PLANNING FOR THE PAST: PRESERVING FLORIDA’S HERITAGE TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgments Introduction, Including a Brief Prehistory and History of Florida Discovering Our Resources Leadership Framework The Planning Process Issues, Opportunities and Goals Successes Credits and Bibliography Timeline


PLANNING FOR THE PAST: PRESERVING FLORIDA’S HERITAGE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Many individuals and organizations offered information and resources. We acknowledge Mr. Frederick P. Gaske, Director, Division of Historical Resources for his encouragement. We thank other members of the staff of the Division of Historical Resources for editorial and technical assistance: David Ferro, Joan Jefferson, Marion Smith, Robert Taylor, Susanne Hunt, Gary V. Goodwin, and our Regional Office managers: Bonnie Dearborn, Susan Parker, and Jeffery Thirlwall. We also thank the members of the Florida Historical Commission and Kathleen Kauffman, former Executive Director of the Florida Trust for Historic Preservation for her involvement. The National Park Service staff has been very helpful and supportive. would especially like to thank Susan L. Henry Renaud, Preservation Planning Program Manager, for her valuable insight and encouragement. We

Finally, we would like to express our appreciation to those who responded to the survey and attended the public meetings, both essential contributions. Barbara E. Mattick December 2005


PLANNING FOR THE PAST: PRESERVING FLORIDA’S HERITAGE INTRODUCTION Although the nation’s earliest written history relates to events that occurred in Florida, many perceive Florida to be a young state, with important historical development emerging only during the 1920s and again following World War II. Although many of Florida’s communities were developed in the 20th century, these major phases of rapid growth give Florida a legacy that sometimes belies a rich archaeology and history that spans many centuries. People have lived in Florida more than 12,000 years. From the earliest Paleoindian hunters at the end of the last ice age to the powerful chiefdoms encountered by Spanish explorers, Florida's first inhabitants were Native Americans. peninsula. Adapting to changing climates and widely varying environments, Florida Indians spread to every part of the Along the coasts and St. Johns River, shellfish constituted an Huge mounds of shell still attest to the presence of On the richer soils in the Florida important resource.

pre-European villages and towns. villages.

panhandle, farming people grew corn, beans and squash, and settled About 1,000 years ago, the well-known Mississippian chiefdoms The Apalachee, the From initial began to construct large pyramids of earth, some more than 40 feet high, organized in regular patterns around a central plaza. powerful chiefdoms encountered by European explorers. Timucua, the Tocobaga, and the Calusa ranked among the largest and most European contact in the early 1500s, in less than 200 years these great societies were virtually extinct, victims of disease, warfare and slavery. The Florida landscape is rich with remains of their mounds, canals, plazas, villages, and other sites. deserve stewardship and protection. Florida was named by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León when he first saw this land during Pascua Florida, the Feast of Flowers, at Easter 1513. Ponce was followed by other Spaniards who established St. Augustine This settlement in the land of the native Timucuan Indian people in 1565. 4 These sites are often the only source of information about what Florida was like thousands of years ago and

is the oldest continuously occupied city in the United States.

To the The

West, Pensacola was Florida’s only other major Spanish settlement. native peoples. Mission San Luis de Apalachee, at present-day

Spanish colonized their newfound land by establishing missions among the Tallahassee, was the headquarters for a chain of missions that spread east toward St. Augustine. Over the next two-and-a-half centuries, Florida was an arena of colonial rivalry between the French, Spanish, British, and Americans. Florida became a United States territory in 1821. In 1824, Tallahassee Today’s Tallahassee was established as the territorial capital, midway between St. Augustine and Pensacola, the capitals in East and West Florida. Indian people. Settlers were attracted to the rich agricultural lands around Tallahassee. The land was especially suitable for growing cotton, and a Settlement in prosperous slave-labor plantation economy developed. Georgia and Alabama in the late 18th century. War‖ in American history. stands on the site of what once was the capital of the native Apalachee

Florida brought conflicts with the Seminoles who arrived in Florida from The Second Seminole War (1838-1842), according to historian John Mahon, was the costliest ―Indian The wars resulted in Indian removal, furthered Some Seminole War forts developed into settlement of the Southeast, and established the reputations of important military and national leaders. communities such as Fort Myers and Fort Lauderdale, and roads built by the military on old Indian trails brought more settlers to the land. On March 3, 1845, Florida entered the Union as the 27th state. Florida’s entry as a slave state was paired with the entry of Iowa, a free state. Floridians were in the Union only 16 years before they voted to Approximately 5,000 The state furnished salt, beef, and secede and join the Confederacy on January 10, 1861. Floridians died in the Civil War. other foodstuffs to Confederate forces. Recovery after the Civil War was slow as Florida’s population, including some 61,000 freed slaves, adjusted during military Reconstruction. Some early tourists came to hunt and fish or to enjoy Florida’s natural springs, but without a well-developed road system, most 5

settlement was limited to coastal and river areas.

By the turn of the

century railroads opened the interior and southern reaches of the state. Agriculture, including citrus; lumber and naval stores; and a fledgling tourist industry became mainstays in Florida’s economy. Florida remained sparsely populated until the 1920s. Nevertheless, The Florida Land

Boom of the 1920s brought rapid growth until its collapse in 1926 ushered Florida into economic depression prior to the Great Depression. During World War II, military bases were established across the state, taking advantage of Florida’s temperate climate for the training of troops and an innovative airborne military force. that continues today. entered the space race. After the war, former military families returned to Florida, beginning a period of rapid growth During the 1960s, Florida’s Cape Canaveral became On July 20, 1969, the world saw live television A centuries-old Caribbean the major launching site for manned space flights as the United States coverage of the first landing of man on the moon, a feat that began at Cape Canaveral with the launching of Apollo XI. presence influences Florida, and the dramatic influx of Caribbean and Latin American immigrants during the last 40 years contributes to its modern multiethnic society. rapidly. country. Florida has a rich and fascinating past. World and is now a threshold to space. It was a gateway to the New In the 21st Its cultural heritage embodies the Florida’s population continues to grow By 2010 the state’s population will be the third largest in the

presence and activities of people for more than 12,000 years.

century, Florida’s heritage is reflected in historic buildings and structures, prehistoric and historic archaeological sites and artifacts, and the folk traditions and crafts of the state’s diverse citizenry. provide continuity with the past. They create jobs, improve housing, All of these resources comprise Florida’s cultural and historical heritage and enhance a quality of life, and, along with the state’s unique natural resources, annually attract millions of visitors. A growing appreciation of cultural and historical resources, supported by the enactment of new laws and ordinances, encourages preservation. Despite that trend, each year irreplaceable buildings are 6

bulldozed, archaeological sites destroyed, and cultural traditions forgotten. Numerous possibilities exist for individuals and institutions ―Planning for the Past: Preserving to preserve Florida’s heritage. in our state. preservation. for the future.

Florida’s Heritage‖ demonstrates the active preservation program in place We encourage you to become a partner in historic Only together can we continue to preserve Florida’s past


PLANNING FOR THE PAST: PRESERVING FLORIDA’S HERITAGE DISCOVERING OUR RESOURCES Outstanding historic and cultural resources give Florida its extraordinary identity. Historic resources are buildings, structures, objects, sites, and districts that are significant to the history, architecture, archaeology, engineering, or culture of a local community, the state of Florida, or the entire country. historical standing structures. The Florida Master Site File is the state’s archive of information on archaeological sites and The Site File identifies whether an area has been inventoried for cultural resources, what resources are recorded in particular areas, and which officially-evaluated resources are considered historically significant. As of 2005, Florida’s Master Site File has recorded more than 150,000 resources, with 7,000 being added annually. Hard copy files can be readily accessed on site in Tallahassee. Site File staff use electronic systems to search records quickly and furnish information fast and conveniently. In early 2006, some Site File records will be available to users on-line, particularly databases of cultural resource and field project data and images of original paper documents. Recently, with support from the Florida Department of Transportation, the Site File completed a 6-year project to develop statewide-computerized maps of historic sites. new ways of working with spatial data. Florida’s historic resources reflect the long and varied history of settlement here. Among the notable examples are the Paleoindian Page/Ladson Site in Jefferson County, dating from 10,000-7,500 B.C.; the Archaic Windover Site near Titusville, which dates from 7,500 B.P.; Crystal River Indian Mounds (500 B.C. – A.D. 200); Fort Caroline, the 16th century site of the French attempt to colonize Florida; the Castillo de San Marcos in St. Augustine, constructed between 1672 and 1696 and the oldest masonry fort in the United States; the Town of Eatonville, established in 1887 as the first all-black incorporated town in Florida; Florida’s Old Capitol, restored to its 1902 configuration and serving today as the Florida Center of Political History and Governance; the Miami 8 This Geographic Information System (GIS), improves access to the information and offers

Beach Art Deco Architectural District, a world tourist destination; and the Kennedy Space Center, site of U.S. manned space flights and the launches that put Americans on the moon. The history of the state is also preserved in Florida’s traditional culture or folklife. Among Florida’s folklife are shared ways of making objects, such as maritime and ranching equipment, domestic and decorative items, religious and festival arts, and musical instruments; beliefs and customs; traditional occupations; music and dance; celebrations; and narrative traditions. The individuals who produce these folk arts are Their creative work often greatly admired in their communities. values and aesthetics.

