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Increasing the Likelihood of Obtaining a Degree and Transitioning

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Increasing the Likelihood of Obtaining a Degree and Transitioning Powered By Docstoc
					Look under the presentation tab on the left of
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      http://education.ou.edu/zarrow/
Jim Martin, Ph.D.
University of Oklahoma
Zarrow Center for Learning Enrichment
jemartin@ou.edu
http://education.ou.edu/zarrow/
   What we know: General Outcomes
     Questions and trends
   What we know: Postsecondary Education
     Question and trends
   Special Education Laws and Regulations
     Important changes afoot
   Focus on Transition Success Behaviors
     Important changes afoot

                                             2
   OU Big 12 Football Championship in 2007
   OU Big 12 Football Championship in 2006
   OU Big 12 Football Championship in 2004
   OU Big 12 Football Championship in 2002
   OU 5 wins out of 6 attempts
   Texas 2 wins out of 4 attempts

   Golden Hat – Texas 57 wins OU 40 wins
   At the end of this year Texas 57 wins, OU 41
                                                   3
4
 What percent of workers who had IEPs in
  high school like their jobs?
 What percent of students with IEPs dropped
  out of HS?
 Which domain is the biggest area of concern
  for former high school students with IEPs?
     Reading Math Social Skills Health Care
   What percent of former students with IEPs
    receive gov’t benefit payments?
                                                5
 Which former group of HS students with IEPs
  are more likely to be single? male or female
 What disability group is most likely to be
  enrolled in 4-year colleges?
     LD    EBD        MR        Hearing/Vision
   What percent of students with IEPs in high
    school self-identify in postsecondary ed?


                                                  6
 General
Outcomes
   Social skills are the most problematic for all
    categories of youth
     About 6 in 10 have moderate social skill scores
   28% left school without a diploma
   About 70% worked since leaving HS
     40% working a couple years after leaving HS
     Much lower than the 63% of same age youth
     without IEP

                                                        8
   About 4% of those who left HS receive job
    site accommodations
     Most employers are unaware of disability
   Of employers who are aware of disability
     25% receive workplace accommodations
   40% of employed youth like their jobs
     55% of general ed workers like their jobs (Conference
     Board, 2007)



                                                              9
   2 years after leaving, 75% living with parents
     Similar rate to general ed students
 66% of those living with roommate or spouse
  report annual income of less than $5,000
 About 10% participate in gov’t benefit
  program
 8% has had a child
     About same rate as general population
   Rate of being arrested and on probation
    equals rate of same age peers in general ed
    population
                                                     10
 DO significantly less likely to be engaged in
  school or work
 DO more likely to support independent
  household and children
     4 times higher than those who completed HS
 Less likely to have driver’s license or checking
  account, and be voter
 More than 33% spent one night in jail
     5 times higher than those who completed HS
                                                     11
   LD or Health Impairments
     75% completed high school
     75% worked, wit 45% working 2 years after HS
     Large reduction in passive leisure and large
      increases in seeing friends often
     Large declines in organized groups and volunteer
      activities



                                                         12
   Emotional Disturbance
     Highest dropout rate
     35% no longer live with parents
      ▪ Greatest increase in living in criminal justice. mental
        health facilities, or on the street
     33% have not been engaged with leaving HS
     75% have been stopped by police (other than
      traffic violation)


                                                                  13
   Mental Retardation or Multiple Disabilities
     Most likely to stay in school until 21
     Least likely to have obtained regular diploma
     Lowest overall rate of engagement
     Least likely to see friends
     Least likely to take part in organized groups




                                                      14
   Hearing or Visual Impairment
     More than 90% obtained regular HS diploma
     Twice as likely to enroll in postsecondary ed
      ▪ 66% had done so
      ▪ 40% enrolled in 4-year schools – highest of all groups
     Most likely to be engaged in community groups
     Low criminal justice contact
     Those with hearing impairment less likely to see
      friends
                                                                 15
 African-American youth at 16% disadvantage
  compared to white youth in rate of
  employment
 Those from higher income parental home
  more likely to be engaged in school or work
 Females are 6 percentage points more likely
  to have enrolled in higher ed than males
 Females less likely to be single than males


                                                16
   Most believe            Less Confident
     Graduate from           Attend
      HS                       postsecondary
     Will get job             ed
     Will live on own        Job will pay
                               enough to be
                               financially self-
                               sufficient
                                                   17
 Youth who hold high expectations in one
  domain tend to have high expectations in
  others
 Youth have higher expectations than parents
     Youth with higher expectations tend to have
     parents who have higher expectations




