand).

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Students exhibit vocabulary skills by explaining and graphing simple common antonyms and synonyms using Relate It. A part of this activity requires the student to write an analogy and a good sentence describing one or more of the words used on the graph (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 197 and 299). 4. Demonstrate comprehension of second-grade reading materials across the curriculum, drawing simple conclusions, classifying ideas and things, identifying sequence, and retelling directions and information from textual/informational and functional materials.

Instructor’s Manual

Using specific signal words of Bloom’s Taxonomy (Units 3–27), students learn to access information, including drawing inferences and conclusions (see Instructor’s Manual Level 2, Unit 25 Map— Comprehension Strand, pages 192–193). Predicting, paraphrasing, and summarizing are taught as active reading and listening strategies throughout Levels I and II, as well as sequencing events and retelling (see Instructor’s Manual Level 2, Unit 23 Map—Comprehension Strand, pages 132–133).

J&J Language Readers, Units 1–
12

36: readability: DRP 22–52
The format of each story includes a variety of Language Expansion Questions to demonstrate understanding of the story (see J & J Language Reader, Book E, page 23).

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Paraphrasing and summarizing are taught as part of Masterpiece Questions and Answers (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, pages 359–360). Paraphrasing and retelling sequence of events using content area material is done as a daily activity beginning with Unit 1 (see Level 2 Lesson Plans: Daily Activities, page 34). 5. Read with fluency passages containing complex sentences. Examples: sentences with phrases and clauses

J&J Language Readers, Units 1– 36: readability: DRP 22–52
J&J Language Readers are written using only words and sound-symbol relationships that have been directly taught. Because they are completely decodable, students are able to use them to practice fluent reading (see J & J Language Readers, Unit 19, Book D, pages 2–9). Students learn to read phrases from Unit 1 and continue throughout the remainder of the curriculum. Students learn to read passages containing complex sentences beginning in Unit 44. Sentence formation is taught as a base sentence in Unit 9, compound sentence in Unit 23, and finally as a complex sentence in Unit 44 (see phrases for dictation: Unit 9, Instructional Content, page 215; Unit 23, page 142; and Unit 44, page 216). Phrasing is taught as part of the fluency component of this literacy intervention curriculum. As an extension, students read the phrases within the context of sentences. As students develop each individual sentence type, they learn to read them fluently, thus, strengthening reading skills (see Unit 9, Instructor’s Manual, Instructional Content, page 215–216).

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Using the adult-student procedures of Choral Reading and Read It Again (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, pages 152 and 196– 197), students practice fluency with connected text material throughout the curriculum.

Lesson Plans
13

In Level III, the Lesson Plans’ unit concepts are tied directly to the story (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 36, Step 5). The text of the story is used to practice the complex sentence concepts.

Student Mastery Book
Student skills are assessed in Student Mastery Books (see Student Mastery, Book H, Unit 43, pages 13–14).

Students will:
1.

Third Grade LANGUAGE ! alignment

Apply advanced phonetic analysis to multiplesyllable words, including consonants, short vowels, blends, long vowel markers, and Rcontrolled vowels.

Instructor’s Manual
Using skills learned through the PhonemeGrapheme Correspondences and Word Recognition Strands (see Instructor’s Manual Level 1, Unit 11 Map—Phoneme-Grapheme Correspondences and Word Recognition Strands, pages 256–259), students practice automatic decoding using phonics cues. Students learn the concept of multiple syllables in Unit 15. Students learn the concept of R-controlled vowels in Unit 19. Students learn the long vowels are in Units 20, 21, and 24. Letter/sound correspondences are taught throughout the curriculum. Students learn the syllabication rules beginning in Unit 15 (see Instructor’s Manual Level 1, Unit 15 Map—Syllabication Strand, pages 360–361). New words learned are practiced in the Fluency Builders for each unit (see Instructor’s Manual Level 1, Unit 15, pages 372–375).

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Diacritical marks are introduced/reinforced as vowels are introduced. Students learn the vowel sounds and the diacritical marks and record them on the Vowel Chart in the Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, pages 313 (student) and 350 (teacher). (Also, see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, Diacritical Marks, About Vowels Section, page 352, and Syllable Types, page 344.) Students learn to apply these throughout the teaching of the units in LANGUAGE !

14

2.

Demonstrate reading vocabulary knowledge of compound words.

Instructor’s Manual
Students are taught compound words in Unit 37 (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3—Map, Unit 37, Morphology Strand, page 26. Students practice reading compound words on Fluency Builders beginning with Unit 37 (see Instructor’s Manual—Level 3, Unit 37, Fluency Builder, page 34).

J & J Language Readers: Units 1– 36: readability: DRP 22–52
Students demonstrate reading the stories which contain compound words (see J & J Language Reader Book G, Unit 37, The Longest Walk).

Student Mastery Book
Students demonstrate reading vocabulary knowledge of compound words through the direct application of skills on the Tasks for Mastery, the on-going assessment component for LANGUAGE ! (see Tasks for Mastery, Student Mastery, Book G, Task 6, Compound Words and Tense Endings, page and Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Tasks for Mastery, Task 6, page 38). 3. Use a wide range of strategies, including using InstInIn context clues and predicting outcomes, to comprehend third-grade literary/recreational materials in a variety of genres. Examples: stories, trade books, poetry, subject texts

Instructor’s Manual
In all units, students listen to classic literature, popular titles, and academic text as well as reading J & J Language Readers (see Instructor’s Manual Level 2, Unit 20 Map—Text Reading Strand, pages 52–53), allowing students an opportunity to identify defining characteristics of various literary forms and genres. Students learn to narrate/describe both fictional/nonfiction and literary/recreational materials using story plot. Each of the five parts of story plot is introduced in Units 37–41 (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 37 Map— Comprehension Strand, pages 22–23). Students respond and paraphrase every unit story based on the story plot during Read Aloud (see Lesson Plans Unit 36, Step 4).

DRP Booklink (Degrees of Reading Power)
Students choose from an array of genres using the DRP Booklink, a software used for the selection of student-appropriate reading/literature titles based on Degrees of Reading Power readability level, age appropriateness, interest categories, and specific

15

interest categories (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 415–417.) DRPBooklink searches are denoted on unit maps (see Unit 43 Map—Text Reading Strand, pages 180–181)

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Story grammar is taught directly (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 365). Maps are provided for students to compare/contrast what they know about fiction and nonfiction material (see Map It, pages 177–181). Students also get opportunities to write their own poems in the activity Create a Poem (page 155). Map It graphic organizers can be used to prepare for an oral presentation (see pages 185, 273–291). Students learn to compare and contrast a variety of literature selections using the Map It: Compare and Contrast template (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 287). The five parts of Masterpiece Story Plot are described in detail for the teacher and students (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, 366–367).

Lesson Plans
All LANGUAGE ! Lesson Plans include a Read Aloud component as part of Step 6, the Text Reading and Comprehension step of the plan. Students are asked to respond to, critique, compare, contrast, and identify context clues that portray meaning within the sentences in response to teacher-directed questions as part of that component. Using classic literature, popular titles, and academic text, understanding is demonstrated through different levels of questioning. The teacher may choose from an array of all genres (see Lesson Plans, Read Aloud Strand, Unit 34, Step 4).

4.

Use a wide range of strategies and skills, including retelling information, using general context clues, and making inferences to identify the main idea, to comprehend third-grade functional and textual/informational reading materials.

Instructor’s Manual
In all units, students listen to classic literature, popular titles, and academic text as well as reading J & J Language Readers (see Instructor’s Manual Level 2, Unit 20 Map—Text Reading Strand, pages 52–53), allowing students an opportunity to identify defining characteristics of various literary forms and genres. Students learn to narrate/describe both fictional/nonfiction and literary/recreational materials using story plot. Each of the five parts of

16

story plot is introduced in Units 37–41 (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 37 Map— Comprehension Strand, pages 22–23). Students respond and paraphrase every unit story based on the story plot during Read Aloud (see Lesson Plans Unit 36, Step 4).

DRP Booklink (Degrees of Reading Power)
Students choose from an array of genres using the DRP—Booklink, software used for the selection of student-appropriate reading/literature titles based on Degrees of Reading Power readability level, age appropriateness, interest categories, and specific interest categories (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 415–417). DRP— Booklink searches are denoted on unit maps (see Unit 43 Map—Text Reading Strand, pages 180– 181).