facilitates the accomplishment of practical tasks, while expressing group


PLANNING FOR THE PAST: PRESERVING FLORIDA’S HERITAGE LEADERSHIP FRAMEWORK The preservation of Florida’s historical and cultural resources can only be achieved through cooperation between federal, state, and local governments, and private individuals and organizations. This statewide comprehensive plan provides a common vision to the organizations and agencies that administer or implement historic preservation programs in Florida. Federal Government Federal laws have fostered the growth of effective state historic preservation programs and encouraged private sector preservation activities. Many state historic preservation programs began as a means of implementing federal mandates, but have since acquired their own momentum. More recently, these initiatives in Florida have led to preservation programs at the local government and even neighborhood level. Federal preservation programs support the responsible management of state-owned properties and provide technical assistance to public and private efforts in the preservation, protection and promotion of the state's historical properties and archaeological sites. archaeological resources. As a major landholder in Florida, the federal government manages many of the state’s historic and Some federal agencies involved include the Department of the Interior (National Park Service), which oversees the national historic preservation program and manages 11 National Park units in Florida; the Department of Agriculture (U.S. Forest Service); the Federal Highway Administration; and the Department of Defense. State Government Since 1967, when Florida’s historic preservation program formally began with the passage of the Florida Archives and History Act (Chapter 267, Florida Statutes), the Florida Department of State has been home to the state government’s historic preservation programs. Department of State was reorganized. In 2000, when the Secretary of State ceased to be a Cabinet level position, the Florida The Office of Cultural and Historical Programs (OCHP) is now responsible for promoting the 10

historical, archaeological, museum, arts, and folk culture resources in Florida. Within OCHP, the Director of the Division of Historical Resources still serves as Florida's State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO), providing a liaison with the national historic preservation program conducted by the National Park Service. The Division is headquartered in the state capital of Tallahassee, and maintains three small regional offices throughout the state. The regional offices are currently located in Fort Lauderdale, St. Augustine and Tampa. From the ancient City of St. Augustine to the Art Deco district on Miami's South Beach, the Division’s Bureau of Historic Preservation (BHP) continues to conduct historic preservation programs to identify, evaluate, preserve, and interpret the historic and cultural resources of the state. fall of 2005, the Bureau was consolidated to three sections: In the 1) the

Compliance Review Section, which includes the Florida Master Site File, 2) the Preservation Services Section, which includes Architectural Preservation Services, the Florida Main Street Program, the Grants-in-Aid Program, and the National Register/National Historic Landmark Programs, and 3) the Statewide Education Section, which includes publications, historical markers, the Great Floridians Program, heritage tourism, and the Florida Folklife Program. The Compliance Review (CR) staff evaluates and comments on the impact of federal and state projects on the state’s historical resources to ensure compliance with federal and state preservation laws. historic resources. Florida. The Florida Master Site File maintains the federally mandated inventory of Florida’s Preservation Services (PS) staff coordinate the National Park Service’s National Register of Historic Places Program for In October 2005, Florida had nearly 1,500 listings encompassing The PS Section also provides over 43,000 resources, in the Register.

technical assistance in preserving buildings and oversees federal income tax projects which assist in the rehabilitation of historic buildings. The Florida Main Street Program acts as a catalyst for efforts to preserve, revitalize and sustain Florida’s commercial districts. Part of a national movement, the Florida Main Street Program supports local action that builds economic vitality, quality of life, and community pride 11

centered in a city’s traditional core.

The Florida Main Street Program

assists local private-public partnerships by providing technical and financial assistance and training in the comprehensive Main Street Approach: Organization, Promotion, Economic Restructuring, and Design. Since 1985, 84 cities have been designated Florida Main Street Communities. redevelopment. Preservation Services staff also administer a program of state grants for the rehabilitation and restoration of historic buildings, the survey of historic resources, the excavation of archaeological sites, and the funding of preservation education programs. public demand. In recent years historic preservation activity has expanded substantially to meet the increasing This has been accomplished in large measure through the state’s Special Category Grants Program and the Historic Preservation Trust Fund Matching Grants Program, which provide financial assistance for local preservation initiatives. The Rural Economic Development Initiative (REDI) program, housed in the Governor’s Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development (OTTED), was established to better serve Florida’s rural communities by providing a more focused and coordinated effort among state and regional agencies that provide programs and services for rural areas. REDI coordinates the efforts of state and regional agencies Under the initiative, the Florida Department working to assist qualified communities (for qualifications, see Chapter 288.0656, Florida Statutes). of State, Division of Historical Resources waives the requirement for a match for the small matching preservation grants submitted by REDI cities or counties and not-for-profit agencies within those communities. grant funds. The Statewide Education (SE) staff coordinate the production marketing, and distribution of DHR publications, such as Florida History & the Arts Magazine, Florida Preservation News, Florida Heritage Trails, and the federally-mandated statewide comprehensive historic preservation plan, Planning for the Past: Preserving Florida’s Heritage. 12 The SE section Since 2002, 44 REDI communities have received $1,402,641 in state preservation Florida Main Street hosts statewide conferences and facilitates networking among those interested in downtown preservation and

also oversees the Florida Folklife Program, the Great Floridians Program, and the State Historic Marker Program. The Florida Folklife Program (FFP) coordinates a wide range of activities and projects designed to increase the awareness of Floridians and visitors alike about our traditional cultures. range of topics. The Folklife Program documents Florida’s traditional culture through annual surveys on a wide The Folklife Apprenticeship Program and the Florida Folk Statewide education and outreach programs, Heritage Awards celebrate and preserve the achievements of the state’s foremost tradition bearers. such as the Folklife Institutes, Folklife Days for school children, Festival Outreach, and the ―Voices of Florida Music from the Sunshine State‖ radio series present Florida’s folk culture to individuals and groups throughout the state and the nation. Florida’s folklife, or contemporary traditional culture, reflects both the state’s history and its constantly changing populace. Traditional patterns of skills used to make Puerto Rican lace, embroider Torah covers, weave white oak baskets, build a Seminole chickee, and create diving helmets, to name just a few examples, remain vibrant components of the state’s material folk culture. The storehouse of everyday knowledge necessary to operate a shrimp boat, raise tropical fruits and vegetables, braid a cow whip, or build an airboat demonstrates that folklife remains an important resource in the occupational culture of Floridians. The vast array of music and dance traditions—from bluegrass and African American gospel to Vietnamese opera, Mexican norteño music, Irish fiddle, Cuban comparsa, and Hawaiian hula—demonstrate that folklife is vital to connecting the state’s communities through creative expression. The state's archaeology program is the responsibility of the Division of Historical Resources’ Bureau of Archaeological Research (BAR). Florida, primarily on state-owned lands. planners in protecting sites. now in underwater contexts. State archaeologists carry out archaeological surveys and excavations throughout They also assist consultants and The Bureau’s Underwater Archaeology Program

oversees the state’s historic shipwreck sites and pre-Columbian land sites Some of these are among the oldest human BAR’s underwater archaeologists work 13 occupied sites in the New World.

with local divers and communities to develop Underwater Archaeological Preserves around the state that protect and interpret shipwreck sites to the public. The Bureau operates a Research and Conservation Laboratory to Bureau archaeologists, with support from the treat artifacts, mostly from underwater sites, and curates thousands of additional artifacts. Florida Forever land acquisition program, survey and help manage sites of state-owned conservative lands, and evaluate new properties for acquisition. BAR also administers Mission San Luis in Tallahassee, the 17th century western capital of the Spanish mission system in Florida, where it conducts professional archaeological research and living history programs for the public. The Bureau also conducts ongoing research and interpretation of this National Historic Landmark site. The Bureau of Historical Museums (BHM) brings the history of the state alive at sites like the Museum of Florida History, the Old Capitol, and the Knott House Museum. In November 2002, the Old Capitol became the Florida Center of Political History and Governance, with special exhibits interpreting the state’s political history, constitutions, and the history of the building. As the repository for the state's historical artifacts, The Museum of Florida History Activities are The BHM maintains permanent collections of over 45,000 items that document the history and daily lives of Floridians. responds to changing public interests about the past by offering a flexible agenda of regular and special programming. developed to complement temporary exhibitions in the Main Gallery. Museum works with many other organizations to provide or assist with programs that meet a specific need or interest. Educational activities include the Exploring Florida series, Summer Discovery Camp, Great Floridians Film series, and school outreach and educational materials such as the Florida Heritage Education lesson plans, used by schools throughout the state.
“I attended a presentation and guided tour of the museum at the R.A. Gray Building with a local elementary school and was impressed by the quality and energy of the presentation and the impact it had upon the children. We really need to focus on educating children about the past and making it fun and interactive. Children are the stewards of the future. . . .” Comment from public survey

