137BIO Anatomy and Physiology 1
Course Instructor: Joseph D. Gar. Office: Waller Science Building e-mail: Joseph.Gar@kctcs.edu Office Phone: (270) 534-3233 – (please leave message if not available). Course Description: The interrelationship of structure and function of each body system will be presented in two semesters. The first semester will include basic chemistry, cell structure, cell physiology, metabolism, tissues, and integumentary, skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems. The second semester continues the study of the interrelationships of body systems. Prerequisites/Co-requisites: Current enrollment in A&PI laboratory section. Objectives: 1. Knowledge: a. Further educational specialization by building on the basic concepts presented. b. Understand the structure and function of each body system presented. c. Understand the interrelationships among body systems. d. Understand how dynamic counter-balancing forces maintain normal anatomy and physiology (i.e. homeostasis). e. Understand some examples of disruptions in homeostasis. 2. Skills: a. Dissection skills. b. Be able to identify various body organs, tissues, and structures. General Education Course Specific Competency: To demonstrate an awareness of one's interaction with the biological/physical environment. General Education Across the Curriculum Competencies and Evaluation: 1. Writing: To communicate effectively using standard written English. Students will fulfill this competency by demonstrating their ability to write/answer exam essay questions. 2. Reading: To understand, analyze, summarize, and interpret a variety of reading materials. Students will fulfill this competency by reading the textbook. 3. Integrated Learning: To think critically and make connections in learning across the disciplines. 4. Creative Thinking: To elaborate upon knowledge to create thoughts, processes, and/or products that are new to the student. Students in will fulfill competencies 3 and 4 demonstrating their ability to integrate material and think creatively on exam questions. 5. Ethics/Values: To demonstrate an awareness of ethical considerations in making value choices. Students will fulfill this competency by thinking about and discussing various ethical issues as they relate to the course material. Textbooks and Supplies: Textbook: Human Anatomy and Physiology, 6th edition, Elaine N. Marieb, Benjamin/Cummings Pub. Co., Inc., 2004. Be sure to review the CD that comes with the textbook and lab book. Laboratory Manual: Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual, Cat version, 8th edition, Elaine N. Marieb, Benjamin/Cummings Pub. Co., Inc. Class Procedure: Lecture: Instruction is by lecture augmented with audiovisual materials and handouts. The student should listen attentively, take good notes, and ask questions if clarification is needed. The student should keep up to date with reading the textbook and studying their lecture notes. Learn the material as we go along. The amount and nature of the material do not lend themselves to last minute cramming. Topics 1
2 covered build on knowledge and understanding of previously covered material. The table of contents in the textbook approximates the course outline. However, at the discretion of the instructor, material may be combined, added to, or omitted. Laboratory: Instruction is by hands-on laboratory experience. The student is expected to obey all laboratory safety rules and to follow the instructions for each lab. If students need additional information and/or help they can: 1. Ask questions before, during, or after class! 2. Consult the instructor during regular office hours. 3. Check materials out of the library. Attendance Policy: Attendance is expected! Since poor attendance usually leads to poor grades, attendance is strongly recommended. A record of attendance will be kept. Lecture Testing Policy: There may be four lecture tests during the semester. Lecture tests may consist of a variety of testing methods: multiple choice, true or false, fill in the blank, matching, diagrams, problems, short answers, and essay questions; no challenge exams are given. Tests will be announced ahead of time. Lecture Makeup Tests: Make-up lecture tests will be given only for excused absences. A student who must miss a test should make every effort to notify the instructor before the test period. Only one test can be made up per semester. A make-up test may vary in format from the original test. A “zero” grade will be given for a missed test that is not made up. Make-up exams will be given on the Monday and Tuesday of Exam Week. It is the responsibility of the student to: 1. Get approval from the instructor to take a makeup test. 2. Notify the instructor prior to the scheduled make-up date that they will be taking a test. 3. Inform the instructor of which test they need to make up. Laboratory Exams: There may be two to three laboratory exams during the semester. Laboratory Make-up Exams: There are no make-ups for the laboratory exams! Exam/Test Return Policy: Exams/tests will be graded and returned to the students as soon as possible. The exams/tests will be recollected and remain available, until the end of the semester, in the instructor's office. All exams/tests must be returned to the instructor. If an exam/test is not returned, a zero grade will be given for that exam/test. Record your test/exam grade each time so that you will keep track of your class performance. Written Work Policy: Points may be deducted on all graded work for misspelled words and grammatical errors. Late Work Policy: Any written assignments handed in late will be penalized 10% of the total possible points for each week day that it is late. Grading Policy: The semester grade will be determined by calculating the average of all graded work, both lecture and laboratory. Letter grades will be assigned as follows: Lecture Tests: 4 (OR 5) x 100 pts = 400 pts (500 pts) Laboratory Exams (if 3): 3 x 100 pts = 300pts Total 700 pts 2 A = 90 - 100 % B = 80 - 89 E = 0 - 59 C = 70-79 D = 60-69