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Story grammar is taught directly (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 365). Maps are provided for students to compare/contrast what they know about fiction and nonfiction material (see Map It, pages 177–181). Students also get opportunities to write their own poems in the activity Create a Poem (page 155). Map It graphic organizers can be used to prepare for an oral presentation (see pages 185, 273–291). Students learn to compare and contrast a variety of literature selections using the Map It: Compare and Contrast template (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 287). The five parts of Masterpiece Story Plot is described in detail for the teacher and students (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, 366–367).

Lesson Plans
All LANGUAGE ! Lesson Plans include a Read Aloud component as part of Step 6, the Text Reading and Comprehension step of the plan. As a part of this component, teachers prompt students to respond to, critique, compare, contrast, and identify context clues that portray meaning within the sentences. Using classic literature, popular titles, and academic text, understanding is demonstrated through different levels of questioning. The teacher may choose from an array of all genres (see Lesson Plans, Read Aloud Strand, Unit 34, Step 4).

17

Students will:
1.

Fourth Grade LANGUAGE ! alignment

Demonstrate word recognition skills, including structural analysis. Examples: structural analysis—root words, prefixes, suffixes

Instructor’s Manual
Students demonstrate word recognition skills, including structural analysis involving roots, prefixes, and suffixes. Students learn to use morphological concepts to assist in understanding word meaning as well, beginning in Unit 19 (see Instructor’s Manual, Level 2, Unit 19, Map— Morphology Strand, pages 48–49). Students learn to decode multisyllabic words using the structural features of such word parts as affixes (e.g., pre-, mis-, -tion) to aid in word recognition skills. Affixes are presented as a key to conquering the structural analysis of words using the Spelling Grid and Divide and Conquer. Suffixes are first introduced in Unit 6 as inflectional endings, and in Unit 19 as derivational endings. Subsequently, Roots are introduced in Unit 23, while Prefixes are introduced in Unit 19 (see Instructor’s Manual Level 1, Unit 6—Map, Morphology Strand, pages 132–133, Unit 19—Map, Morphology Strand, pages 48–49, and Unit 23—Map, Morphology Strand, pages 138–139).

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Meanings of roots and affixes taught in the curriculum are listed for teachers in a Master List on pages 418–424 of the Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers. Students learn how to determine meanings of new words by looking at root words and affixes in a variation of the activity Define It (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 156). Back to the Base (page 146) also helps students determine meanings by finding root words and affixes.

Student Mastery Book
Students demonstrate mastery of roots and affixes taught by building words and matching meanings (see Student Mastery, Book D, page 21). 2. Demonstrate reading vocabulary knowledge, including recognition of a variety of synonyms and antonyms.

Instructor’s Manual
Students learn and demonstrate vocabulary knowledge including recognition of a variety of synonyms and antonyms. Students learn synonyms and antonyms in a mechanical graphic illustration

18

referred to as Relate It (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, Relate It, pages 197–198, 299). Subsequently, students learn homonyms (see Instructor’s Manual Level 2, Unit 19 Map— Semantic Relationship Strand, pages 28–29 and Instructor’s Manual Level 2, Unit 25 Map— Vocabulary Development Strand, pages 190–191) as they are taught directly, so that students understand them. Words with multiple meanings are taught in every unit, from Unit 1 on (see Instructor’s Manual Level 2, Unit 19 Map— Semantic Relationship Strand, pages 28–29)

3.

Use a wide range of strategies, including distinguishing fiction from nonfiction and making inferences to comprehend fourth-grade literary/recreational materials in a variety of genres. Examples: novels, short stories, poetry, trade books

Instructor’s Manual
In all units, students listen to classic literature, popular titles, and academic text as well as reading J & J Language Readers (see Instructor’s Manual Level 2, Unit 20 Map—Text Reading Strand, pages 52–53), allowing students an opportunity to identify defining characteristics of various literary forms and genres. Students are taught the skills of predicting and making inferences to comprehend literary and recreational materials in a variety of genres. Titles include novels, short stories, poetry, and trade books selected by the teacher at his/her discretion. Students learn to narrate/describe both fictional/nonfiction and literary/recreational materials using story plot. Each of the five parts of story plot is introduced in Units 37–41 (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 37 Map— Comprehension Strand, pages 22–23). Students respond and paraphrase every unit story based on the story plot during Read Aloud (see Lesson Plans Unit 36, Step 4).

DRP Booklink (Degrees of Reading Power)
Students choose from an array of genres using the DRP—Booklink, software used for the selection of student-appropriate reading/literature titles based on Degrees of Reading Power readability level, age appropriateness, interest categories, and specific interest categories (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 415–417). DRP— Booklink searches are denoted on unit maps (see Unit 43 Map—Text Reading Strand, pages 180– 181).

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Story grammar is taught directly (see Instructional

19

Resource Guide for Teachers, page 365). Maps are provided for students to compare/contrast what they know about fiction and nonfiction material (see Map It, pages 177–181). Students also get opportunities to write their own poems in the activity Create a Poem (page 155). Map It graphic organizers can be used to prepare for an oral presentation (see pages 185, 273–291). Students learn to compare and contrast a variety of literature selections using the Map It: Compare and Contrast template (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 287). The five parts of Masterpiece Story Plot are described in detail for the teacher and students (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, 366–367).

Lesson Plans
All LANGUAGE ! Lesson Plans include a Read Aloud component as part of Step 6, the Text Reading and Comprehension step of the plan. As a part of this component, teachers prompt students to respond to, critique, compare, contrast, and identify context clues that portray meaning within the sentences. Using classic literature, popular titles, and academic text, understanding is demonstrated through different levels of questioning. The teacher may choose from an array of all genres (see Lesson Plans, Read Aloud Strand, Unit 34, Step 4). 4. Identify literary elements and devices, including characters, important details, and similes, in literary/recreational materials and identify important details in textual/informational materials.

Instructor’s Manual
Students learn the literary elements and devices, including characters, details, and figurative language in both literary and recreational materials. Each of the five parts of story plot is introduced in Units 37–41 (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 37 Map—Comprehension Strand, pages 22–23). Students paraphrase every unit story based on the story plot (see Lesson Plans, Unit 37, Step 4). Students use a variety of activities to recognize examples of figurative language including similes, which are taught in Unit 43 (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 43 Map—Figurative Language Strand, pages 186–187).

Lesson Plans
Lesson Plans map out the introduction of definitions and identification (see Lesson Plans for Unit 43, Step 6). All LANGUAGE ! Lesson Plans include a Read Aloud component as part of Step 6, the Text Reading and Comprehension step of the plan. As a

20

part of this component, teachers prompt students to respond to, critique, compare, contrast, and identify context clues that portray meaning within the sentences. Using classic literature, popular titles, and academic text, understanding is demonstrated through different levels of questioning. The teacher may choose from an array of all genres (see Lesson Plans, Read Aloud Strand, Unit 34, Step 4).

J & J Language Readers, Units 37– 54, readability: DRP 53–60
Students learn to relate details, pick out similes, and identify characters,literary elements, and devices. The format of each story includes Language Expansion Questions (see J & J Language Reader, Book G, page 81), which include a range of questions to demonstrate understanding and purpose of the story.

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Using Map It: Story Structure Map (pages 205, 185, and 277) and Summarize It (page 206) students learn to identify and plot out details of the story (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, Map It, page 185 and 277 and Summarize It, page 206). Students identify and interpret grade level text using different examples of figurative language using Replace It (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, Replace It, page 198).

5.

Use a wide range of strategies and skills, including using sentence structure, locating information, and distinguishing fact from fiction, to comprehend fourth-grade functional and textural/informational reading materials.