To enhance public participation and involvement in the preservation and protection of the state’s historic and archaeological sites and properties, the Florida Legislature authorizes several advisory bodies to 14

advise and assist the Division of Historical Resources: The Florida Folklife Council; the State Historical Marker Council; an advisory board for the Grove; two citizen support organizations, Friends of Historic Properties and Museums, Inc. and Friends of Mission San Luis, Inc.; and an advisory board for each regional office. In 2001 the Florida Legislature established the Florida Historical Commission (FHC) (Chapter 267.0612, Florida Statutes) to advise and assist the Division of Historical Resources in carrying out the programs, duties and responsibilities of the Division. Seven members of the Commission are appointed by the Governor in consultation with the Secretary of State, two by the President of the Florida Senate and two by the Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives.
“With regard to preservation decisions, it is important to have good representative thinkers from related disciplines…involved in the planning and decision process.” Comment from public survey

The commissioners are responsible for reviewing and ranking Special Category Historic Preservation Grant applications. Five members of the FHC, representing the disciplines of history, architecture, architectural history, prehistoric archaeology, and historic archaeology, also meet as Florida's National Register Review Board to review and make recommendations on proposed nominations to the National Register of Historic Places. In addition, the Commission exists to receive public input and provide advice with regard to policy and preservation needs. Division of Historical Resources Regional Offices


Southeast Regional Office
Community Assistance Consultant 231 SW 2nd Avenue Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33301 Phone: 954-467-4990 - Fax: 954-467-4991

Northeast Regional Office
Community Assistance Consultant P.O. Box 4168 St. Augustine, Florida 32085-4168 Phone: 904-825-5045 - Fax: 904-825-5044

Central Regional Office
Community Assistance Consultant 1802 East 9th Avenue Tampa, Florida 33605 Phone: 813-272-3843 - Fax: (813) 272-2340


The Division of Historical Resources is the primary agency for directing historic preservation in Florida, but the state park system, administered by the Divisions of Recreation and Parks in the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), is the largest steward of public historic properties in the state. Florida State Parks manages over The state 83 parks with significant historic properties including more than 300 historic structures and over 1,100 known archaeological sites. historic properties for residents and visitors. park system provides extensive interpretive/educational opportunities on Florida State Parks participates in the federal Land and Water Conservation Fund program to make funds available to local recreation and park programs, including projects that support historic properties. archaeological projects. The state park system works closely with the National Park Service on historic preservation and Under the Florida Historical Resources Act (Chapter 267, Florida Statutes), the Department of State’s Division of Historical Resources and the Department of Environmental Protection’s Division of Recreation and Parks are directed to coordinate, in their respective roles, historic preservation activities. Historic properties managed and interpreted by Florida State Parks range from Paleoindian sites to fort structures that were modified for use during World War II. The park system provides first and third person interpretation, administers numerous historic house and specialty museums, actively manages cultural landscapes associated with significant periods of history and works to preserve habitats as they existed upon the arrival of Columbus in the New World. Florida has established 11 Regional Planning Councils (RPCs) that adopt, implement, and regularly revise strategic regional policy plans, pursuant to section 186.507, Florida Statutes. consistent with the State Comprehensive Plan. Florida Statutes. State agencies and RPCs Finally, local governments endeavor to coordinate their respective plans, both of which must be must have comprehensive plans in place, pursuant to Chapter 163, Part II, Local plans must be consistent with the plans of the regional planning councils and the State Comprehensive Plan.


Since 1964 the State of Florida has actively sought ways to purchase lands to ensure the conservation of Florida’s natural and cultural resources (see insert). In 1990, studies showed that if the rapid rate of development Florida was experiencing at that time continued, about 3 million acres of wetlands and forests would be converted to other uses by the year 2020; along with the loss of those lands would come the destruction of many cultural resources. of Florida’s natural areas. million acres. Governor Bob Martinez proposed a $3 billion land preservation fund to respond to this rapid disappearance The resulting Preservation 2000 Program was responsible for the public acquisition and protection of more than 1.25 The Florida Department of Environmental Protection’s Florida Forever Program, created in 1999 by the Florida Forever Act, is the state’s newest blueprint for state acquisition of lands for the conservation. Program. Anyone may nominate a project for state acquisition after notifying the property owner that their property is being proposed for state acquisition. Owners are not required to sell their land to the state and can ask the state to drop their property from the Florida Forever list. Applications are reviewed by the Acquisition and Restoration Council (ARC), a nine-member body with representatives from the Department of Community Affairs, Department of Environmental Protection, the Division of Forestry of the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Affairs, the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, and the Division of Historical Resources of the Department of State. environmental sciences also serve. Four appointees of the Governor with backgrounds from scientific disciplines of land, water or Twice a year the ARC evaluates and selects Florida Forever acquisition projects and their recommendations are submitted to the Governor and Cabinet for approval. The state has acquired 1 million acres since 1999 and as a result has protected over 700 archaeological and historic sites. acquisitions with cultural resources are: Examples of Fisheating Creek (Glades It replaces the highly successful Florida Preservation 2000

County), which holds the Fort Center Site (1000 B.C. -1842 A.D.) that reflects activities of peoples from the prehistoric Belle Glades Culture 18

through the Second Seminole War; Letchworth Mounds (Jefferson and Leon Counties), a temple mound complex, numerous small burial or house mounds, and an associated village site from the Weeden Island Culture (200-800 A.D.); Okeechobee Battlefield (Okeechobee County), site of one of the most significant Second Seminole War battles that took place on Christmas Day 1837; Pineland Site Complex (Lee County), remains of the Calusa people dating back almost 2,000 years; Spruce Creek (Volusia County), including a site that may be the remains of Andrew Turnbull’s 18th century plantation established during Florida’s British Period (1763-1783); Three Chimneys (Volusia County), the remains of a British sugar and rum factory and part of the settlement that became Ormond Beach; Tiger Island/Little Tiger Island (Nassau County), which was inhabited by pottery-making aboriginal population as early as the second millennium B.C.; and the Brickell Point Site, at the mouth of the Miami River, that holds the Miami Circle, a Tequesta site that may be as much as 2,000 years old.
1964: 1972: 1979: 1981: 1990: 2000: Establishing a $20 million bond program to acquire outdoor recreational lands Creating another $40 million outdoor recreation bond and establishing a $200 million Environmentally Endangered Lands (EEL) program Establishing the Conservation and Recreational Lands (CARL) program Developing Save Our Coast (SOC) and Save Our Rivers (SOR) programs Establishing the Florida Preservation 2000 program Beginning the Florida Forever program

The Florida Communities Trust(FCT) is a state land acquisition grant program within the Florida Department of Community Affairs (DCA). government and non-profit environmental organizations to acquire community-based parks, open space and greenways. local government comprehensive plans. These projects further outdoor recreation and natural resource protection needs identified in The FCT is an integral part of DCA’s efforts to assist communities in meeting the challenges of growth management, mitigating the effects of disasters, and investing in community revitalization, while protecting Florida’s natural and cultural resources. The FCT’s projects often make significant contributions to the balance of economic growth and resource protection. Funding of DCA’s Florida Communities Trust grant program comes from the Florida Forever Program. The FCT is governed by a six-member board. 19 The FCT provides funding through an annual competitive grant cycle, aiding local

A staff member from the Division of Historical Resources reviews grant projects for historical resources. The Department’s point system in ranking projects includes the presence of historical resources as one of the many variables used to compute a project’s overall ranking. Continuing its commitment to preserve the State’s historic past, the FCT awarded more than $47 million in FY 2004-2005 to acquire properties that included historical or archaeological resources. state, and national levels. The FCT has helped save dozens of Florida sites having historical significance at the local, These sites include Princess Place, the oldest existing home in Flagler County; the expansion of Fort Mose State Park in St. Johns County, site of the first free-black settlement in the United States; Goffinsville Park in Nassau County, location of the one of the first oyster factories in Florida; Kroegel Homestead in Indian River County, home of Paul Kroegel, champion of the Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge and first wildlife warden at the very first national wildlife refuge; the 1912 Cortez Schoolhouse in Manatee County, listed in the National Register of Historic Places; and the Fort King site in Ocala, headquarters of Second Seminole War operations and now a National Historic Landmark. Native American sites protected by the FCT include the shell These projects contain middens at the Paleo Hammock Preserve in St. Lucie County and the Micanopy Native American Preserve in Alachua County. archaeological evidence of more than 1,000 years of human activity. Understanding that education plays an important role in resource conservation, the FCT places a priority on selecting projects that include educational elements. The FCT awarded more than $53 million in 2004-2005 to acquire projects that include programs to educate Florida residents.
As Florida‟s population continues to grow, the next few years will be a critical time for communities to protect the places that define our natural and cultural heritage. FCT is one of Florida‟s most effective tools for ensuring permanent, non-regulatory growth management through land conservation. Now more than ever its support of local conservation programs is essential to the health and well-being our neighborhoods, cities and regions. Quote from Greg Chelius, Florida Director, The FCT for Public Land, Florida Communities FCT Annual Report.

Local Governments As important as these statewide programs are, the greatest power to preserve Florida’s cultural resources lies at the local level. 20 Across the

state, individuals are taking action to preserve the unique historic characteristics of their communities. An effective local historic A preservation program begins with the enactment of a historic preservation ordinance and the creation of a qualified historic preservation board. community with such programs may apply to the National Park Service for designation as a Certified Local Government (CLG). The CLG Program, administered by the Bureau of Historic Preservation, encourages direct local government participation in federal and state historic preservation programs. The program links the three levels of government — federal, CLGs are guaranteed In November, state and local — in a preservation partnership for the identification, evaluation and protection of historic properties. some of the federal money awarded to Florida each year.