                                                    18
Secondary Transition
     Education
 What can be done to prevent such a high drop out
  rate?
 What can be done to improve the marginalized
  outcomes for minority groups of students?
 Why so few former students with IEPs going on
  into higher ed?
     What can be done to increase expectations?
     Why more females than males going into higher ed?
   Why do so few of those who do enroll in higher ed
    self-identify for disability support?                 20
 Increased focus on teaching students disability
  awareness
 Increased focus on teaching in-school and job site
  self-advocacy skills
 Increased focus on building students’ expectations
  for adult life after high school to include going into
  higher ed to attain degree and better job
 Increased focus on disability specific transition
  education practices
     Autism, emotional/behavior disorders, etc
                                                      21
   I’m Tyler
     Available for small donation from
     www.Imtyler.com




                                          22
Postsecondary
  Education
 College freshman with a disabilities increased
  from 2.6% in 1978 to 9% in 1996 (Cameto,
  Newman & Wagner, 2006).
 Surveys of freshman at 4-year colleges report
  the percent of students with disabilities has
  gone from 3%, up to 9%, then down to 6%
  (Henderson, 1998, 2001)



                                                   24
   53% of students with disabilities plan on attending an
    education program after leaving high school compared to
    95% of their non-disabled peers (Wagner, Newman,
    Cameto, Garza, & Levine, 2005).




                                                         25
   Former students with IEPs
     5% attended vocational or technical schools within
      two years of graduating.
     20% enrolled in community college, with 10% doing
      so two years later
     9% enrolled in 4-year college with 6% doing so two
      years later.
   30% of youth with disabilities enrolled in some
    type of postsecondary ed compared to 41% of
    their non-disabled peers (Wagner et al., 2005).
     Dropped down to 20% taking classes a two years later

                                                             26
 The rate of current enrollment of youth with
  disabilities in 2-year/ community colleges is
  not significantly different from that of their
  peers in the general population (10% vs.
  12%).
 Similar-age youth without disabilities are
  more than four and one-half times as likely as
  youth with disabilities to be currently taking
  courses at a 4-year college (28% vs. 6%,
  p<.001).
                                                   27
   Of youth with a high school IEP in IHE (Wagner et
    al., 2005).
     52% do not believe they have a disability
     7% believe they have a disability but did not disclose
     40% identified having a disability
   88% of students who identified received services
     12% rejected or refused services once offered
   Put all of this together, about a third of former
    students with IEPs who attend postsecondary ed
    receive disability support
                                                               28
   One percent of the students with disabilities enrolled in 4-
    year schools graduated in a four-year period (Cameto et al., 2006).
   20% of students with LD who began IHE graduate 5 years
    after high school compared to 44% for students without
    LD (Murray, Goldstein, Nourse, & Edgar, 2000).
   10 years after high school, 44% of students with LD
    graduated compared to 78% without disabilities (Murray, et al.,
    2000).
   Assume 100 students with IEPs in high school
     72 will graduate
     22 will enroll in higher education
     4 will graduate from higher education five years after starting
                                                                        29
   Graduates with LD employed at comparable pay
    rates as former students with LD (Madaus, Foley, McGuire, &
    Ruban, 2001).
 Earning a degree from an IHE benefits the
  employment outcome of adults with learning
  disabilities (Madaus, 2006).
 Students with disabilities other than LD graduating
  from IHEs appear to have less positive results
    (Roessler, Hennessey, & Rumrill (2007).
   Some students with disabilities at IHEs lack the
    skills and confidence to seek employment (Corrigan,
    Jones, & McWhirter, 2001).                               30
Postsecondary
  Education
   Why do so few students with disabilities enter
    higher ed?
     What happens to the dreams?
     Why do so few seek disability support?
 Why the poor long-term graduation rate?
 Why do fewer students with disabilities who
  graduate from college continue to graduate
  school?
 Why do some students with disabilities (maybe as
  many as 33%) experience trouble transitioning
  from IHE into employment?
                                                     32
   Transition education for students with disabilities
    enrolled in postsecondary educational programs
    (Sitlington, 2003)

   Higher Ed needs to strongly consider adopting
    transition education practices to finish the job
    (Roessler, Hennessey, & Rumrill, 2007).
 More specialty programs for students with
  disabilities in higher education
 Focus on self-determination instruction