Instructor’s Manual
In all units, students listen to classic literature, popular titles, and academic text as well as reading J & J Language Readers (see Instructor’s Manual Level 2, Unit 20 Map—Text Reading Strand, pages 52–53), allowing students an opportunity to identify defining characteristics of various literary forms and genres. Students are taught prediction and making inferences to comprehend literary and recreational materials in a variety of genres. Titles include novels, short stories, poetry, and other material selected by the teacher at his/her discretion. Students learn to narrate/describe both fiction/nonfiction and literary/recreational materials

21

using story plot. Each of the five parts of story plot is introduced in Units 37–41 (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 37 Map—Comprehension Strand, pages 22–23). Students respond and paraphrase every unit story based on the story plot during Read Aloud (see Lesson Plans Unit 36, Step 4). Students develop sentence structure through the Masterpiece Sentence Six-Stage Process (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 44 Map—Syntax and Structure Strand, pages 208–209). Students learn to locate information first in the J & J Language Readers using the Table of Contents and later focus on researching information to compose a Research report from Unit 50 to Unit 54. This is evident in the composition strand that is based upon the Six Traits of Effective Writing (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 50 Map— Composition Strand and Assignment, pages 368– 369, 376).

DRP Booklink (Degrees of Reading Power)
Students choose from an array of genres using the DRP—Booklink, software used for the selection of student-appropriate reading/literature titles based on Degrees of Reading Power readability level, age appropriateness, interest categories, and specific interest categories (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 415–417). DRP— Booklink searches are denoted on unit maps (see Unit 43 Map—Text Reading Strand, pages 180– 181).

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Story grammar is taught directly (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 365). Maps are provided for students to compare/contrast what they know about fiction and nonfiction material (see Map It, pages 177–181). Map It graphic organizers can be used to prepare for an oral presentation (see pages 185, 273–291). Students learn to compare and contrast a variety of literature selections using the Map It: Compare and Contrast template (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 287). The five parts of Masterpiece Story Plot are described in detail for the teacher and students (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, 366–367).

22

Students develop sentence structure through the Masterpiece Sentence Six-Stage Process (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, pages 362–364). Students learn to comprehend through the Masterpiece Questions and Answers process and through the direct instruction of Bloom’s Taxonomy signal words (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, pages 359–361).

Lesson Plans
All LANGUAGE ! Lesson Plans include a Read Aloud component as part of Step 6, the Text Reading and Comprehension step of the plan. As a part of this component, teachers prompt students to respond to, critique, compare, contrast, and identify context clues that portray meaning within the sentences. Using classic literature, popular titles, and academic text, understanding is demonstrated through different levels of questioning. The teacher may choose from an array of all genres (see Lesson Plans, Read Aloud Strand, Unit 34, Step 4).

Students will:
1. Demonstrate reading vocabulary knowledge, including recognition of multiple-meaning words.

Fifth Grade LANGUAGE ! alignment

Instructor’s Manual
Words with multiple meanings are studied throughout the curriculum beginning in Unit 1 with the three meanings of the word ―bat‖ (see Instructor’s Manual Level 1, Unit 1 Map— Semantic Relationships Strand, pages 28–29). New words learned are practiced in the Fluency Builders for each unit (see Instructor’s Manual Level I, Unit 3, pages 68–71).

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Students learn to recognize, define, and use multiple meaning words beginning in Unit 1 with the use of Define It, a template that enables the student to graphically organize multiple definitions (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, pages 155 [teacher] and 233/235 [student]). Students learn to visually capture multiple meanings/uses for words using the Multiple Meaning Map. As an extension of this, students then use the multiple meaning words in sentences to demonstrate vocabulary knowledge of the words within connected text (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 185 [teacher] and page

23

293 [student]).

J & J Language Readers, Units 1– 36: readability: DRP 22–52
Students demonstrate reading vocabulary knowledge, including recognition of multiplemeaning words through the reading and analyzing of the stories in the J & J Readers. J & J Readers are decodable, connected text which allows students to read and use context clues to determine the correct meaning of identified words within a passage. Every story begins with a story summary (see J & J Language Reader, Book D, page 3), which in turn establishes a story schema for the students before they read. Students demonstrate understanding of the schema and the vocabulary therein before the stories are read.

Student Mastery Books
Students demonstrate reading vocabulary knowledge of multiple meaning words versus form and function (see Student Mastery, Book B, Task 10, Noun or Verb, page 26).

DRP Booklink (Degrees of Reading Power)
Students demonstrate reading vocabulary knowledge during Independent Reading time. Students may read and retell what has been read. Students choose from an array of genres using the DRP—Booklink, a software used for the selection of student-appropriate reading/literature titles based on Degrees of Reading Power readability level, age appropriateness, interest categories, and specific interest categories (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 415–417). DRP— Booklink searches are denoted on unit maps (see Unit 6 Map—Text Reading Strand, pages 128–129).

2.

Use a range of strategies, including drawing conclusions such as opinions about characters based on their actions and summarizing passages, to comprehend fifth-grade literary/recreational materials in a variety of genres.

Instructor’s Manual

Using specific signal words of Bloom’s Taxonomy (Units 3–27), students learn to access information, including drawing inferences and conclusions (see Instructor’s Manual Level 2, Unit 25 Map— Comprehension Strand, pages 192–193). Predicting, paraphrasing, and summarizing are taught as active reading and listening strategies throughout Levels 1 and 2, as well as sequencing events and retelling (see Instructor’s Manual Level 2, Unit 23 Map—Comprehension Strand, pages

24

132–133).

J&J Language Readers, Units 1– 36: readability: DRP 22–52
The format of each story includes a variety of Language Expansion Questions to demonstrate understanding of the story (see J & J Language Reader, Book E, page 23).

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Paraphrasing and summarizing are taught as part of Masterpiece Questions and Answers (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, pages 359–360). Paraphrasing and retelling sequence of events using content area material is done as a daily activity beginning with Unit 1 (see Level 2 Lesson Plans: Daily Activities, page 34). 3. Recognize the use or effect of literary elements and devices—including setting, character traits, stated purpose, metaphors, and simple symbolism—and recognize stated purpose and gain information from various text formats, including tables and charts.

Instructor’s Manual
Each of the five parts of story plot is introduced in Units 37–41 (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 41 Map—Comprehension Strand, pages 124–125). Students retell stories using these parts as a scaffold. Students also learn to select main ideas and details and convey these on a graphic organizer (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 43 pages 182– 183). Students begin learning figurative language in Unit 5 with the introduction of idiomatic expressions. Metaphors and simple symbolism which are introduced in Units 43–48 (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, Chart of Concepts by Initial Introduction in LANGUAGE ! by Unit, page 411–412).

J&J Language Readers, Units 37– 54: readability: DRP 53–60
The format of each story includes Language Questions (see J & J Language Reader, Book G, page 81), which include a range of questions to demonstrate understanding of the elements of the story.

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Using Map It: Story Structure Map (pages 185, 205, 291) and Summarize It (pages 206), students plot out and chart details of the story. 4. Use a wide range of strategies and skills,

25

including using text features to gain meaning, summarizing passages, and drawing conclusions, to comprehend fifth-grade functional and textual/informational reading materials.

Instructor’s Manual

Using Bloom’s Taxonomy students use questioning strategies to react to text (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 45 Map—Text Reading and Comprehension Strands, pages 232–233).

J&J Language Readers, Units 37– 54: readability: DRP 53–60
The format of each story includes Language Expansion Activities and Questions (see J & J Language Reader, Book H, pages 47–48), which include a range of activities/questions to create a personal connection with the story.

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
With Predict It (page 194), students discuss the similarities of their story predictions and actual answers.

Lesson Plans
All LANGUAGE ! Lesson Plans include a Read Aloud component as part of the Text Reading and Comprehension step of the plan. Students are asked to respond to teacher-directed questions as part of this component. Using classic literature, popular titles, and academic text, personal connection is demonstrated through different levels of questioning.

Students will:
1.

Sixth Grade LANGUAGE ! alignment

Apply strategies, including making complex predictions, interpreting characters’ behaviors, and comparing and contrasting, to comprehend sixth-grade literary/recreational materials. Examples: complex predictions—order of events, potential conflicts

Instructor’s Manual

Using Bloom’s Taxonomy, students use questioning strategies to comprehend text (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 44 Map—Comprehension Strand, pages 208–209). Composition assignments are often based on group work to brainstorm, critique, and revise (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 37 Instructional Content, Composition Assignment, page 30). Students learn that the development of the story is built on the character’s involvement in the five story parts (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 38 Map—Text Reading Strand, pages 48–49).