3 Grades can only be given to you in person or through your campus student E-mail account. "W" Grading Policy: 1. Any student who officially requests a withdrawal up to and including the mid-term date will be given a "W" grade. Any requests after this date will NOT be honored. 2. The procedure the student MUST follow is to obtain the official Drop-Add form from the Admission/Registrar's Office, fill out the form, and return it to the Admission/Registrar’s office by the MID-TERM deadline set by the college. Getting my signature for withdrawal after the mid-term deadline is NOT ASSURED. 3. The student will be officially withdrawn on the date the official Drop-Add Form is returned to the Admissions/Registrar's office. "I" Grade Policy: The "I" grade will be given only if satisfactory completion of the missed work would give the student a reasonable chance of passing the course. The "I" grade must be made up within 6 months. If the "I" grade is not made up within this time, the instructor will change the "I" grade to an "E" grade. After one year an “I” automatically becomes an “E”. KCTCS Student Code of Conduct Statement The Kentucky Community and Technical College System (KCTCS) faculty and students are bound by principles of truth and honesty that are recognized as fundamental for a community of teachers and scholars. The college expects students and faculty to honor, and faculty to enforce, these academic principles. The college affirms that it will not tolerate academic dishonesty including, but not limited to, violation of academic rights of students and student offenses. Students may refer to the KCTCS Code of Student Conduct, www.kctcs.edu/student/code.htm, Article II for more information on academic rights, academic offenses, and the student’s right to appeal. A Few Pointers On How To Succeed In This Course: In order to benefit maximally in this course, you must develop the discipline necessary to maintain good notes and to keep up with the reading assignments. To do so will markedly improve your comprehension during lectures. To put off the assigned readings until test time will make otherwise interesting material painfully drudgery. Do not attempt to record lecture material verbatim. Leave space in your notes for additions after class. Schedule at least 15 minutes following each lecture to read over the day’s notes, with your textbook at hand. “Flesh out” the material while it is fresh enough in your mind to allow for clarification or addition of detail. Do not be afraid to speak up when something is unclear to you! If you get unsatisfactory test scores, you should discuss your study habits with me. Do a job you are proud of and we will all have a great time in the process! Classroom Accommodations: Every effort will be made to ensure classroom and laboratory accessibility for all students. For maximum assistance all students requiring special classroom accommodations due to a verified disability should contact the Disability Resource Office at least two weeks prior to the first day of class. Once documentation is complete, they must contact faculty to discuss and agree upon reasonable accommodations for the class. Every effort will me made to ensure classroom and laboratory accessibility for all students. Any student requiring special classroom accommodations due to a disability should schedule a conference with Gail 3
4 Ridgeway within the first two weeks of class. Ms. Ridgeway can be reached at 534-3406. Campus E-mail Account Become familiar with your campus E-mail and how to get into it: you will be getting some of your information (grades, announcements, corrections) via E-mail from KYVU and KCTCS in additional to E-mail and web site announcements from me. Format For Class Group Project (When a Class Group Project is Assigned) Group Project: Each student will be required to participate in and complete a group project. 3-5 students may form a group. The project will be turned in as a written report (typed, single-spaced). The written report will be graded on the following basis: Organization Depth of content Readability Creativity Effort, including neatness, grammatical correctness and spelling References: At least three reliable sources, one of which should be your textbook, must be cited. Personal opinion of the group members regarding the project issue: You might all be in agreement or you might not. Back up your opinion with facts. The oral presentation will be graded out of a possible 20 points on the following basis: Organization Depth of content Visual Aid Usage/Creativity Communication Style/Poise Equal contribution by all group members Thus, each project will be worth 100 points, or one test grade. Each member of the group would receive the same grade. However, the instructor does reserve the right to assign a different grade to a group member in cases where the members contributed unequal amounts of work. A semester-long group project must be turned in on the Monday of Finals Week. Tracking Your Progress In Class Total pts earned from your coursework Total pts possible from coursework
= Total Semester Pts
One of the tests may be given as a class group project where your grade will be based on the work of the whole group [Group Assignments/In-Class Group Project: From time to time and working in groups you may be asked, in or out of class, to do projects (anywhere from 5 to 10) for which each member of the group will receive the same grade. When assigned, these group projects will add up to one test grade].