2005, 52 Florida communities participate in the CLG Program.
“Communities need to be more proactive in saving their heritage. I feel the state programs provide incentives and good resources, but in the end it is the community who needs to carry the ball.” Comment from public survey

Private Organizations In addition to state and local agencies, a number of key private organizations also provide essential leadership. The Florida Trust for Historic Preservation is Florida’s private not-for-profit statewide preservation organization, formed in 1978 as a network of committed preservationists. The mission of the Florida Trust is to promote the preservation of the architectural, historical, and archaeological heritage of Florida through property stewardship, legislative advocacy, and education. The Trust also promotes the protection of historically The Trust currently significant properties through its easement program.

holds easements on seven historic properties throughout the state. Regular activities of the Trust include an annual conference each May, Insider’s Tours to historic Florida cities, and a series of workshops on preservation-related topics. The Florida Anthropological Society (FAS) is a statewide preservation organization that makes significant contributions in research, education, protection and preservation of some of the state’s most important cultural sites. The Society unites professional and avocational interests to 21

achieve a better understanding of Florida’s archaeological resources. With 15 chapters throughout the state, FAS operates under and advocates strict codes of ethics for research on archaeological resources in Florida. FAS publishes the journal, Florida Anthropologist, that provides The organization has summary research reports on contemporary research topics of interest to avocational, professional and non-technical readers. recently produced an award-winning video on Florida’s Native people called ―Shadows and Reflections: Florida’s Lost Peoples.‖ The organization holds its annual conference in the spring of each year. The Florida Archaeological Council (FAC) is an organization of professional archaeologists working in or with an interest in Florida archaeology. Their stated mission is education: to promote and stimulate interest in Florida archaeology, to encourage public appreciation of archaeology, to promote high quality standards of archaeological practice, and to advocate and aid in the conservation and preservation of archaeological resources and materials. Their programs include: Stewards of Heritage Preservation Awards, a biannual award that recognizes the role of non-archaeologists in preservation, education, and research; the John W. Griffin Student Grant that provides financial assistance to students conducting research and cultural resource management projects in Florida; the FAC Newsletter, a forum for the dissemination of information and news regarding archaeological issues and research; and professional development workshops that provide training and exchange of ideas regarding specific and current topics of concern. The organization also works to educate FAC initiated and, legislators and encourage passage of important legislation that will have a positive impact on cultural resources in the state. along with the Florida Anthropological Society, the Division of Historical Resources, and Florida State Parks, continues to support Florida Archaeology Month. Florida’s past. The Trust for Public Land (TPL) is a national, not-for-profit, land conservation organization that conserves land for people to enjoy as parks, community gardens, historic sites, rural lands, and other natural 22 Each March, this annual month-long program of events in March educates tens of thousands of citizens and visitors about

places, ensuring livable communities for generations to come.

TPL has a

particular conservation initiative for Heritage Lands, by which it safeguards places of historical and cultural importance that keep us in touch with the past and who we are as a people. Since 1972, TPL has worked with willing landowners , community groups, and national, state, and local agencies to complete more than 2,700 land conservation projects in 46 states, protecting nearly 2 million acres. billion in new conservation-related funding. TPL has helped states and communities craft and pass 192 ballot measures, generating over $35 In Florida, a few of the recent projects achieved with support from TPL include Cypress Gardens, McKee Gardens, the Key West Customs House, and the Miami Circle. VISIT FLORIDA is the industry-driven, not-for-profit, public/private partnership responsible for Florida’s global tourism marketing efforts and the state’s official source for travel planning. With repeat visitors accounting for 92% of its annual visitation, the state works to continually expand the perception of a Florida vacation and showcase Florida’s unique historical and cultural heritage assets to sustain and build visitation. Historical and cultural heritage attractions have long It been popular destinations attracting visitors to the Sunshine State. has been said that without historic preservation efforts, tourism marketers would not have the quality and quantity of historic or heritage tourism ―products‖ to market as visitor destinations. Since 1997, VISIT FLORIDA’s New Product Development department has worked very closely with numerous state agencies, the preservation/conservation community, not-for-profit organizations, and many tourism industry partners to promote heritage tourism in Florida. The Director of the Division of Historical Resources serves as an exofficio member of the Board of Directors. Initially, specialty brochures were created, such as Florida Lighthouses, Native American Archeological sites, and African American Heritage, to name just a few, to be distributed at the five official Florida Welcome Centers. Based on the overwhelming popularity of these brochures, full cultural and heritage tour booklets were created and then followed by major marketing campaigns. In 2001, VISIT FLORIDA, in conjunction with the Florida Department of 23

State (DOS), launched ―Culturally Florida,‖ a statewide campaign to showcase the state’s historical and cultural travel options. In 2004, VISIT FLORIDA, again in partnership with DOS, created and launched Florida’s Downtowns & Small Towns, as the next generation of the highly successful Culturally Florida campaign. or historic district. experiences. Downtowns and small towns are the places that locals frequent, and often include a designated ―Main Street‖ These locales provide the authenticity and uniqueness that visitors increasingly are seeking in their vacation Visitors want to go ―where the locals go‖ to connect with a destination’s heritage and experience an authentic sense of place. VISIT FLORIDA’s Cultural Heritage Tourism Committee of the New Product Development Council continues to guide new and existing heritage tourism programs. On-going marketing initiatives, such as expanded history and culture sections on the website, targeted E-zines (electronic magazines) and print publications, will continue to expand the depth of the Florida vacation experience to include Florida’s rich history and diverse heritage. Founded in 1986, 1000 Friends of Florida is a statewide not-forprofit organization devoted to promoting healthy urban and natural places by wise management of growth and change. It works to protect natural 1000 Friends areas, fight urban sprawl, promote sensible development patterns, preserve historic resources, and provide affordable housing. its goals. Historic preservation activities have included developing educational materials such as the award-winning manual partially funded with a grant from DHR, Disaster Planning for Florida’s Historic Resources; working with pilot communities to implement the manual; assisting with the revitalization of waterfront communities; developing policies related to historic bridge preservation; and providing limited planning assistance to local governments and organizations on preservation issues. educates, advocates, negotiates and, when necessary, litigates, to achieve


PLANNING FOR THE PAST: PRESERVING FLORIDA’S HERITAGE THE PLANNING PROCESS The highest level planning document in Florida government is the State Comprehensive Plan, (See Chapter 187, Florida Statutes). with the larger Comprehensive Plan. Preserving Florida’s Heritage.‖ Florida uses a legislatively mandated planning and budgeting process that is implemented at the state, regional and local levels. State historic preservation law (See Chapter 267, Florida Statutes) directs the Division of Historical Resources to cooperate with state and federal agencies, local governments, and private organizations and individuals to direct and conduct a comprehensive statewide survey of historic resources, to maintain an inventory of such resources, and to develop a statewide historic preservation plan. directions. It should be noted that all plans only set Plan policies may be implemented only to the extent that Plans do not One of the major features of statewide historic preservation plan is that it ties in Mechanisms for preservation contained in that broad plan provide the framework for ―Planning for the Past:

financial resources are provided through legislative appropriation, grants, or funding from other public or private entities. criteria, or standards not otherwise authorized by law.
“Right now land values are so high, a historic building is not worth as much as the property on which it sits and it is cheaper to tear a building down and start over than to restore one.” Comment from public survey

create regulatory authority or authorize the adoption of agency rules,

Planning is an invaluable tool to identify the major issues that affect preservation efforts around the state. The funding of preservation projects, resource protection, public education, and increased intergovernmental coordination are just a few of the many issues facing Florida's preservationists today. The primary purpose of Florida's historic preservation plan is to provide guidance for the implementation of sound planning procedures for the location, identification, and protection of the state's archaeological and historic resources. Planning The uses many tools, including economic and demographic analysis, natural and cultural resource evaluation, goal setting, and strategic planning. 25 development and implementation of a sound, well-coordinated comprehensive

preservation plan should assist Florida's preservation organizations in their efforts to protect Florida's rapidly dwindling historic and archaeological resources. Planning is most effective when developed in response to the needs of the citizens of the state, and public participation is essential. At each stage, there must be active public involvement in developing the vision, issues, and objectives of the plan and in helping to achieve its goals. It is also necessary to understand changes that are affecting the state as a whole so that preservation programs can be designed to respond in the most effective manner. To assist in the development of a revised statewide preservation plan, individuals, organizations, and communities across the state were asked to identify critical preservation challenges and opportunities in Florida. Suggestions and comments were requested from other agencies and The This 2005-2011 edition through a series of public meetings, questionnaires, and surveys. responses received were considerable and helpful.

of ―Planning for the Past: Preserving Florida’s Heritage‖ was prepared from the insights and recommendations of hundreds of individuals, organizations, and business and government leaders. preservation policy, goals, and values should be. The objectives and The present strategies that emerged from this input convey what our historic preservation plan identifies and discusses the major economic, educational, environmental, political, and social issues and trends facing the state both now and in the future. PLANNING FOR THE PAST: PRESERVING FLORIDA’S HERITAGE (2005-2011) is designed to guide Florida’s preservation efforts for the next five years and will be distributed to public and academic libraries, local governments, and key organizations. It will also be posted on the The State Historic Preservation As Division’s website

Office will track implementation of and progress toward accomplishing each objective to establish the framework for the next five-year cycle. and communities, there will be a greater sense of who we are as Floridians, whether we have been here for generations or have just arrived 26 historic preservation increasingly becomes a fundamental part of our lives

in the Sunshine State.