J&J Language Readers, Units 37– 54: readability: DRP 53–60
Students formulate answers to a broad range of text

26

and probe dimensions of characterization (see J & J Language Reader, Book G, page 32). The format of each story includes Language Expansion Activities and Questions (see J & J Language Reader, Book H, pages 31–32). These activities provide opportunities for students to work together in groups (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 179). The format also includes Language Questions (see J & J Language Reader, Book G, page 81), which include a range of questions to demonstrate understanding of the story.

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
With Predict It (page 194), students discuss the similarities of their story predictions and actual answers.

Lesson Plans
All LANGUAGE ! Lesson Plans include a Read Aloud component of Step 6, the Text Reading and Comprehension step of the plan. Students are asked to respond to teacher-directed questions as part of this component. Using classic literature, popular titles, and academic text, understanding is demonstrated through different levels of questioning. 2. Interpret literary elements and devices, including implied main idea, conflict, and personification.

Instructor’s Manual
Each of the five parts of story plot is introduced in Units 37–41 (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 41 Map—Comprehension Strand, pages 124–125). Students retell stories using these parts as a scaffold. Students also learn to select main ideas and details and convey these on a graphic organizer (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 43 pages 182– 183). The application and use of them continues throughout the remainder of the curriculum. Students begin learning figurative language in Unit 5 with the introduction of idiomatic expressions. Metaphors and simple symbolism are introduced in Units 43–48 (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, Chart of Concepts by Initial Introduction in LANGUAGE ! by Unit, page 411–412). Students learn personification which is taught through the process of direct instruction—students learn the same in Unit 48 (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 48, Figurative Language Strand, pages 310–311).

27

Students learn the concepts of Exposition, Complications, Conflict, Climax, and Resolution through the development of Masterpiece Plots (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 37—Map— Comprehension Strand, pages 22–23).

Lesson Plans
All LANGUAGE ! Lesson Plans include a Read Aloud component of Step 6, the Text Reading and Comprehension step of the plan. Students are asked to respond to teacher-directed questions as part of this component. Using classic literature, popular titles, and academic text, understanding is demonstrated through different levels of questioning. Conflict and Personification are reinforced during this Read Aloud (see Lesson Plans, Level 3, Step 4).

3.

Apply strategies that include making complex predictions, identifying the likely source of a text, and comparing and contrasting to comprehend sixth-grade textual/informational and functional materials. Examples: complex predictions—results of actions, expected learning from a chapter or unit

Instructor’s Manual
In all units, students listen to classic literature, popular titles, and academic text as well as reading J & J Language Readers (see Instructor’s Manual Level 2, Unit 20 Map—Text Reading Strand, pages 52–53), allowing students an opportunity to identify defining characteristics of various literary forms and genres. Students are taught prediction and making inferences to comprehend literary and recreational materials in a variety of genres. Titles include novels, short stories, poetry, and other material selected by the teacher at his/her discretion. Students learn to narrate and describe both fiction/nonfiction and textual/informational and functional materials using story plot. Students learn conflict and what causes a character’s problems. Each of the five parts of story plot is introduced in Units 37–41 (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 37 Map—Comprehension Strand, pages 22–23). Students respond and paraphrase every unit story based on the story plot during Read Aloud (see Lesson Plans Unit 36, Step 4). Students learn truths and lessons from the units and are introduced to elements targeted in Story Grammar: universal truths, initiating events, response, attempt, consequence, and resolutions. Resolution is where students learn the ―moral‖ of the story (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 365, Resolution). Students learn to predict using Predict It (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, Predict It, page 194). This is applied to story text and read

28

aloud selections.

DRP Booklink (Degrees of Reading Power)
Students choose from an array of genres using the DRP—Booklink, software used for the selection of student-appropriate reading/literature titles based on Degrees of Reading Power readability level, age appropriateness, interest categories, and specific interest categories (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 415–417). DRP— Booklink searches are denoted on unit maps (see Unit 43 Map—Text Reading Strand, pages 180– 181).

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Students learn to comprehend through the Masterpiece Questions and Answers process and through the direct instruction of Bloom’s Taxonomy signal words (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, pages 359–361). Students learn the elements of Story Grammar (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 365).

Lesson Plans
All LANGUAGE ! Lesson Plans include a Read Aloud component as part of Step 6, the Text Reading and Comprehension step of the plan. As a part of this component, teachers prompt students to respond to, critique, compare, contrast, and identify context clues that portray meaning within the sentences. Using classic literature, popular titles, and academic text, understanding is demonstrated through different levels of questioning. The teacher may choose from an array of all genres (see Lesson Plans, Read Aloud Strand, Unit 34, Step 4).

4.

Recognize the use of text elements—including implied main idea, explicit cause-effect relationships, and persuasive techniques—in sixth-grade textual/informational or functional materials.

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Students learn that stories and writings are composed of one or more episodes containing similar elements. When these elements are well developed, the story or writing can be recalled in greater detail. The elements taught in LANGUAGE ! are the elements of Story Grammar which include setting, initiating event, response, attempt, consequence, and resolution (see Instructional

29

Resource Guide for Teachers, page 365). Students learn and demonstrate understanding of main ideas of stories read using activities like Summarize It (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, pages 206–207). Students learn to map main ideas of selections using Map It: Main Idea Map (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 177 and 285). Students learn cause and effect using Map It: Reason (Explanation) Map (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 281). Students learn persuasive techniques in textual, informational, and functional materials through the development of persuasive writings. In Level 3, Units 43–48, the focus is on persuasive writings (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 43— Composition, pages 184–185 and 191).

Lesson Plans
Lesson Plans map out assignments in Step 5. See Lesson Plans, Step 5, Writing.

Students will:
1.

Seventh Grade LANGUAGE ! alignment

Apply strategies appropriate to the type of material, including setting purposes for reading and making generalizations, to comprehend seventh-grade literary/recreational materials.

Instructor’s Manual

Students use Bloom’s Taxonomy questioning strategies to comprehend text (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 44 Map—Comprehension Strand, pages 208–209). Students are often asked to brainstorm, critique, generalize, infer, and apply information that is read. Students are taught the concept of generalizing, inferring, and applying knowledge in Unit 10 (see Instructor’s Manual Level 1, Map—Comprehension Strand, pages 234–235). Students apply strategies such as identifying and setting a purpose for reading. Each story in the J & J Language Readers follows a predictable pattern that includes a picture, a story summary, the story, parent and child activities, and Language Expansion Questions. The story summary is read by the teacher and students summarize, paraphrase, and predict what is likely to happen within the story. Students then read and discuss the similarities of their story predictions and actual answers.

Instructional Resource Guide for
30

Teachers
The Masterpiece Questions and Answers section of the curriculum is designed to assist students in both oral and written comprehension through the process of questioning. As students explore the meaning of texts using the questioning strategies, clarifying, predicting, and summarizing, they gain increasingly deeper levels of comprehension. Students are taught the target/signal words and expected answers using the Bloom’s Taxonomy ladder (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, pages 359–361. 2. Relate literary elements and devices to each other, including main idea and supporting details, climax, point of view, and imagery.

Instructor’s Manual
Students learn that the development of any story is built on five major segments: exposition, complications, conflict, climax, and resolution. This is done using the Masterpiece Plots, a strand that begins in Book G and continues through Level 3 of the curriculum (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Map—Comprehension Strand, pages 22–23). Students learn to evaluate the impact of setting, mood and characterization on the theme in specific literary selections. In Unit 37, students use higher level questioning strategies to analyze text (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 37 map—Text Reading and Comprehension Strands, pages 22–23). Students learn imagery with the introduction of adjectives as which ones, what kind, and how many (see Unit 13 Map—Grammar Strand, Level One Instructor’s Manual).

J&J Language Readers, Units 37– 54: readability: DRP 53–60
Students apply strategies including making inferences, identifying themes, predicting, and refuting using the stories in the J & J Language Readers. The format of each story includes Language Expansion Questions, which have a range of questions to demonstrate analysis of the story (see J & J Language Reader, Book G, page 32 or page 81). Main ideas, themes, characters, and predictions are discussed in detail during this question/response time.