137BIO Anatomy and Physiology 1 Lecture Tentative Course Outline
Assigned Reading: Read the appropriate textbook chapter before the lecture on that chapter! Chapter 1: The Human Body: An Orientation Chapter 2: Chemistry Comes Alive TEST I: Chapters 1 and 2; a number 2 pencil is required for every lecture test. Chapter 3: Cells: The Living Units Chapter 5: Integumentary System TEST II: Chapters 3 and 5 *Chapter 4: Tissues: The Living Fabric *Chapter 6: Bones and Bone Tissue *Chapter 10: Muscular System *Chapter 7: The Skeleton (Axial & Appendicular) Chapter 8: Joints Chapter 9: Muscles TEST III: Chapters 8 and 9 Chapter 11: Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue Chapter 12: The Central Nervous System Chapter 13: The Peripheral Nervous System and Reflex Activity Chapter 14: The Autonomic Nervous System Chapter 15: The Special Senses (as time permits) TEST IV: Chapters 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 Alternative: May be assigned as class group project on a topic from chapters 11 through 15. Group Assignments/In-Class Group Project: From time to time and working in groups you may be asked, in or out of class, to do projects (anywhere from 5 to 10) for which each member of the group will receive the same grade. When assigned, these group projects will add up to one test grade. Professional and Classroom Decorum: The instructor will conduct this class in a mature manner and all students will be treated with respect. It is expected that each student will think and act in a mature manner and consider their classmates and the instructor in the same manner. The student may be asked to leave the class if the following rules are not adhered to: Conversations distracting to the instructor and other students will not be permitted. No smoking or chewing tobacco in the classroom. No sleeping, snoring, flirting, or harassing. No reading of newspapers, magazines, letters, novels, or other texts during class time. No cellular phones, beepers, pagers, or any other such device is permitted in the classroom.
These chapters will be covered in the lab portion.
13BIO: Anatomy and Physiology 1: Laboratory Tentative Laboratory Schedule Required Equipment/Supplies: Safety Glasses; Gloves Assigned Reading: Read the appropriate laboratory exercise/handout before the lab.
# 1. Laboratory Safety; Anatomy Basics; Microscopy; Cells and Mitosis; Embryology # 2. Cells and Mitosis; and Embryology # 3. Histology (Chapter 4 - textbook) # 4. Histology (Chapter 4 - textbook) – continued # 5. Lab Exam I: Labs #1-5 Microscopy, Mitosis, Embryology, Histology (100 pts)
# 6 Skeleton Anatomy/ Bone Structure (Chapters 6 & 7 - textbook) * Nervous System (Chapter 12 - textbook) # 7 Skeleton Anatomy (Chapter 7 - textbook) *Nervous System (Chapter 12 - textbook) # 8 * Nervous System (Chapter 12 - textbook) # 9 Lab Exam II: Labs 7-10 Skeletal/Nervous Systems Anatomy and Physiology (100 pts) # 10 The Muscular System – Skeletal Muscle Anatomy, Primary Action, and Innervation [Handout; Exam Review Sheet; Self Study (Homework)] # 11 Lab Exam III: Muscular System – Skeletal Muscle Anatomy, Primary Action, & Innervation
** Note: The back portion of the lab manual includes some very helpful, and often overlooked, material: 1. Histology Atlas 2. Human Anatomy Atlas 3. Review Sheets for each exercise.