The goals and objectives included in the plan

reflect the issues and opportunities available to Floridians as they plan for the preservation of our cultural heritage in the 21st Century.


PLANNING FOR THE PAST: PRESERVING FLORIDA’S HERITAGE ISSUES, OPPORTUNTIES & GOALS To seek public opinion, a survey was developed and widely distributed statewide. Seven hundred and fifty surveys were mailed, copies were Citizens across the state were asked to identify distributed by organizations, and an interactive version was posted on the Division’s website. critical preservation challenges, areas of need, and possible solutions. The suggestions and comments received provided a broad view of preservation concerns, and many responses are quoted in this plan. As in past years, citizens who participated in the development of the plan identified insensitive development as the most important and most pressing preservation challenge for Florida. historical and cultural resources. Population growth and development pressures continue to present a serious threat to the state’s The steady increase in population The potential loss or creates a demand for the redevelopment of established communities as well as for new development in suburban and rural areas. destruction of historical resources is recognized in state-mandated local comprehensive land use planning requirements, and has stimulated public interest in, and demand for, guidance and assistance in all phases of historic preservation activity.
“Every day, insensitive developers are bulldozing 60 million years of Florida‟s geologic record and a minimum of 12,000 years of human habitation...” Comment from public survey

Citizens who participated in the development of this plan identified many issues that contribute to insensitive development in Florida. These include the need for: more historic preservation incentives, the increased use of information technology in historic preservation, a greater emphasis on archaeology in historic preservation ordinances and guidelines for conducting archaeological studies, the development of a disaster preparedness plan for historic properties, the inclusion of more cultural diversity in historic preservation, more effective integration of preservation into land-use planning, and better identification of traditional cultural properties and landscapes. The following discussion These issues addresses those key issues and includes specific recommendations for historic preservation in Florida over the next five years. 28

can be grouped under three major headings: economic development.

education, public policy, and

EDUCATION Education is essential in combating insensitive development; it raises the awareness of citizens, developers and government officials to the value of preservation. Citizens told us that Florida should increase its efforts to educate local officials, school children, and the public about the importance of preserving historic and archaeological resources and to inform them of the resulting societal and economic benefits.
“[We should] educate developers about Florida‟s past and how preserving buildings and a community can promote tourism. With land values skyrocketing, Florida „s past will be lost.” Comment from public survey “I feel strongly that an educated electorate is by far the best way to influence legislation and preservation.” Comment from public survey

Preservation education empowers community efforts, and a number of excellent education programs are in place in the state. The Museum of Florida History administers the Florida Heritage Education Program which features classroom-tested activity guides that introduce Florida history, culture, preservation, archaeology, and folklife. In-service training and workshops provide educators the opportunity to learn innovative methods for integrating the study of folklife into their curriculum while obtaining Continuing Education Units. Heritage education stresses the use of primary sources, including documents, buildings, artifacts, traditional culture, narratives, artwork, music, dance, and landscapes, as well as local resources, such as museums, historic sites, and archives to teach children and adults about the past and its relationship to the present. Improved access to heritage education materials within Florida’s educational system enriches the curriculum and provides students the opportunity to ―experience‖ history by visiting sites of historical interest. Heritage education stresses the significant role that Florida has played in the history of the United States and the world, and creates an appreciation and support for historic preservation efforts and programs throughout the state.
“People outside Florida (and many inside the state) still don‟t know enough about its varying populations and identities outside the theme parks and beaches.” Comment from public survey


The Florida Folklife Program coordinates a wide range of activities and projects designed to increase the awareness of Floridians and visitors alike about Florida’s traditional culture. A series of lesson plans, teacher's guides for folklife events and audio/visual materials further support folklife classroom activities and studies. The Folklife Apprenticeship Program provides an opportunity for master folk artists to share technical skills and cultural knowledge with apprentices in order to maintain their art as a vital part of our heritage. The program highlights Florida's traditional arts within artists' communities and throughout the state, ensures the preservation of many vanishing traditions, and increases communities' pride in their heritage. The Bureau of Archaeological Research’s Archaeological Resource Management Program, in conjunction with the Florida Park Service, trains public land managers and law enforcement personnel to identify and care for archaeological resources on state lands. More than 1000 people have participated in this program since its inception about ten years ago. The award-winning Florida History & the Arts magazine, published by the Division of Historical Resources and the Division of Cultural Affairs, and distributed as a quarterly supplement with Florida Trend magazine, reaches over 200,000 readers with information about historical sites and resources throughout the state. produces The Division of Historical Resources also Florida Heritage Trail publications that to date include Black

Heritage, Cuban Heritage, Jewish Heritage, Women’s Heritage, World War II Heritage, Maritime Heritage, and the 1733 Spanish Galleon Heritage Trail. The Division’s newsletter, Florida Preservation News, features current preservation events, issues and concerns. than 4 million visitors each year. Current information is available on the Division website,, which receives more Community Education Grant projects (such as walking tour brochures, educational programs for school children, and videos illustrating historic preservation principles) provide extensive educational outreach. foundation on which to build. The Florida Historic Marker Program places historical markers recognizing historic resources, persons, and events that are significant 30 Florida has a broad educational

in the areas of architecture, archaeology, and Florida history.


purpose of this very visible program of popular history and heritage is to increase awareness of the rich cultural heritage of the state and to enhance the enjoyment of historic sites by citizens and visitors. program is administered by the Bureau of Historic Preservation. Florida’s historical heritage. To qualify for a marker, a building, structure, or site must be at least 30 years of and have significance in the areas of architecture, archaeology or Florida history, or be associated with a significant event that took place at least 30 years ago. national significance. Florida Heritage landmarks are those whose significance is at least 50 years old or reflect statewide or Markers must be of a broadly scoped interpretive The nature and present information of interest to the general public. text must be accurate according to the standards of professional historical research. A three-member Historical Marker Council, including professional historians, archaeologists, architectural historians, architects, and/or historical preservationists appointed by the Secretary of State for two-year terms, reviews marker applications to determine whether nominated sites or landmarks are eligible for designation. Markers are paid for by the sponsoring group or individuals from the community where the marker is to be placed. The Florida Trust for Historic Preservation provides excellent educational opportunities for through its highly successful Professional Development Workshops. The Trust, whose mission is to promote the preservation of the architectural, historical and archaeological heritage of Florida through property stewardship, advocacy and education, is committed to developing quality learning activities. Since 1995, more than 1,000 people have participated in the workshops, including architects, planners, attorneys, local elected officials, and committed preservationists.
“There is a disconnect between „beginner‟ preservationists and those who understand the local ordinance, growth management connection in historic preservation . . .” Comment from public survey

The Local

citizens initiate the marker efforts highlighting the preservation of


1. IMPROVE HISTORIC PRESERVATION EDUCATION STRATEGIES— a. Expand the formal program of public information and education about Florida’s historical and cultural resources and statewide historic and cultural preservation issues. b. Increase distribution of existing historic preservation publications. c. Expand and increase distribution of Florida Heritage Education Program materials and resources to public and private schools and home schoolers. d. Increase technical and grant assistance for developing educational and promotional products such as brochures, pamphlets, and school curricula. e. Provide better training in how to develop effective preservation ordinances to protect archaeological as well as built resources. f. Increase public awareness of historical and cultural preservation issues through continuing development and dissemination of educational materials. g. Further develop archaeological contexts to facilitate the identification and preservation of archaeological sites. h. Encourage education of property owners, design professionals, code officials and contractors regarding the special provisions for historic buildings in the 2004 Florida Building Code. i. Create additional statewide multiple property covers to encourage nomination of properties to the National Register. j. Increase availability of historic and cultural preservation information through the Internet. k. Work with insurance companies to see the value of maintaining historic resources for the improvement of communities and to encourage reasonable coverage for historic properties. l. Provide greater outreach to realtors, builders, and developers concerning the economic benefits of historic preservation. m. Increase and broaden publicity and news coverage about historic preservation issues and success stories. 32

n. Develop a support network of experienced preservationists to assist neophytes in taking advantage of available preservation programs. o. Develop a listserve for Florida preservationists to share ideas, questions, and successes. PUBLIC POLICY Preservation today is recognized as a vital part of a wider concern for the conservation of natural and cultural resources, and for the enhancement of the total environment. Historic and cultural resources provide linkage with our past, and create jobs, improve housing, enhance the quality of life, and along with the natural resources of the state, attract hundreds of thousands of visitors each year. In addition to the quality and variety, the preservation of historic buildings contributes to our built environment, the re-use of historic buildings lessens the need to construct new infrastructure and reduces the volume of material from demolished buildings going to landfills. A recent study by the University of Florida and Rutgers University, The Economic Impacts of Historic Preservation in Florida, found that historic preservation enhances property values and stabilizes neighborhoods. Incentives for protecting historical and cultural resources stimulate local participation in historic preservation and private investment in the rehabilitation of historic properties and areas. state. In 1966, the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places to identify and recognize significant historic and cultural resources. the Register. Since the 1970s, income tax credits have been allowed for investment in income-producing historic properties that are listed in This tax credit program has had a major influence on The current Tax The Miami redeveloping older commercial areas around the country. Tax incentives for developing historic properties are creating positive change in communities throughout the

Act provides a 20% investment tax credit for expenditures incurred in the rehabilitation of depreciable certified historic structures. Act project area in the country. Beach Architectural District (Art Deco District) is the most active Tax This district, the largest collection of Art Deco architecture in the world, has benefited immensely from the 33

federal tax program.