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Using the Masterpiece Questions and Answers (pages 359–361), students use context clues and analysis to understand the author’s point of view,

31

and utilize the Map It: Story Structure, pages 185, 277, and 291) students develop the texture of the story. Main idea and theme are focuses of all stories read and taught in LANGUAGE ! Students demonstrate the use of imagery in stage 4 of the Masterpiece Sentences process as they ―paint‖ the subject with adjectives (Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, pages 362–364, Masterpiece Sentences).

Lesson Plans
LANGUAGE ! Lesson Plans include a Read Aloud component as part of the Text Reading and Comprehension step of the plan. Students are asked to respond to teacher-directed questions as part of that component. Using classic literature, popular titles, and academic text, understanding is demonstrated through different levels of questioning. Further, Lesson Plans incorporate the Literary Terms and Devices (See Lesson Plans, Unit 38, Step 4, Units 42–54 for text structure, Units 37– 41 for story plot: complication, conflict, climax, resolution, and text structure). 3. Distinguish among the major genres— including poetry, short stories, novels, plays, biographies, and autobiographies—and subgenres—such as folktales, myths, parables, fables, and science fiction—based on their characteristics.

Instructor’s Manual
Students learn to narrate/describe both fictional and autobiographical accounts using story plot. Each of the five parts of story plot is introduced in Units 37– 41 (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 37 Map— Comprehension Strand, pages 22–23). Students paraphrase every unit story based on the story plot (see Lesson Plans, Unit 37, Step 4).

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Map It graphic organizers can be used to prepare for an oral presentation (see pages 185 and 277). The five parts of Masterpiece Story Plot are described in detail on pages 366–367 of the Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers. It is suggested that the teacher begin with a folktale, myth, fable, or other story to introduce this process to students (for example, begin with the Three Little Pigs to talk through the process before applying it to the stories in the J & J Readers).

Lesson Plans
All LANGUAGE ! Lesson Plans include a Read Aloud component as part of Step 6, the Text Reading and Comprehension step of the plan. Students are asked to respond to teacher-directed questions as part of that component. Using classic

32

literature, popular titles, and academic text, understanding is demonstrated through different levels of questioning. The teacher may choose from an array of all genres such as folktales, myths, parables, fables, and science fiction. 4. Apply strategies that include setting purposes for reading, distinguishing fact from opinion, making generalizations, and reviewing to comprehend textual/informational and functional materials.

Instructor’s Manual
Students read classic literature, popular titles, and academic text as well as J & J Language Readers. Students discuss the stories distinguishing fact and opinion and real and pretend (see Instructor’s manual Level 1, Unit 7 Map—Text Reading Strands, pages 154–155). Students use Bloom’s Taxonomy questioning strategies to comprehend text (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 44 Map—Comprehension Strand, pages 208–209). Students are often asked to brainstorm, critique, generalize, infer, and apply information that is read. Students are taught the concept of generalizing, inferring, and applying knowledge in Unit 10 (see Instructor’s Manual Level 1, Map—Comprehension Strand, pages 234–235).

J & J Language Readers, Units 1– 54: readability: DRP 22–60
Students and Teachers compare different text using Check It, an activity designed to target reviewing, recalling, and enhancing comprehension. Students apply strategies such as identifying and setting a purpose for reading. Each story in the J & J Language Readers follows a predictable pattern that includes a picture, a story summary, the story, parent and child activities, and Language Expansion Questions. The story summary is read by the teacher and students summarize, paraphrase, and predict what is likely to happen within the story. Students then read and discuss the similarities of their story predictions and actual answers (see J & J Language Reader, Book B, Story Summary, page 173).

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Students and teachers compare different text using Check It (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 152). The Masterpiece Questions and Answers section of the curriculum is designed to assist students in both oral and written comprehension through the process

33

of questioning. As students explore the meaning of texts using questioning , clarifying, predicting, and summarizing strategies, they gain increasingly deeper levels of comprehension. Students are taught the target/signal words and expected answers using the Benjamin Bloom’s Taxonomy ladder (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, pages 359–361). 5. Recognize the use of textual elements, including main idea and supporting details, and gain information from various text formats, including graphs.

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Students learn that stories and writings are composed of one or more episodes containing similar elements. When these elements are well developed, the story or writing can be recalled in greater detail. The elements taught in LANGUAGE ! are the elements of Story Grammar which include setting, initiating event, response, attempt, consequence, and resolution (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 365). Students learn and demonstrate understanding of main ideas of stories read using activities like Summarize It (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, pages 206–207). Students learn to map main ideas of selections using Map It: Main Idea Map (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 177 and 285). Students learn text structure and how to organize supporting details through a process that graphically organizes main ideas, supporting details, and final statements using the Types of Paragraphs for Expository Writing (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, pages 375–379, examples. Students learn to use Map It: Graphic Organizers, pages 273–291, to map time sequence, explain in steps, classify, choose main ideas, compare and contrast, generate ideas, and put order to the story structure. Students learn to graph fluency builder progress using the Make It Fluent Builder Progress Chart, page 271. These activities allow for demonstrating understanding of graphics and in obtaining/gaining information from graphs.

Instructor’s Manual
Students learn text structure in the following sequence: Reason Paragraph----------------------Unit 44 Compare/Contrast Paragraph---------Unit 47

34

Main Idea--------------------------------Unit 49 Classification Paragraph---------------Unit 51 Story Text Structure--------------------Unit 53 Persuasive Paragraphs------------------Units 43–48 Definition Paragraphs-------------------Units 43–48 (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, all units, Composition Strand)

Students will:

Eighth Grade LANGUAGE ! alignment

Instructor’s Manual
All stories follow a predictable pattern that includes the teacher reading the story summary before the students read. Students are led into the inference process and are asked to summarize and predict what will happen in the story (see Level 3, Book G, page 35, Story Summary). In all units, students listen to classic literature, popular titles, and academic text as well as reading J & J Language Readers (see Instructor’s Manual Level 2, Unit 20 Map—Text Reading Strand, pages 52–53), allowing students an opportunity to identify defining characteristics of various literary forms and genres. Students are taught prediction and making inferences to comprehend literary and recreational materials in a variety of genres. Titles include novels, short stories, poetry, and trade books selected by the teacher at his/her discretion. Students learn to narrate/describe both fictional/nonfiction and literary/recreational materials using story plot. Each of the five parts of story plot is introduced in Units 37–41 (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 37 Map— Comprehension Strand, pages 22–23). Students respond and paraphrase every unit story based on the story plot during Read Aloud (see Lesson Plans Unit 36, Step 4).

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
With Predict It (page 194), students discuss the similarities of their story predictions and actual answers. Using Bloom’s Taxonomy and Masterpiece Questions and Answers, students connect to reading selections (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, pages 359–361). Students confirm and refute predictions using activities like Check It (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page152). Students learn to

35

make inferences to determine theme during this discussion process. Map It graphic organizers can be used to prepare for an oral presentation (see pages 185, 273–291). Students learn to compare and contrast a variety of literature selections using the Map It: Compare and Contrast template (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 287). The five parts of Masterpiece Story Plot are described in detail for the teacher and students (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, 366–367). These processes allow for students’ application of reading strategies to enhance comprehension of eighth grade reading material.

Lesson Plans
All LANGUAGE ! Lesson Plans include a Read Aloud component as part of Step 6, the Text Reading and Comprehension step of the plan. As a part of this component, teachers prompt students to respond to, critique, compare, contrast, and identify context clues that portray meaning within the sentences. Using classic literature, popular titles, and academic text, understanding is demonstrated through different levels of questioning. The teacher may choose from an array of all genres (see Lesson Plans, Read Aloud Strand, Unit 34, Step 4).

1.

Evaluate the impact of setting, mood, and/or characterization on theme in specific literary selections.

Instructor’s Manual
Students learn to evaluate the impact of setting, mood and characterization on the theme in specific literary selections. In Unit 37, students use higher level questioning strategies to analyze text (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 37 Map—Text Reading and Comprehension Strands, pages 22– 23).

J&J Language Readers, Units 37– 54: readability: DRP 53–60
Students apply strategies including making inferences, identifying themes, predicting, and refuting using the stories in the J & J Language Readers. The format of each story includes Language Expansion Questions, which include a range of questions to demonstrate analysis of the story (see J & J Language Reader, Book G, page 32 or page 81). Main ideas, themes, characters, and predictions are discussed in detail during this question/response time.