LEARNING HOW TO APPLY YOURSELF HOW TO STUDY ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY (Study Hints: Jeffrey L. Smith) Studying a subject, especially one as complex as human Anatomy and Physiology, is not a hit-ormiss proposition. There are systematic habits and skills that can be developed to increase the efficiency of the studying process. Some of these are as follows: Make sure that you choose a suitable place for study. A comfortable desk or chair with good, over-the-shoulder lighting is ideal. A flat surface is useful to have – desk or tabletop of comfortable height will do nicely. There should not be a lot of distractions in your study area. Loud talking, televisions, and blaring radios distract from the learning process. Establish a regular schedule of study. You should set aside 30 to 60 minutes each day for study. This is far better than trying to study for three hours at a stretch on one or two days of the week. As you will learn in the discussion of the nervous system, neural synapses fatigue when used continuously for extended periods of time. Once that happens you are accomplishing nothing in terms of learning. Start each study session by quickly reviewing the previously covered material. The key to mastery is repetition. A quick review within 24 hours of having studied new material will greatly reinforce what was learned. A very easy way to do this is to read through the study outline that is provided. Develop a systematic approach to studying. Science is a systematic way of looking at the world, and your approach to learning science should also be systematic. The approach detailed below is one that has proven very useful to a large number of students. 1. If you are studying this material as part of a formal college course then you will, in all probability, be attending lectures. Always read the chapter once before attending lecture. You will find that the lecture is much more meaningful to you if you have already read the material at least once. Begin each chapter by reading the chapter objectives (Test Reviews). These will tell you what is considered to be the most important. Read the chapter in the textbook. As you read, pay particular attention to the terminology. One of the things that makes anatomy & physiology difficult for the student is the extensive vocabulary: you will be introduced to more new terms here than are found in a typical foreign language course. They must be mastered and you should begin immediately. Pay attention to figures and tables: a large amount of information is contained in these. To bypass them eliminates about 50% of the information in the textbook. When you come to the Concept Checkpoints at key locations in each chapter, take a few minutes to answer the questions. They are designed to serve as intellectual “speed bumps” – they will tell you whether you have been reading too fast or not paying enough attention to what you have been reading. Some test memory while others require a bit of thought. If you have been concentrating on what you have read you should be able to answer all of them quickly and easily. If you find that you are stumped, you probably need to reread the preceding material. Where recall of material covered in previous chapters is important for understanding new material, cross-references have been provided. 7
After you have completed reading the text, be sure to read the study outline at the chapter’s end. This study outline is a summary of the major topics and vocabulary included in the chapter. It constitutes an excellent review, and is one of the most useful features of your textbook. Answer the end-of-chapter questions carefully. Some of the questions test your recall of specific pieces of information. Other questions call for more extended answers, requiring an understanding of concepts and the ability to synthesize ideas. Some questions help to develop your critical thinking skills and allow you to apply knowledge to actual clinical situations. The Study Guide for your text contains many additional exercises to help you master the material of this course.