Once full of derelict buildings slated for Since 1992, the Such incentives

demolition, it is now a major world tourist destination. tax relief to owners of certified historic properties. preservation.

Florida legislature has authorized local governments to provide ad valorem need to be increased to encourage further private investment in historic Conservation easements provide private property owners of historic structures and archaeological sites flexibility in land management while protecting some components of Florida’s past. The Bureau of Archaeological Research’s recent publication, Best Management Practices, explains how to use easements and care for archaeological sites on private property.
“How can we make City Commissions more sensitive to historic preservation issues?” Comment from public survey

Good local ordinances are the key to saving historic and archaeological resources. The Certified Local Government (CLG) program links three levels of government — federal, state and local — into a preservation partnership for the identification, interpretation and protection of historic properties. One of the requirements to become a Some local CLG is the adoption of a local preservation ordinance.

governments, including CLGs, however, have preservation ordinances that are either so weak they are ineffective, or so stringent they discourage historic preservation efforts. Another hindrance to affordable historic preservation can be the interpretation of building and safety codes if they are in conflict with the rehabilitation approaches recommended in the Secretary of Interior’s Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties.
“The State of Florida is inundated with growth. One of the most effective smart growth tools available is the local historic preservation ordinance/CLG program.” Comment from public survey

The public benefits derived from historic preservation are firm and continuous. Historic property owners in Florida already have access to technical assistance on historic rehabilitation projects and protecting archaeological sites, but more needs to be done to develop stronger public policy friendly to historic preservation.


2. STRENGTHEN PUBLIC POLICY IN SUPPORT OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION STRATEGIES— a. Promote and assist the preservation of Florida’s cultural heritage through a continuing program of identification, evaluation and recognition. b. Provide technical assistance to local governments and other state agencies in their efforts to preserve, protect, and promote their historical resources. c. Promote existing financial benefits and technical services. d. Improve coordination with government agencies at all levels whose programs affect historic and cultural resources. e. Increase the integration of historic preservation into the local planning process through the promotion of comprehensive plans and preservation ordinances. f. Promote more effective enforcement of existing local comprehensive plan provisions and ordinances that protect historic and archaeological resources. g. Continue to make historic and archaeological objects available for public use and scientific research. h. Coordinate with other planning efforts in transportation, recreation, and land-use plans. i. Develop more effective procedures for treating historic and cultural properties during disaster recovery activities. j. Encourage better coordination with local code officials and fire marshals to increase their appreciation of the value of historic properties to engender willingness on their part to be responsibly flexible in the enforcement of safety codes. k. Increase outreach and support services to rural communities, especially those that qualify under the Rural Economic Development Initiative (REDI). l. Provide greater outreach to minorities and ethnic groups.


ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Tourism historically has been a major part of Florida’s economy. Today, one of the fastest growing segments of the state’s multi-billion dollar tourism industry is cultural tourism, which includes heritage tourism. Several independent studies over the last 25 years document the A 1988 Economic Impacts Study summary revealed huge positive impact visitors to Florida’s historical and cultural sites have on Florida’s economy. that 70% of tourists who visit Florida plan their trips specifically for historic and cultural sites, or include such destinations as part of their vacations. National studies show that tourists spend 38% more at a cultural event or a heritage site than on leisure activities. an area to new business, residents and visitors. investment, retirement or resettlement. or increase property values. In 1997, a study of the impact of historic designation on residential property values in the Town of Palm Beach revealed a 10% to 20% enhancement of value for a historically designated property. has a beneficial effect on surrounding properties as well. In September 2003 the Economic Impacts of Historic Preservation in Florida was released, representing the input from 60 local government officials and individuals involved in historic preservation and more than 30 Florida communities. The study was financed with historic preservation grant assistance provided by the National Parks Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, administered through the Florida Bureau of Historic Preservation and was conducted by the Center for Governmental Responsibility, University of Florida Levin College of Law and the Center for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers State University. real dollar amounts. For the first time, the broad scope and impact of historic preservation was demonstrated in The study showed that in 2000 historic preservation Nearly 43 million tourists visited had a $4.2 billion impact on Florida, creating 123,242 jobs and adding $2.7 billion to statewide income. Florida’s more than 135,000 historic sites and museums, state parks, and 36 Designation Historic preservation benefits Florida’s economy by enhancing the attractiveness of Historic preservation programs increase the desirability of Florida as a place for business Preservation can also stabilize

archaeological sites, and spent a total of $3.7 billion.

The study also

confirmed that historic preservation activities help to maintain property values in historic districts, often leading to an increase in property values. true. These statistics provide a strong case for the economic value of Statistics from 2003-2004 show this still holds From February 2003 to February 2004, nearly half (49.7 percent) of The growth and popularity of heritage tourism clearly With this growth and historic preservation.

more than 75 million visitors to Florida included historic sites in their travel itinerary. demonstrates the important contribution this segment brings to the health and vitality of the Florida tourism industry. popularity comes the opportunity to significantly impact the economic prosperity of many communities and ensure improved quality of life. A major contributor to historic preservation activity is the State’s preservation grants-in-aid program, one of the largest in the country. Since 1983, nearly $250 million in state grants has been awarded to over 3,000 historic preservation projects. Grants support preservation of historic properties and provide added benefits to society by encouraging building reuse for community centers, theaters, museums, government offices, classrooms, and other public places. local governments and other state agencies.
“Preservation is a long-term, long-sighted continuous effort. Cuts now hurt the long-term and make recovery difficult. The cliché an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure is true financially with preservation–maintenance is better than repair.” Comment from public survey

Florida’s grants program is

outstanding, but funds are available only for not-for-profit entities,

Public-private partnerships ensure that owners of historic properties have sufficient knowledge and technical assistance in the appropriate maintenance and rehabilitation of their historic properties. Florida’s communities. today’s citizens. livable housing. The Florida Main Street Program promotes sustained economic growth based on local resources: natural, built, cultural, financial and human. 37 Rather than lose historic buildings, Reinvestment activity and revitalization efforts represent preservation at work in preservationists are successfully reusing properties to fit the needs of Many preservation initiatives have focused on providing

Main Street assists communities in revitalizing their traditional downtown and neighborhood business districts by offering a diversity of services, including training, technical assistance, and networking. Florida’s historic preservation programs provide economic value, give identity and a special ―sense of place‖ to communities, and preserve important tangible links to our past. By making a major contribution to our quality of life, Florida’s investment in historic preservation is repaid by increased tourism, an enhanced attraction to corporate and commercial investment, and stabilized or increased property values.

3. PROMOTE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH HISTORIC PRESERVATION STRATEGIES— a. Promote rehabilitation and reuse of existing facilities, structures, and buildings as an alternative to new construction in downtown areas. b. Promote the redevelopment of residential neighborhoods and the recycling of older houses. c. Offer technical assistance and economic incentive programs to encourage the rehabilitation and preservation of historic structures and their sensitive adaptive use. d. Provide technical assistance to local governments and the public on local and other incentive programs that encourage investment in historic private homes and commercial buildings. e. Increase local economic development through cultural and historical grants. f. Promote existing heritage tourism and historic sites visitation activities. g. Seek ways to encourage more private lending institutions to provide economic assistance to historic homeowners to maintain their private properties and provide funds for the purchase and rehabilitation of historic properties. h. Encourage the development of events and programs to showcase local traditions and draw visitors into historic areas. 38