36

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Using the Masterpiece Questions and Answers (pages 359–361), students use context clues and analysis to understand the author’s point of view, and utilize the Map It: Story Structure pages 185, 277, 291) students develop the texture of the story. Main idea and theme are focuses of all stories read and taught in LANGUAGE !

Lesson Plans
LANGUAGE ! Lesson Plans include a Read Aloud component as part of the Text Reading and Comprehension step of the plan. Students are asked to respond to teacher-directed questions as part of that component. Using classic literature, popular titles, and academic text, understanding is demonstrated through different levels of questioning. Further, Lesson Plans incorporate the Literary Terms and Devices (see Lesson Plans for Unit 38, Step 4, Units 42–54 for text structure, Units 37–41 for story plot: complication, conflict, climax , resolution, and text structure). 2. Distinguish among the sub-categories of poetry, such as ballads, lyric poems, epics, haiku, and limericks, based on their characteristics.

Instructor’s Manual
Students read and respond to a variety of literature through the use of Phrase It and Read It Again (see Instructor’s Manual, Unit 45 Map—Text Reading, page 229.) Students learn to describe fictional, biographical, autobiographical, ballad, epic, and lyrical accounts using story plot. Each of the five parts of story plot is introduced in Units 37–41 (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 37 Map—Comprehension Strand, pages 22–23). Students paraphrase every unit story based on the story plot and its characteristics (see Lesson Plans, Unit 37, Step 4).

Degrees Booklink

of

Reading

Power

Students choose from an array of genres using the DRP—Booklink, software used for the selection of student-appropriate reading/literature titles based on Degrees of Reading Power readability level, age appropriateness, interest categories, and specific interest categories (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 415–417). DRP—Booklink searches are denoted on unit maps (see Unit 45 Map—Text Reading Strand, pages 228–229).

37

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Map It graphic organizers can be used to prepare for an oral presentation of the description of different genres (see pages 185, 277). The five parts of Masterpiece Story Plot are described in detail on pages 366–367, Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers). Students use activities from Phrase It (page 190) and Read It Again (page 196) to respond to various forms of classic literature. All LANGUAGE ! Lesson Plans include a Read Aloud component as part of Step 6, the Text Reading and Comprehension step of the plan. Students are asked to respond to teacher-directed questions as part of that component. Using classic literature, popular titles, and academic text, understanding is demonstrated through different levels of questioning. The teacher may choose from an array of all genres (see Lesson Plans, Unit 45, Step 4). 3. Apply strategies appropriate to the type of material, including making inferences to determine bias or theme and using specific context clues, to comprehend eighth-grade textual/informational and functional materials.

Instructor’s Manual

Students use Bloom’s Taxonomy questioning strategies to comprehend text (see Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 44 Map—Comprehension Strand, pages 208–209). Students are often asked to brainstorm, critique, generalize, infer, and apply information that is read. Students are taught the concept of generalizing, inferring, and applying knowledge in Unit 10 (see Instructor’s Manual Level 1, Map— Comprehension Strand, pages 234–235) . Bias is not a major focus of LANGUAGE !, which is a literacy intervention curriculum.

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Students and teachers compare different text using Check It (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 152). The Masterpiece Questions and Answers section of the curriculum is designed to assist students in both oral and written comprehension through the process of questioning. As students explore the meaning of texts using the questioning strategies, clarifying, prediction, and summarizing, they gain increasingly deeper levels of comprehension. Students are taught the target/signal words and

38

expected answers using the Benjamin Bloom’s Taxonomy ladder (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, pages 359–361).

Ninth Grade Students will:
1. Identify genre, tone, and plot in short stories, drama, and poetry and identify organizational structure in essays or other non-fiction to comprehend literary/recreational text. Objective 9.1.1: Identify the components of a plot Objective 9.1.2: Identify sequence of events Objective 9.1.3: Identify tone Examples: mysterious, serious, sarcastic Objective 9.1.4: Classify a literary work as a short story, play, or poem. Additional content to be taught:  Reading predominantly world literature

LANGUAGE ! alignment

Instructor’s Manual
Students learn to identify genre, tone, and plot using Story Plot. Each of the five parts of story plot is introduced in Units 37–41 (see Instructor’s Manual, Level 3, Unit 37 Map—Comprehension Strand, pages 22–23). Students paraphrase and sequence the events in every unit story based on story plot (see Lesson Plans, Unit 37, Step 4). As an extension, students learn to sequence events in other literary and recreational texts. Students learn story grammar in its entirety, beginning with the setting in Unit 3. Students learn the five stages of Story Plot, beginning in Level 3, Unit 37 (see Unit 37 Map, Level 3, page 25). Students learn to identify tone, first in the J&J Language Readers Expansion Questioning, and during Read Aloud in Step 4 of the Lesson Plans. The Lesson Plans incorporate the Literary Terms and Devices (see Instructor’s Manual, Level III, Literary Terms and Devices).

Lesson Plans
All LANGUAGE ! Lesson Plans include a Read Aloud component as part of the Text Reading and Comprehension step of the plan. Students are asked to respond to teacher-directed questions as part of that component. Using classic literature, popular titles, and academic text, personal connection is demonstrated through different levels of questioning (see Lesson

39

Plans, Unit 37, Step 4, Read Aloud). World Literature is not a focus of literacy intervention but it may be used as the read aloud component.

2.

Compare the use of language and literary elements and devices—including rhythm, rhyme scheme, tone, and plot—in various selections, cultures, and genres.

Instructor’s Manual
Students use a variety of activities to recognize examples of figurative language (see Instructor’s Manual, Level 3, Unit 43 Map—Figurative Language Strand, pages 186–187). The following figures of speech are covered: simile (Unit 43), metaphor (Unit 44), hyperbole (Unit 47), metonymy (Unit 47), and personification (Unit 48). Lesson Plans map out the introduction of definitions and identification (see Lesson Plans, Unit 43, Step 6). Idioms are included in every unit of the curriculum beginning with Unit 6 so that non-literal use of words and phrases are also developed throughout the curriculum.

Objective 9.2.1: Identify symbolism and other figurative language Objective 9.2.2: Understand various dialects Objective 9.2.3: Identify analogies Examples: ―Ship is to water as plane is to air.‖; ―Athlete is to sports as actor is to movies‖ Objective 9.2.4: Identify the rhyme scheme of a poem as ABAB or AABB Objective 9.2.5: Compare language usage by two different authors Examples: long sentences versus short sentences, sarcastic versus straight-forward Additional content to be taught:  Symbolism and other figurative language  Foreshadowing  Inferences about characters and their motives  Diction  Analogy

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Using the Masterpiece Questions and Answers (pages 359–361) and Map It: Story Structure (pages 185 and 291), students develop the texture of the story. With Replace It (page 198), students interpret grade level text using different examples of figurative language. Students identify and develop analogies using the Relate It activity (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, pages 197 and 299). Students learn rhyme scheme using the activity, Create a Poem (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 155).

The Lesson Plans also incorporate

40

the Literary Terms and Devices (see Lesson Plans, Unit 38, Step 4).

3.

Read with comprehension a variety of textual/informational and functional materials commonly used in ninth grade, recognizing tone and propaganda. Objective 9.3.1: Distinguish fact from opinion in newspaper articles, editorial pages, or television news programs Objective 9.3.2: Recognize propaganda in various media Examples: beauty products in television commercials, political campaign advertisements in newspapers Objective 9.3.3: Classify the tone of selected editorials or articles as serious, ominous, tongue-in-cheek, sarcastic, or light Additional content to be taught:  Organizing steps of a process and other sequences  Identifying organizational structure or matching structure with a graphic organizer  Distinguishing fact from opinion  Recognizing logical fallacies  Following complex written directions

Students learn to distinguish between fact and opinion and to identify tone of the story using the Language Expansion Questions and teacher-directed discussion before, during, and after reading the J&J Language Readers. LANGUAGE ! is a literacy intervention curriculum which focuses on the use of decodable, connected text. Newspaper articles, editorial pages, news programs, commercials, and political campaigns may be used as part of Read Aloud activities and Journal Writing, but are not the focus of this literacy intervention curriculum.