                                                       33
Self-Score Quiz Answers
 What percent of workers who had IEPs in
  high school like their jobs? 40%
 What percent of students with IEPs dropped
  out of HS? 28%
 Which domain biggest area of concern for
  former high school students with IEPs?
     Reading Math Social Skills Health Care
   What percent of former students with IEPs
    receive gov’t benefit payments? 10%
                                                35
 Which former group of HS students with IEPs
  are more likely to be single? male or female
 What disability group most likely to be
  enrolled in 4-year colleges?
     LD     EBD           MR    Hearing/Vision
   What percent of student with IEPs in high
    school self-identify in postsecondary ed?
     A third (appx 33%)


                                                  36
Important Changes Afoot
What is the purpose of
 Special Education?
. . . a free appropriate public
education that emphasizes
special education and related
services designed to meet
students’ unique needs and to
prepare them for further
education, employment, and
independent living.
 Postsecondary goals
 Transition assessment
 Annual transition goals
 Course of study
 Student involvement in transition planning
  discussions
 Summary of performance
 Implied – transition education programs


                                               40
 The law states that an independent living
  goal be addressed “when appropriate.”
 To determine if an independent living goal
  needs to be written, an adaptive behavior
  assessment needs to be given. This provides
  evidence of needing an independent living
  goal or not. How else would a team
  determine if an independent living goal is
  needed?
                                                41
   Used to help determine postsecondary goals
   Schools and districts will
     need to adopt an outcome based transition
      assessment model
     need to develop transition assessment scope and
      sequence guidelines by grades or age and by type
      of assessments



                                                         42
   Self-Determination Assessment
     Annual transition goals
   Adaptive behavior assessment
     To determine if independent living goals needed
   Vocational interest and exploration
   Post-school predictor assessment
     Annual transition goals
     May replace self-determination assessment
     Not yet available

                                                        43
                      8th grade   9th grade   10 grade     11 grade   12 grade


Self-Determination                Parent
Assessment                        Student
                                  Educator


Adaptive Behavior
Assessment


Vocational Interest                           Transition
and Exploration                               Assessmen
                                              t Timeline



                                                                                 44
 Require teaching students to become
  involved in transition planning discussions
 In practice means
     Students develop draft course of study
     Students develop draft postsecondary goals
     Student develop draft annual transition goals
     Students develop draft statement of support
     Students develop draft summary of performance

                                                      45
Martin, J. E., Van Dycke, J. L., Greene, B. A., Gardner, J. E., Christensen, W. R., Woods, L. L., & Lovett, D. L. (2006). Direct observation

of teacher-directed IEP meetings: Establishing the need for student IEP meeting instruction. Exceptional Children, 72, 187-200.
www.ou.edu/zarrow/pilot




               http://education.ou.edu/zarrow
                                                47
48
   Teacher-Directed SOP
     Designed for educators and agency
     Prepared by educators for use by students
      ▪ Nationally created SOP
      ▪ www.ldaamerica.org/aboutld/adults/docs/SOP_Template.doc
   Student-Directed SOP
     Designed for students, family, and agency
     Prepared by students for use by students and family




                                                                  49
   Purpose
     Provides the IEP team an opportunity to understand
      and discuss student and family post-high school goals.
     Provides the team an opportunity to explore the
      students’ perception of their disability and its impact
      on their life, learning, and work.
     Provides students comprehensive document once they
      leave school to facilitate their plan.
   Timeline
     The OK-SOP directions suggest using the prior to
      students freshman year IEP meeting and then
      annually.
                                                            50
   Section 1
     Students describe their postsecondary goals to
      attain within one year of leaving high school, and
      the school’s recommendations to achieve each
      goal, and suggested accommodations and
      supports to assist in achieving the goals.
     My Goals for One Year After High School




                                                           51
   Section 2
     Students describe their disabilities, how their
      disability affects their performance, and useful
      high school supports and accommodations.
     My Perception of My Disability
      ▪ How does my disability impact my school work
      ▪ What accommodation works




                                                        52
   Section 3 (Area of Functioning)
     Completed in the junior year of high school.


     School staff describe how the young adults’ disabilities
      affect their performance and useful accommodations
      and supports.




                                                                 53
   Section 4
     School staff will complete and review annually
     with the IEP team to determine goals, and if
     additional assessments will be needed to
     facilitate attainment of transition goals.