PLANNING FOR THE PAST: PRESERVING FLORIDA’S HERITAGE SUCCESSES The successes of Florida's public and private preservation efforts can be traced to a long history of mutual growth and cooperation. five years that are valuable to Floridians. Bridge of Lions — In the early 1970s the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) began to study the possible replacement of the Bridge of Lions, a landmark in St. Augustine since the 1920s. The Friends of St. Augustine Architecture, formed in 1979 to advocate the preservation of significant structures throughout the city, led the fight to save the bridge. Local, state, and national support for the preservation of the bridge was overwhelming. At the final public hearing conducted by the FDOT and the Coast Guard on June 7, 1999, a petition with over 6,000 signatures was presented. Three months later, the FDOT held a press conference to announce that rehabilitation of the Bridge of Lions was the preferred alternative to upgrade the structure. The Bridge of Lions was saved from demolition or extensive remodeling, thus maintaining the historic character of the St. Augustine Historic District. The rehabilitation of the Bridge of Lions, funded by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT), is expected to last approximately five years, excluding potential weather delays. Special provisions during construction will help maintain the historic value of the structure upon completion. Miami Circle—The Miami Circle, at the mouth of the Miami River, is a remarkably intact 38-foot-diameter circular arrangement of holes and basins. This midden is as much as 2,000 years old and contains well preserved shell, bone, ceramics, and other artifacts deposited during centuries of human occupation. Archaeological evidence suggests the Circle marks the footprint of a large, pre-historic Tequesta Indian building. Through cooperation of state and local officials in the application of an effective local preservation ordinance, this property was saved from development. In January, 2003, former United States Senator Bob Graham (D-FL) introduced a bill in Congress (Senate Bill no. 111) directing the Secretary of the Interior to conduct a special resource study to determine the national significance of the Miami Circle site in the State of Florida as well as the suitability and feasibility of its inclusion in the National Park System as part of Biscayne National Park. The bill was signed into law on October 3, 2003 (Public Law No. 108-93). Miami Beach Architectural District — The district contains the largest collection of Art Deco style buildings in the world. More than 650 39 The following are just a few examples of preservation successes in the past

architecturally significant buildings in a 125-block area include examples such as the Cardozo Hotel, Tides Hotel, Victor Hotel, Old City Hall, Bass Museum, Delano Hotel, and Amsterdam Palace. Over $225 million has been invested through the federal tax act program since 1982, helping to renovate historic hotels and many other buildings. The Art Deco District remains a popular international tourist destination. Main Street—Main Street Fort Pierce, Inc. formed in 1988, is celebrating its 17th year as a Main Street City. In 1995 the program worked with the Treasure Coast Regional Planning Council to do a master plan and proudly reports that there have been over $60 million dollars in reinvestment in downtown Fort Pierce with another $88 million in private redevelopment beginning at the end of 2005. Main Street Fort Pierce, Inc. has spearheaded several projects on their own. In 1995, the Historic City Hall was restored at a cost of $500,000; in 1996 the Manatee Observation and Education Center was built at the cost of $350,000; and the Sunrise Theatre project started in 1997, when completed in January 2006, will be a $12 million dollar project. Music From the Sunshine State -- The Florida Folklife Program produced and distributed Music from the Sunshine State, a series of radio programs examining our unique array of musical traditions. Florida’s population is one of the most culturally diverse in the 50 states, and this rich diversity is reflected in the music made and enjoyed by Floridians. The music presented in the series ranges from selom-heard archival field recordings from the 1930s to high-fidelity digital recordings made in the artists’ communities and selected commercial recordings. Interviews with the artists, which provide insights into the cultural contexts of the music, are included in each program. Series segments present and interpret the following musical traditions: fiddle, Mexican, blues, old-time and bluegrass, sacred music, Cuban, Caribbean, and Pacific Island. Between 2003 and 2005, the series reached over 350,000 listeners−some as far away as Alaska. The exhibition, Just Above the Water: Florida Folk Art, curated by Florida Folklife Program Coordinator Tina Bucuvalas and produced by the Museum of Florida History, was shown in the R.A. Gray Building in Tallahassee from September 29, 2005 to January 6, 2006. Based on the book of the same name by Kristin Congdon and Tina Bucuvalas, the exhibition presented artists that represent an overview of Florida’s contemporary traditional culture. While previous works on Florida folk arts have examined either self-taught painters and sculptors or traditional artists working within communities, the exhibition and the book feature the work of traditional artists, along with those working in a seemingly more idiosyncratic style, demonstrating that good artists are both innovative and rooted in tradition.


“Some of the most important preservation lessons learned in the last five years relate to how individual communities…were able to react to the devastation of the 2004 hurricane season. The state should continue to pursue hazard mitigation programs which specifically target pre and post disaster responses to insuring the preservation of historic structures throughout the State.” Comment from public survey

Disaster Planning for Florida’s Historic Resources, a full-color manual with companion on-line module was the product of a four-year collaboration between the not-for-profit 1000 Friends of Florida and the Division of Historical Resources at the Florida Department of State, and the Division of Emergency Management at the Department of Community Affairs. 1000 Friends of Florida developed the pilot project, working with communities in Nassau, Palm Beach, and Sarasota counties and the City of Apalachicola to apply the principle of integrating historic resource preservation and disaster preparedness. The manual’s developers received the 2005 award for organizational achievement from the Florida Heritage Foundation and the Tallahassee Trust for Historic Preservation and the Florida Trust for Historic Preservation. Disaster Planning for Florida’s Historic Resources manual and education manual are available on-line at Cypress Gardens - The FCT for Public Land (TPL) purchased the 150-acre historic tourist attraction and immediately conveyed the property to the state, Polk County, and a private theme park operator. ―We are very pleased to be part of the extraordinary partnership that has worked so hard over the past nine month to preserve Cypress Gardens,‖ said Greg Chelius, director of TPL’s Florida Office. ―This has been one of the most complicated, challenging and important projects we have ever been involved in . . .‖ In August 2003, TPL joined the State of Florida in the endeavor to save the historic gardens, established as one of Florida’s first theme parks in 1937. The park was saved through a three-pronged cooperative effort: the State of Florida invested $11 million to protect the entire 150-acre property from condominium and commercial development through a conservation easement, the Polk County Commission spent $2.5 million to purchase the historic 30-acre core of the park and was supported by former state senator Rick Dantzler and director of the Chamber of Commerce Bob Gernet, and Wild Adventures (Valdosta, Georgia) theme park owner Kent Buescher invested $7 million for the underlying fee title on 120 acres – the land less the development rights covered by Florida’s conservation easement. TPL provided a bridge loan to Buescher for up to 120 days. ―Cypress Gardens is a rare piece of Florida’s modern history,‖ said Governor Jeb Bush. ―Because of the unwavering public support and the joint commitment by state, local and private partners to save this cultural icon, Florida’s first theme park will live again.‖ HISTORIC FLORIDA! - In September 2004, Florida Public Radio (FPR) began airing (within the statewide radio newsmagazine ―Capital Report‖) an series highlighting Florida’s diverse cultural and artistic heritage and the state’s ongoing efforts to protect and preserve its natural and 41

historic sites. HISTORIC FLORIDA! takes listeners on a journey from St. Augustine, the oldest, permanent European settlement in the U.S., all the way to the tip of Florida at Key West. Each 8-15 minute segment is hosted by a noted Floridian, including HBO’s ―Curb Your Enthusiasm‖ actress Cheryl Hines, former US Attorney General Janet Reno, Miss America 2004 Ericka Dunlap, and former governor Bob Martinez. This series brought with it unique opportunities to provide listeners with much more than just an entertaining and intriguing program, but one with significant educational value. HISTORIC FLORIDA! helped to promote Florida’s greatest historical assets and the ongoing efforts to preserve and protect them, raised general awareness in history and culture, and increased tourism and museum traffic. At the conclusion of the broadcast season, FPR compiled a 2-disk archival CD and distributed it to state libraries and media centers across the state. The series was awarded two World Gold Medals at the 2005 International New York Festivals in the categories of ―Best History Program‖ and ―Best Narration,‖ and First Place honors in Feature Reporting at the Sunshine State Awards (Society of Professional Journalists).


PLANNING FOR THE PAST: PRESERVING FLORIDA’S HERITAGE BIBLIOGRAPHY Best Management Practices: An Owner’s Guide to Protecting Archaeological Sites, Florida Department of State, Division of Historical Resources, Bureau of Archaeological Research, Tallahassee, 2000. Bureau of Economic and Business Research, College of Business Administration. University of Florida. 1994 Florida Statistical Abstract. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1994. Cariseo, Mary Kay, ―Wealth Is Created Locally.‖ Florida Counties November/December 2000: 6. Cothran, Hank; David Mulkey; and Mary Helen Blakeslee. ―Assistance of Florida’s Rural Communities: The Rural Economic Development Initiative,‖ University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Web Site: Davis, T. Frederick. History of Juan Ponce de Leon’s Voyages to Florida, Source Records. Jacksonville, Florida: n.p., ca.1935. ―’Disaster Manual’ a Winner!‖ Foresight, Quarterly Newsletter of 1000 Friends of Florida. Vol. 18, Number 1 (Spring 2005):13. Economic Impacts of Historic Preservation in Florida. Prepared for the Florida Department of State, Division of Historical Resources. Prepared by Center for Governmental Responsibility, University of Florida College of Law and the Center for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers University, the Florida FCT for Historic Preservation, 2002. Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Office of Environmental Services, Division of State Lands. Conservation and Recreation Lands (CARL) Annual Report, 1995. Florida Department of State. Agency Strategic Plan, 1995.

_____. Florida Tourism and Historic Sites: a study sponsored by Florida Department of State, Florida Department of Natural Resources, Florida Department of Commerce, and the National FCT for Historic Preservation. Tallahassee, 1988. Florida’s Heritage Resource Directory 2001, Florida FCT for Historic Preservation, Inc., Tallahassee, 2001. Florida Tourism Industry Marketing Corporation. Tourism 1997-1998 Marketing Plan 1997. In It to Win It: Florida


Harris, Katherine, ―Making It Count: How The Arts and Historic Preservation Can Make a Difference in Your County.‖ Florida Counties November/December 2000: 12-15. Historic Preservation Fund Grants Manual. Chapter 6 Grant Assisted Program Activities, Section G. Historic Preservation Planning Program Area, October 1997. Jenkins Appraisal Services, Inc. A Summary Report Concerning the Impact of Landmarking on Residential Property Values, Palm Beach, Florida. West Palm Beach, 1997. ―More Post, Than Orange Marmalade—A Statewide Comprehensive Preservation Plan For Florida.‖ September 1996. Kerri L., ―Tourism Works For November/December 2000: 8-11. All Of Florida.‖ Florida Historic Counties

State Comprehensive Plan.