Students learn to organize the steps of processes and other sequences using Map It: Process Map (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 376). .

Students learn to write using the Six Traits of Effective Writing, beginning with the generation of a list of ideas and content and working through organization, voice, word choice, sentence fluency, and written language conventions (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, pages 370– 372). Writing in this literacy intervention begins with the most basic sentence and gradually introduces the student to more complex written directions.

41

Tenth Grade Students will:
1. Apply both literal and inferential comprehension strategies, including drawing conclusions/making inferences about characters, motives, intentions, and attitudes in short stories, drama, poetry, novels, or essays and/or other non-fiction.

LANGUAGE ! alignment

Instructor’s Manual
Each of the five parts of story plot is introduced in Units 37–41 (see Instructor’s Manual, Level 3, Unit 41 Map— Comprehension Strand, pages 124–125). Students retell stories using these parts as a scaffold. Students also learn to select main ideas and details and convey these on a graphic organizer (see Instructor’s Manual, Level 3, Unit 43, pages 182–183).

Objective 10.1.1: Identify sequence of events Objective 10.1.2: Identify characters and their motives, intentions, and attitudes Objective 10.1.3: Determine meanings of words or phrases using context clues Objective 10.1.4: Summarize key ideas of a short passage Example: newspaper and magazine articles Additional content to be taught:  Identifying major historical developments in language and literature in America from the beginnings to 1900 Examples: simplicity of early American literature, religious nature and themes in much early American literature, relationships to historical events and to British literature  Using context clues  Identifying sequences  Summarizing passages  Drawing other kinds of conclusions

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Students learn to organize the steps of processes and other sequences using Map It: Process Map (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 376) Students learn Story Grammar beginning in Unit 3 with setting. The setting of the story describes where and when the story takes place and introduces the characters. Characterization is developed as initiating events; responses of characters; character’s plans, attempts, and actions to solve problems; consequences of attempts; and resolution which are all introduced gradually throughout the 54 units (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 365, Story Grammar.) Students learn to summarize first using the J&J Language Readers using Summarize It (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 206). Students learn to predict and draw conclusions using Predict It. With Predict It students discuss the similarities of their story predictions and actual answers (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 194).

2.

Identify and interpret literary elements and

Instructor’s Manual
42

devices, including analogy, personification, and implied purpose. Objective 10.2.1: Define analogy Objective 10.2.2: Identify an analogy in a short story or poem Objective 10.2.3: Define personification Objective 10.2.4: Define implied purpose Additional content to be taught:  Figurative language and imagery, including symbolism and metaphors  Tone

Students learn the term ―analogy‖ and are able to develop their own analogies in Unit7, using Relate It, a graphic organizer (see Instructor’s Manual, Unit 7 Map— Semantic Relationships, Instructional Activities, page 159; also see Instructor’s Manual, Unit 13 Map—Semantic Relationships, Instructional Activities, page 312). Students learn personification as figurative language in Unit 48 (see Instructor’s Manual, Unit 48 Map—Figurative Language, page 311). Students use a variety of activities to recognize examples of figurative language (see Instructor’s Manual, Level 3, Unit 43 Map—Figurative Language Strand, pages 186–187). The following figures of speech are covered in LANGUAGE !: simile (Unit 43), metaphor (Unit 44), hyperbole (Unit 47), metonymy (Unit 47), and personification (Unit 48). Lesson Plans map out the introduction of definitions and identification (see Lesson Plans for Unit 43, Step 6). Idioms are included in every unit of the curriculum beginning with Unit 6 so that non-literal use of words and phrases are also developed throughout the curriculum

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Students develop analogies using Relate It, a graphic organizer (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 197 [teacher] and 299 [template]).
3. Read with literal and inferential comprehension a variety of textual/informational and functional materials, making inferences about effects when passage provides cause; inferring cause when passage provides the effect; making inferences, decisions, and predictions from tables, charts, and other text features; and identifying the outcome or

Instructor’s Manual
Students select and read a variety of classic literature, popular titles, and academic text at their DRP compatible level as well as J&J Language Readers and use a variety of skills to develop vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension (see Instructor’s

43

product of a set of directions. Objective 10.3.1: Distinguish between fact and opinion in materials such as editorials and advertisements Objective 10.3.2: Follow directions to determine an outcome Example: following directions to assemble an item Objective 10.3.3: Identify cause and effect Examples: job-related situations such as poor attendance, failure to follow company rules and regulations; health related issues such as smoking leading to cancer Objective 10.3.4: Interpret functional materials Examples: maps, newspapers, schedules, career information Objective 10.3.5: Use tables, charts, and other text features Examples: menu, sales tax chart, nutritional chart Objective 10.3.6: Determine main idea and supporting details in informational and functional materials Example: Occupational Outlook Handbook (requirements, including necessary skills or education, for specific occupations) Objective 10.3.7: Summarize key ideas from informational and functional materials Examples: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations, Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) regulations, child labor laws, minimum wage law Additional content to be taught:  Following complex or embedded directions  Distinguishing author’s opinion

Manual, Level 3, Unit 41 Map—Text Reading and Comprehension Strands, pages 124–125; also see Instructor’s Manual, Level 3, Unit 45 Map—Text Reading Strand, pages 232–233). Students learn to apply the text structures of paragraphs to organize information from reading. In Units 49 and 50, students develop skill at selecting the main idea(s) and supporting details (see Instructor’s Manual, Level 3, Unit 49 Map— Comprehension, pages 332–333).

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Using the Masterpiece Questions and Answers (pages 339–341) and Map It: Main Idea Map (pages 185, 188, and 271), students organize information and ideas. Students learn to chart progress using Chart It (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 151). Teaching tables, charts, and menu reading are not focuses of this intervention curriculum. Students learn to summarize and to paraphrase with the reading of every story in the J&J Language Readers through the use of Summarize It and Paraphrase It. (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, pages 206 and 187). Students learn to sequence events using the Map It Graphic Organizers (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 279–291). All Lesson Plans include independent reading, Read Aloud, and daily paraphrasing as components of the Text Reading and Comprehension step of the plan (see Level 3 Lesson Plan Activities, page 38). In Level 3, Units 43–48, students learn to articulate the universal theme in

44

4.

from factual statements Determining main idea and supporting details  Summarizing passages  Determining sequence of events Recognize fallacious or illogical thought in essays, editorials, and other informational texts.  Objective 10.4.1: Define logical and illogical thoughts in informational texts Examples: reading editorials, analyzing commercials Objective 10.4.2: Select the sentence that is unrelated to the main idea in an informational paragraph Objective 10.4.3: Recognize fact from opinion in informational texts Additional content to be taught:  Evaluating strength of argument  Recognizing propaganda

each story (see Instructor’s Manual, Level 3, Unit 45, Instructional Content, page 240). LANGUAGE ! is an intense, literacy intervention curriculum which is based upon decodable, connected text. Fallaciousness and illogic in essays, editorials, and other texts is not the focus.

Eleventh Grade Students will:
1. Analyze authors’ use of the literary elements of characterization, theme, tone, setting, mood, plot, and literary point of view in American short stories, drama, poetry, or essays and other non-fiction literature, predominantly from 1900 to the present.

LANGUAGE ! alignment

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Students learn story setting and information about theme and characterization in the stories using Story Grammar (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 365). Students are first introduced to setting of stories in Unit 3 (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 406, Initial Introduction of Concepts in LANGUAGE !, Unit 3, Comprehension Strand).

Objective 11.1.1: Identify the setting, mood, and theme of a short story Objective 11.1.2: Describe the use of characterization in a short passage Example: How does the author let the reader know Jim is honest? Objective 11.1.3: Identify the author’s point of view in a short story Objective 11.1.4: Identify the components of plot Examples: conflict, rising action, climax, falling action

Students develop the texture of the story (conflict, rising action, climax, falling Additional content to be taught: action, response, etc.) using the  Identifying major historical Masterpiece Questions and Answers and developments of language and literature in America from 1900 to Map It: Story Structure (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, pages 359– the present Examples: relationships to place 361 and 185, 291).
and time, changes in

45



American lexicon as a result of the industrial revolution; chronology genre, style Evaluating author technique

Major historical developments of language and literature in America from 1900 to the present are not focuses of this literacy intervention curriculum. However, this could be used as a teacher selected Read Aloud component in the lessons (see below).