Do not become discouraged. The mysterious polysyllabic terms encountered in human anatomy and physiology can be intimidating. With a systematic approach to studying and sufficient time, anyone can master the subject. The secret is to stay with it. As you proceed through the subject you will find that mastery of previous material makes the new material much easier, and eventually you will develop a critical mass of information that will permit you to move forward with confidence. The rewards of success are worth the time and energy. Besides the practical applications, there is a great deal of satisfaction in understanding how your body is constructed and how it functions. EFFECTIVE NOTE-TAKING Lecture notes are frequently your best source of information when studying for exams. When an instructor covers material in lecture, you should assume that it must be more important than material that is omitted. Poor notes may be worse than no textbook. Why is effective notetaking such a neglected learning strategy? There are several reasons: Poor listening skills. People tend to listen (not just hear) to someone speaking for periods of about thirty seconds, followed by variable periods of inattention. Many students become alert only when a professor writes something. After they mindlessly copy the few words into their notebooks their attention wanders off until the professor uses the board again. Selective note taking. There is a tendency to write down what you want to hear or expect to hear; for example, material that you already knew before taking the class. This may also pose a problem when these students underline or highlight their books: they underline or highlight the material they already know, and ignore unfamiliar material. It would make more sense to write down only the unfamiliar material. Laziness. If writing complete lecture notes seems like too much effort, maybe you aren’t setting high enough goals. When you are actively taking good lecture notes, a 50-minute class period seems like 20 minutes. When you are daydreaming and staring at the clock, it seems like hours. How can you improve your note-taking skills? That depends on your current note-taking skills. If you are a slow writer, you should go straight to a department store and buy a portable tape recorder now. Even with the lecture taped, you need to develop effective note-taking skills. Keep the following in mind:
You cannot write every word that your instructor says. It you attempt to write down every word, you will succeed only in writing down the first five words of several hundred sentences. You cannot listen to your instructor and paraphrase the lecture into complete sentences. To do so, you would have to hear the complete sentence, think about it, paraphrase it, and then begin to write it. While doing that, you are missing the next two sentences. To take effective notes, you must familiarize yourself with the lecture topic before it is covered in lecture. The following suggestions might improve your note taking skills. 1. Use large notebooks (8 ½” x 11” instead of smaller notebooks). 2. Leave a generous left-hand margin to allow insertion of material. Use lined paper with a 3” left margin. If you cannot find this at an office supply store, try to find lined paper with no margins, and remember to leave yourself about 3” at the left. 3. Use a pen; if you make a mistake, draw a line through it: you may discover later that you needed that information after all. Erasing takes time, and is irreversible. 4. Learn to outline. You cannot write down everything your professor says, and it takes time to think and paraphrase a lecture. The best way to take complete notes is to write brief phrases and try to organize them logically. An outline is ideal. 5. Make important material stand out. Place an asterisk (*) next to important material, or underline it. If you don’t understand something in lecture, make a note of it. You may write l.i.u. (look it up) when something is unclear in lecture. 6. Don’t write in long hand. Although you may be accustomed to writing in attractive long hand, it takes much longer to make curved lines, particularly on capitalized letters. Write just as fast as you can while still leaving something that is readable to you. Forget penmanship. Your finished product may be half-writing and half-printing, but as long as it is legible, that’s fine. 7. Develop your own shorthand and abbreviations. There are many words and figures of speech that are common to many college courses. Whenever you can, use abbreviations for these phrases or words. (Think how much time you might save; for example, by just writing home or h. instead of homeostasis each time the term comes up in lecture). 8. Write as fast as necessary to ensure understandable notes. Write as much as you can during the period. Don’t simply write what the professor puts up. It is easy to eliminate less important material later. When you are taking notes, you don’t know what is going to be important and what isn’t. Write down everything you can while you have the chance. 9. Rewrite your notes soon after class. Rewriting your notes takes little effort, and it is a form of mental reinforcement. Even if you are extremely conscientious in taking notes, there are going to be some points that you didn’t have time to write during class. It is an excellent practice to spend some time rewriting your notes, preferably soon after the class. This will allow you to arrange the information logically, write more legibly, and add points that you remember from the lecture but didn’t have time to write. Students who tape the lectures have the added advantage of being able to rewrite their notes while listening to the lecture again; it is very effective. Rewriting notes doesn’t take much time, the completed product is easier to study, and you can do it even if you are tired.