Florida Statutes, 2000 Chapter 187.

Terrick, Dawn ―Heritage Tourism—Reaping Rewards from the Past.‖ Preservation Today Spring 2001, Dade Heritage FCT, Miami, Florida, 2001. Tebeau, Charlton W. A History of Florida. Coral Gables: University of Miami Press, 1971. USEFUL LINKS -- Florida Office of Cultural and Historical Programs -- Florida Department of Community Affairs -- Florida Department of Transportation -- Florida State Parks -- Florida Trust for Historic Preservation -- National Park Service -- National Trust for Historic Preservation -- National Trust Main Street Center -- 1000 Friends of Florida -- Advisory Council on Historic Preservation -- National Alliance of Preservation Commissions -Florida Forever land acquisition program For further information or to obtain a marker application, contact the Bureau of Historic Preservation at (850) 245-6333. For more information, contact 1000 Friends of Florida, P.O. Box 5948, Tallahassee, Florida 32314, (850) 222-6277 [Move to section right after Bibliography]. 44


TIMELINE 10,000+ B.C. Hunting and gathering Paleoindians present in Florida, as at Warm Mineral Springs in Sarasota Co. and Page/Ladson Site in Jefferson Co. Glaciers began to melt and sea levels began to rise Early Archaic Period, people hunted and gathered but began to gather near wetlands

9000 B.C. 7500 B.C.

6000-5000 B.C. Human burials placed under water, as at Windover Site in Brevard Co., also evidence of manufacture of cordage and fabrics 5000 B.C. First semi-permanent settlements in Florida

5000-3000 B.C. Middle Archaic sites along St. Johns River, and along Hillsborough River north of Tampa, modern environments established 3000 B.C. 2000 B.C. 500 B.C. A.D. 700 Late Archaic, marked by shell middens on coasts and rivers First fired clay pottery Mound building, as at Crystal River Indian Mounds in Citrus Co. Beginning of tribes and chiefdoms eventually met by the Spaniards: Timucuans, Apalachee, Calusa, Tequesta

1498-1502 Europeans first saw Florida coast 1513 1528 1539 Juan Ponce de Leon landed north of Cape Canaveral and named Florida Panfilo de Narvaez visited Tampa and Tallahassee areas Hernando de Soto landed in Tampa Bay area and wintered in Tallahassee while on trek throughout the Southeast Tristan de Luna established a colony on the shores of Pensacola Bay, abandoned two years later Jean Ribault searched for a site for a French Huguenot colony near mouth of St. Johns River





Laudonniere returned to mouth of St. Johns to establish a French colony and built Fort Caroline, where first recorded birth of a white child took place Pedro Menendez established St. Augustine, first permanentsettlement by Europeans in Florida First citrus groves in Florida planted in St. Augustine Sir Francis Drake sacked and burned St. Augustine Franciscan missionaries active near St. Augustine Mission chain started along coast and across peninsula toward the Apalachee Missions extended to the Apalachicola River Fort Matanzas built


1570 1586 1590 1603 1650 1650

1672-1698 Castillo de San Marcos completed 1702-1704 British raided Spanish settlements and destroy missions 1715 1733 Spanish Plate Fleet wrecked off southeast Florida coast Spanish Plate Fleet wrecked off Florida Keys

1738-1740 Fort Mose established, first legally sanctioned free black community in what is now the United States 1740 1763 1768 1768 1770s 1774 1776-81 1783 British invaded Florida, native populations diminished Treaty of Paris ended French and Indian War, Spain cedeed Florida to Britain British sugar, citrus, rice, and indigo plantations established Turnbull Colony at New Smyrna established, but abandoned in 1777 Creeks from Georgia and Alabama, later called Seminoles, entered Florida Naturalist William Bartram described archaeological sites like Mt. Royal Florida colonies remained loyal to Britain during the American Revolution Florida returned to Spain, in exchange for Bahamas and Gibraltar 47

1783-1821 Border disputes between Spain and United States 1810 British occupied Pensacola, but were driven out by Andrew Jackson in 1813

1817-1818 First Seminole War 1821 1824 1830s United States acquired Florida from Spain by treaty Tallahassee established as territorial capital Steamboats brought settlers

1834-1837 Florida’s first railroads began operation 1835-1842 Second Seminole War, first reservations established 1845 Florida admitted to the Union as a state

1856-1858 Third Seminole War ceased, ending Wars of Indian Removal east of the Mississippi River 1858 Florida Historical Society founded

1861-1865 Civil War, Florida was part of the Confederacy, Battle of Olustee fought in 1864 1860s-70s Jeffries Wyman determined archaeological shell heaps were made by humans 1880s 1887 1890s 1894-95 1896 1898 1900s 1901 1905 Development of new industries: railroads, citrus, phosphate, timber, truck farming, and tourism Eatonville, oldest intact incorporated black community in the United States, established Clarence Moore excavated archaeological sites throughout Florida Freezes destroyed citrus crops, and citrus cultivation moves south Frank Cushing discovered Key Marco Site in Collier County Spanish-American War; Florida was major embarkation point Greek immigrants arrived and settled mostly in Tarpon Springs Great Fire destroyed downtown Jacksonville State University System created 48

1905-1912 Construction of Henry Flagler’s Overseas Railroad to Key West 1914 1914 Pensacola Naval Air Station established First regularly scheduled commercial airline between two U.S. cities, St. Petersburg and Tampa, established

1917-1918 World War I, Florida was site for military training and ship building 1918 1924 First international flight, Key West to Havana Castillo de San Marcos was designated a National Memorial

1925-1926 Florida Land Boom 1927 1928 1928 1930 1935 1937 First international air mail service, Pan American flights from Key West to Havana, Cuba Devastating hurricane hit South Florida Tamiami Trail, from Miami to the Gulf Coast, officially opened Eastern Airlines started Miami to New York service Overseas Railroad converted to highway Amelia Earhart took off from Miami on fatal round-the-world flight

1941-1945 World War II, Florida again was a major site for military training 1946 1946 1947 1950 1950 1952 1954-60 1955 Florida Park Service established First State Archaeologist appointed Florida Anthropological Society founded Florida has 20th largest state population First American rocket launch from Cape Canaveral First Florida Folk Festival held School desegregation and civil rights tensions Florida Turnpike authorized



Free World’s first earth satellite, Explorer I, launched from Cape Canaveral

1959-1961 First wave of Cuban immigrants 1961 1961 1962 Junior College System established First American manned space travel, from Cape Canaveral Cuban Missile Crisis

1965-1973 Second wave of Cuban immigrants 1966 1966 1967 1967 1969 1970 1971 1971 1973 1977 1978 1978 1979 1979 1979 1980 1980 First State Historic Preservation Officer appointed First Florida properties listed in the National Register of Historic Places State Archives officially established Department of State given historic preservation responsibilities Apollo 11, launched from Kennedy Space Center, landed first men on the moon Florida Master Site File begun Museum of Florida History chartered Disney World opened Research and Conservation Laboratory for artifacts established Museum of Florida History opened in the R.A. Gray Building, Tallahassee Florida Trust for Historic Preservation founded Florida’s first project under Federal Tax Credit Program completed Florida Archaeological Council founded Conservation and Recreation Lands FCT Fund (CARL) established Florida Folklife Program established First State Folklorist appointed Third wave of Cuban immigrants, the ―Mariel Boatlift,‖ brought 120,000 Cubans to Key West 50

1980s 1981

Rehabilitation of Art Deco hotels in Miami Beach began The first space shuttle, Columbia, launched from Kennedy Space Center

1980s-90s Political unrest in Central and South America and the Caribbean leads to major influx of immigrants to South Florida 1982 1983 1983 1985 1985 Five-year restoration of the Old Capitol to its 1902 appearance completed Florida Folklife Apprenticeship Program started State Historic Preservation Grants-In-Aid Program started, evolves into nation’s largest program in 1990s Florida Main Street Program established Local Government Comprehensive Planning and Growth Management Act requires local plans, including identification and preservation of historic resources Florida Folk Heritage Awards Program established Miami became Florida’s first Certified Local Government Florida Historical Resources Act created Division of Historical Resources Archaeologists uncovered the first evidence of De Soto's 1539 winter encampment in Tallahassee. Florida has 4th largest state population Hurricane Andrew hit South Florida Emanuel Point Shipwreck, from the 1559 Luna expedition, discovered Florida Heritage Education Program started First issue of Florida Heritage magazine published, renamed Florida History & the Arts in 2000 Florida Historic Marker Program re-authorized and enhanced Presidential election put world focus on Florida Major hurricanes (Charley, Frances, Ivan, Jeanne, Dennis, Katrina, and Wilma ) struck Florida 51

1985 1986 1986 1987 1990 1992 1992 1993 1993 1994 2000 2004-05

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