Lesson Plans
All LANGUAGE ! Lesson Plans include a Read Aloud component as part of the Text Reading and Comprehension step of the plan. Students are asked to respond to teacher-directed questions as part of that component. Using classic literature, popular titles, and academic text, personal connection is demonstrated through different levels of questioning (see Lesson Plans, Unit 37, Step 4, Read Aloud). Students are exposed to literary works, short stories, plays and poetry during the Read Aloud strand of the lesson plans. The Lesson Plans also incorporate the Literary Terms and Devices (see Lesson Plans, Unit 38, Step 4, Read Aloud).
2. Analyze the use of figurative language and literary devices, including hyperbole, simile, metaphor, personification, and imagery, to enhance specific literary passages. Objective 11.2.1: Complete a given analogy Example: ―Ship is to water as plane is to _______‖ Objective 11.2.2: Define hyperbole Example: exaggeration – ―We waited for an eternity.‖ ―I’m starving to death.‖ Objective 11.2.3: Find one analogy in a provided literary passage Objective 11.2.4: Contrast characteristics of literary devices/figurative language Examples: Simile—―She ran like the wind‖; ―He was cold as ice‖; metaphor— ―My mother is my rock‖; imagery—―The old oak

Instructor’s Manual
Students learn the term analogy and to develop the same in Unit7, using Relate It, a graphic organizer (see Instructor’s Manual, Unit 7 Map—Semantic Relationships, Instructional Activities, page 159; also see Instructor’s Manual, Unit 13 Map—Semantic Relationships, Instructional Activities, page 312). Students learn personification as figurative language in Unit 48 (see Instructor’s Manual, Unit 48, Map—Figurative Language, page 311). Students use a variety of activities to recognize examples of figurative language (see Instructor’s Manual, Level 3, Unit 43 Map—Figurative Language Strand, pages

46

tree’s dead branches clattered together in the wind‖; personification— ―Time talks. It speaks more plainly than words‖ Additional content to be taught:  Allusions  Analogies  Irony  Rhythm and rhyme schemes

186–187). The following figures of speech are covered in LANGUAGE !: simile (Unit 43), metaphor (Unit 44), hyperbole (Unit 47), metonymy (Unit 47), and personification (Unit 48). Lesson Plans map out the introduction of definitions and identification (see Lesson Plans, Unit 43, Step 6). Idioms are included in every unit of the curriculum beginning with Unit 6 so that the nonliteral use of words and phrases are also developed throughout the curriculum

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Students develop analogies using Relate It, a graphic organizer (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, pages 197 [teacher] and 299 [template]).
3. Read with comprehension a variety of textual/informational and functional materials, recognizing organizational patterns, evaluating the strengths or weaknesses of argument, and identifying directions that are implied or embedded in a passage. Objective 11.3.1: Identify propaganda in functional text Example: lease and credit agreements Objective 11.3.2: Use context clues to confirm implied meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary in functional text Examples: employee manuals, consumer product information Objective 11.3.3: Identify the end product after reading a set of directions Examples: medical instructions, nutritional pamphlets Objective 11.3.4: Differentiate the strengths from weaknesses in an argument found in an essay, speech, or editorial Additional content to be taught:  Recognizing fallacies in logic

Instructor’s Manual
Students use a variety of different skills to decode words as they encounter them in text (see Instructor’s Manual, Level 2, Unit 20 Map—Phonological Concepts, Phoneme-Grapheme Correspondences, Syllabication, Syntax and Sentence Structure, and Semantic Relationships— pages 50–51, 56–57, and 58–59). Level 2 focuses on Latin roots, prefixes and suffixes. In Level 3, students use Greek combining forms. Students learn a variety of techniques to understand the relationship of key words in reading material (context clues). Using Composition Assignments, which are explained in the Instructional Content pages following each Unit Map, students develop writing as a process (see Instructor’s Manual, Level 3, Unit 48 Map—Composition Strand, pages 308– 309, 314). Students learn the qualities of good writings.

Instructional Resource Guide for
47

 



Drawing conclusions Applying advanced knowledge of context clues and structural analysis to determine word meanings Evaluating quality of writing

Teachers
Using the Stages of the Writing Process: Student Guide (page 327), students learn to generate ideas for good writing, organize ideas, draft and transcribe ideas onto paper, rewrite and polish personal writings. An extension of this could be to allow students to view and evaluate good writings. Students learn to draw conclusions through teacher-directed summarizing, predicting, paraphrasing, and questioning strategies used in the J&J Language Reader (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, Summarize It, 206, Paraphrase It, 187, Retell It, 199, and Predict It, 194). Propaganda, implied meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary, end products and argumentative readings are not focuses of this intense, intervention curriculum

Twelfth Grade Students will:
1. Compare organizational structure, figurative language, and literary devices, including the use of paradox, among predominantly British short stories, drama, poetry, or essays and/or other non-fiction literature. Objective 12.1.1: Identify rhyme schemes Examples: ABAB, ABBA Objective 12.1.2: Define and select examples of irony Objective 12.1.3: Define and select examples of allusion Objective 12.1.4: Define and select examples of parody Objective 12.1.5: Define and select examples of paradox Additional content to be taught:  Hyperbole  Allusions  Irony  Rhyme schemes  Parody  Major historical developments in

LANGUAGE ! alignment LANGUAGE ! is an intense, sequential, cumulative, literacy intervention curriculum based upon decodable, connected text, specifically the J&J Language Readers. British short stories, drama, poetry, and essays of this nature are not focuses.

Lesson Plans
All LANGUAGE ! Lesson Plans include a Read Aloud component as part of the Text Reading and Comprehension step of the plan. Students are asked to respond to teacher-directed questions as part of that component. Using classic literature, popular titles, and academic text, personal connection is demonstrated through different levels of questioning (see Lesson Plans, Unit 37, Step 4, Read Aloud). Literature is not a focus of literacy intervention but it may be used as the read

48

language and literature in the British Isles Examples: relationships to place and time such as specific influences of cultures and languages, wars and victors in those wars, world literary trends

aloud component. Students are exposed to literary works, short stories, plays, and poetry during the Read Aloud strand of the lesson plans. Students learn hyperbole in Unit 47, along with other figures of speech (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 411, Concepts: Initial Introduction in LANGUAGE ! by Unit). Students learn rhyme scheme using the activity, Create a Poem (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page155).

The Lesson Plans also incorporate the Literary Terms and Devices (see Lesson Plans, Unit 38, Step 4).
2. Read with comprehension a variety of textual/informational and functional materials, comparing bias, persuasive techniques, and organizational structure in passages. Objective 12.2.1: Locate logical fallacies in textual/informational and functional materials Example: diet foods make you lose weight Objective 12.2.2: Interpret/analyze charts and tables in textual/informational and functional materials Objective 12.2.3: Select a graphic organizer that best matches the organization of a paragraph Additional content to be taught:  Recognizing faulty logic or organization  Interpreting/analyzing charts and tables

Instructor’s Manual
Students select and read a variety of classic literature, popular titles, and academic text at their DRP compatible level as well as J&J Language Readers and use a variety of skills to develop vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension (see Instructor’s Manual, Level 3, Unit 41 Map—Text Reading and Comprehension Strands, pages 124–125; Instructor’s Manual Level 3, Unit 45 Map—Text Reading Strand, pages 232–233).

Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers
Students are exposed to charting skills using Chart It. Interpreting and analyzing charts and tables is not a focus of this literacy intervention curriculum (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, page 151). Students select a graphic organizer that best matches the type of paragraph using Map It Graphic Organizers (see Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers, pages 177–

49

182 [teacher], and pages 273–291 [student]). Students learn to recognize persuasive writings and to create persuasive paragraphs. In Level 3, Units 43 and 48, the focus of the Composition Strand is on persuasive writing (see Instructor’s Manual, Level 3, Unit 43—Composition, pages 184–185 and 191). The Lesson Plans map out these assignments in Step 5.

50


				
DOCUMENT INFO