                                                       54
   Indicator 13
     Transition process
   Indicator 14
     Postschool follow-up
   Graduation Rates
   Drop-out Rates



                             55
   Indicator 13
     Remains strong
   Indicator 14
     Postschool follow-up
     Becomes part of academic yearly progress
     measures
   Graduation and Drop-out Rates
     Effective transition ed programs improve these
     rates
                                                       56
   See special educator time distribution change
     Inclusion for mild/moderate needs become
      responsibility of general educators
     Special educators become more involved in transition
      education activities
     General ed teachers become highly qualified for
      students with IEPs
   May see transition years expanded to age 21 to
    follow students into community
     Similar to community based instructional programs
     for 18-21 students with significant support needs
                                                             57
Transition Success Behaviors
The Reason Why - 1




                     59
The Reason Why -2




                    60
 We need to focus transition
  education efforts on teaching
  behaviors associated with
  transition success
 Foundation skills that go across
  disability categories and
  postschool outcomes


                                     61
   Reviewed the literature to identify
    student behaviors that predicted
    postschool success.
     About 50 quantitative and
      qualitative studies
     Several different search engines
     Journal reference lists
     Hand searched major journals
     Asked colleagues around the
      country

                                          62
• Desires                   • Goals
• Strengths                 • Limits
• Disability Awareness      • Persistence
• Use of Support Systems    • Coping Skills

• Social Skills             • Proactive Involvement
• Making Positive Choices   • Job Experience
• Transition Education

                                                      63
   Using a 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 scale
     0 = never
     4 = always
 Answer the following questions about one of
  your students
 Score each item with a - 0, 1, 2, 3, 4




                                                64
   Within the last year the student
    communicated wanting to do well in school,
    getting a job, and living on own with or
    without support.
     0 (never)   1   2    3    4 (always)




                                                 65
   Within the last year the student
    communicated an academic goal,
    employment goal, where he/she wants to live
    after leaving high school.
     0 (never)   1   2    3    4 (always)




                                                  66
   Within the last year the student
    communicated academic strengths,
    employment strengths, community living
    strengths all in relation to his/her graduation
    goals.
     0 (never)   1     2     3     4 (always)




                                                      67
   Within the last year the student
    communicated academic limitations,
    employment limitations, community living
    limitations all in relation to his/her graduation
    goals.
     0 (never)   1     2     3     4 (always)




                                                        68
   Within the last year the student described
    his/her disability and communicated supports
    or accommodations matched to needs.
     0 (never)   1   2    3     4 (always)




                                                   69
   Within the last year the student asked and
    used support from educators, friends, and
    family members.
     0 (never)   1    2    3     4 (always)




                                                 70
   Within the last year the student participated
    in school and community organizations.
     0 (never)   1    2     3    4 (always)

   Within the last year the student had a paying
    job.
     0 (never)   1    2     3    4 (always)



                                                    71
 Within the last year the student actively
  participated in an educational planning meeting to
  discuss goals, accommodations, supports, and plan
  of study.
 0 (never) 1      2     3     4 (always)




                                                       72
   Within the last year the student received
    systematic instruction to increase his or her
    self-determination skills?
     0 (never)   1     2    3     4 (always)




                                                    73
                                     More Scores
   Score
                                       23 = 58%         14 = 35%
     39 = 98%         31 = 78%
                                         22 = 55%       13 = 33%
       38 = 95%       30 = 75%
                                         21 = 53%       12 = 30%
       37 = 93%29 = 73%
                                         20 = 50%       11 = 28%
       36 = 90%       28 =70%
                                         19 = 48%       10 = 25%
       35 = 88%       27 =68%
                                         18 = 45%       9 = 23%
       34 = 85%       26 =65%
                                         17 = 43%8 = 20%
       33 = 83%25 = 63%
                                         16 = 40%       7 = 17%
       32 = 80%       24 =60%
                                         15 = 38%       6 = 15%
                                         5 = 13%        4 = 10%
                                         3 = 8%         2 = 5%     74
   This will become the Transition Success
    Assessment
     Professional
     Student
     Family member
   Provide opportunities for students to learn
    the behaviors identified with transition
    success

                                                  75
   Transition Success Assessment: A Transition
    Behavior Profile
       46 items
       Professional, Family, and Student TSA Versions
       TSA Graphic Profile
       TSA Goal Identification Matrix
   Takes about 10 minutes to answer the items and
    score



                                                         76
   Fine tuned wording internally at
    ZC
   Conducted six social validity
    groups
     4 expert panels (32 participants)
     1 parent panel (8 participants)
     2 student panel (13 participants)
   First round produced changes to
    36 of 50 Professional TSA items
   Subsequent panels made fewer
    and fewer changes
                                          77
   Transition Assessment
     Using free or inexpensive tools
   Self-Determination Instruction
     Infused into general education and workplace
     settings
   Teaching students to become involved in
    transition planning discussions
     Student-Directed Summary of Performance
     Used as a script as tool for students to become
     engaged in transition planning discussions
                                                        78
 Use a Four-Part Transition Assessment Model
 Develop and implement a system-wide
  transition assessment by student ability
  timeline
 Infuse transition assessment results into
  Summary of Performance