Wasting time with study habits that don’t work is extremely stressful. If none of the time you are putting in your work is paying off, then poor grades make it appear as if you are not doing much. If your current study habits aren’t working, change them. Table: An Introduction to Word Construction Word Root Definition Example abi-cyte epiexhemhyperhypogen-/genesis intrainter-lysis macromicrowithout two cell on out; away from blood above; excessive below; under producing; forming within between breakdown large small Anucleate Bilateral Osteocyte Epicardium Exocytosis Hemorrhage Hypertrophy hypothyroidism Osteogenesis Intracellular inter-molecular Hemolysis Macrocyte Microscopic
Example Definition without a nucleus involving both sides of the body bone cell layer of connective tissue on the heart movement out of the cell bleeding increase cell size. underproduction of thyroid hormone bone formation inside the cell between molecules destruction/rupture of red blood cell cell that is larger than normal something very small: to be viewed with microscope disorder of gums surrounding teeth salivary gland that opens under tongue movement across or through
around under; below across; through
periodontal disease sublingual gland Transport
As you read each chapter pay particular attention to the terminology, the illustrations, and the tables. A large amount of information is presented in the form of figures and tables. Word construction (word-stems) provides a fundamental tool to the understanding of the language of human anatomy and physiology. A constant use of major terms and an understanding of their etymology will aid in the appreciation of new nomenclature.
LABORATORY SAFETY RULES For All Biological Sciences Classes Experience in observing, handling, caring for, experimenting with, and dissecting plants and animals is essential for the training of biological science students. Studies from textbooks, photographs, charts, models, and computer simulations are good supplements, however they are not adequate substitutes for direct laboratory experience with living and preserved organisms. It is important for every biological science student to learn the proper methods of handling and caring for biological organisms. The chemicals used to preserve biological organisms can be toxic, flammable and/or dangerous if used improperly or under improper conditions. Laboratories have certain inherent dangers and hazards, which students should learn and appreciate. The laboratory can be a safe area to learn, depending upon the practices and attitudes of the student. The following list of safety rules is offered as a good start toward safe practice in the lab. It is not a complete list of safety rules, however, and it is not a substitute for common sense. 1. Use common sense. 2. Avoid horseplay in the laboratory. A science laboratory is a place for work and contains many potential hazard for a careless person. Electrical circuits, potentially dangerous chemicals, and sometimes infectious agents may be present in a biological science laboratory. 3. Give STRICT attention to all instructions and if not clear, check with the instructor before conducting any experiment. 4. Never eat, drink, or smoke in the laboratory. 5. Always wash hands after handling chemicals or live or preserved organisms. Wash your hands before leaving the laboratory, even before using the bathroom. 6. Always wear shoes in the laboratory. Sandals are not appropriate. 7. Wear safety goggles or other appropriate protective eye gear when engaged in, performing, or observing experiments. 8. Never place pencils, pens, or other objects into your mouth while in the laboratory. 9. Be familiar with the properties and hazards associated with all chemicals used in the laboratory exercises. When in doubt about the hazards associated with any chemical, consult Chemical Material Safety and Data Sheets (MSDS) distributed by all manufacturers. Check with your instructor for the appropriate data sheet. 10. Know the location, purpose, and use of emergency safety equipment before starting any assignment. 11. Be familiar with the operation and proper use of fire extinguishers, eyewash fountains, safety showers, and other safety equipment in the laboratory. 12. Keep scalpel blades sharp to avoid slipping and possible injury to yourself. 13. Make sure that all specimens you dissect are properly supported in a dissecting pan or other appropriate surface. A specimen not properly supported could shift and lead to an injury from slippage of a scalpel or other dissecting instrument. 11
14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26.
Work in a well-ventilated area when studying preserved specimens. Treat all chemicals with respect. Avoid contaminating chemicals within their containers. Keep all containers of chemicals clean and dry. Use only automatic loading pipettes. Avoid placing reagent bottles or other caustic agents on the tops of desks. Pour chemicals from the bottle on the side away from the label (to avoid label damage). Return all containers of chemicals to the appropriate location (do not remove chemicals from the area, unless directed otherwise). Be sure all bottles are properly closed when you finish using them. Always be cautious when using electric hot plates and gas burners. Use protective mittens or tongs to handle hot objects. Beware of electrical equipment with frayed or bare wires or faulty switches or plugs. Clean all laboratory tables and other work surfaces with the proper cleaning agent after each use.
Special Concern to Women: If you are pregnant, the vapors, dust and liquids of the chemicals and the biological agents used in the laboratories may be hazardous to you or your unborn child. YOU MUST consult your doctor about this and YOU MUST take the entire responsibility of choosing to work in the laboratory. Additional information about chemicals stored and used in labs and MSDS information will be provided upon request.