                                                79
   AIR Self-Determination Assessment
   ARC Self-Determination Assessment
   Field-Hoffman SD Assessment

   Available at http://education.ou.edu/zarrow




                                                  80
   Transition Planning Inventory
     Available from (www.proedinc.com)
   Enderle-Severson Transition Rating Scales
     ESTR J and ESTR III
     Available from www.estr.net
   Casey Life Skills
     On-line, free, various levels
     Available from www.caseylifeskills.org

                                                81
   High Achieving Students with Mild Disabilities
     www.onetcenter.org
   Students with Mild Disabilities use free on-line
    tools
     http://www.myfuture.com/toolbox/workinterest.html
     www.ioscar.org
     www.careerclusters.org



                                                          82
   Occupational Outlook Handbook
     www.bls.gov/oco/home.htm
     www.bls.gov/k12/index.htm

   Job videos (English or Spanish)
     Individuals & Job clusters
     http://acinet.org/acinet/videos.asp?id=27,&
     nodeid=27


                                                    83
Designed for Students Involved
   in Work Study Programs




                                 84
   Prior to visiting a job site, individual will select
    preferred tasks and characteristics
   Visit job site and spend time watching and/or
    doing tasks
   After visit, will compare initial preferences to
    those at the site
   Process repeated across numerous sites




                                                           85
Key:
Determine
Match
Between
What I Like
and What’s
at This Site




               86
                       Choosing Employment Goals
                       Sopris West Publishers
                       (www.sopriswest.com)



Requires reading and writing skills


                                                   87
Characteristics I
Like




                    88
89
   Self-Directed Employment
     Paul Brookes Publishing
     Baltimore
     www.brookespublishing.com




                                  90
     Choose and Take Action
  Vocational Assessment Software

   Use of a software
   program and community
   experiences to identify
   entry-level job interests


Available from Sopris West Publishers
www.sopriswest.com

                                        91
92
93
 Look under the presentation tab on
 the left of the following website url
 to download this PowerPoint file at

 http://education.ou.edu/zarrow/


                                         94
Collaborative Effort




                       95
For More Information Contact:


Jim Martin
University of Oklahoma
Zarrow Center for Learning Enrichment
Carpenter Hall Room 111
Norman, OK 73019
Phone: 405-325-8951
E-mail: jemartin@ou.edu




                                        96
   Cameto, R., Newman, L., & Wagner, M. (June, 2006). The National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Project Update:
    Self-perceptions of youth with disabilities. Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences.
   Corrigan, M., Jones, C., & McWhirter, J. (2001). College students with disabilities: An access employment group. Journal
    for Specialists in Group Work, 26, 339-349.
   Finn, D., Getzel, E. E., & McManus, S. (in press). Adapting the Self-Determined Learning Model for instruction of college
    students with disabilities. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals.
   Henderson, C. (1998). Profile of 1996 college freshmen with disabilities. Washington, DC: HEATH Resource Center,
    American Council on Education.
   Henderson, C. (2001). College freshman with disabilities: A biennial statistical profile. Washington, DC: HEATH Resource
    Center, American Council on Education.
   Madaus, J. E. (2006). Employment outcomes of university graduates with learning disabilities. Learning Disability
    Quarterly,29, 19-w31.
   Madaus, J. W., Foley, T. E., McGuire, J. M., & Rubin, L. (2001). A follow-up investigation of university graduates with
    learning disabilities. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 24, 133-146.
   Murray, C., Goldstein, D. E. Nourse, S., & Edgar, E. (2000). The postsecondary school attendance and completion rates of
    high school graduates with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 15, 119-127.
   Roessler, R. T., Hennessey, M. L., & Rumrill, Ph. D. (2007). Strategies for improving career services for postsecondary
    students with disabilities: Results of a focus group study of key stakeholders. Career Development for Exceptional
    Individuals, 30, 158-170.
   Sitlington, P. L. (2003). Postsecondary education: The other transition. Exceptionality, 11, 103-113.
   University of Oklahoma Institutional Research and Reporting. (2006, June). Students with disabilities. Norman, Oklahoma.
   Wagner, M., Newman, L., Cameto, R., Garza, N., and Levine, P. (2005). After High School: A First Look at the Postschool
    Experiences of Youth with Disabilities. A Report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Menlo Park, CA:
    SRI International. Available at www.nlts2.org/reports/2005_04/nlts2_report_2005_04_complete.pdf.


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