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					SPICe Briefing For the Enterprise and Lifelong Learning Committee

02/107 2 October 2002

TOURISM IN CALIFORNIA
ELIZABETH DAVIES

This note is to brief members of the Enterprise and Lifelong Learning Committee on tourism in California in advance of the case study on Californian Tourism to be conducted on 6-11 October 2002.

OVERVIEW OF TOURISM IN CALIFORNIA
The development of the tourism industry contributes to the overall growth of California’s economy, as a major source of jobs, income and tax revenue. Travel and tourism expenditures generate $75.4 billion annually. 105000 people in California are employed in travel and tourism the industry generates $4.8 billion in tax revenue. In 2001 an estimated 4.9 million overseas visitors came to California, with the top five overseas visitor markets being Japan, the UK, South Korea, Germany and France. However, California provides the foundation of the state’s travel and tourism industry accounting for 85% of in-state travel. Preliminary figures for 2001 show California’s share of the domestic travel market at 11.1%, making it the most

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visited state in the US. Los Angeles County has the greatest proportion of domestic tourism in the state with 45.4 million person trips taking place in 2000. 1 Travel to and through California is central to generating income from tourism. Airlines are a critical link between overseas markets and visitor destinations. Direct and non-stop services are influential in determining the destinations selected by visitors. Los Angeles International Airport and San Francisco International Airport are served by most US domestic carriers and a wide range of international airlines. In addition to Los Angeles International Airport there are 6 other airports in the Los Angeles area.2 San Francisco International Airport is located South of San Francisco, serving the city, Silicon Valley and the wider Bay Area. It is one of the US’s busiest airports, handling domestic flights and international connections to and from the Pacific Rim, Europe and Latin America. As international gateway cities the majority of overseas travellers fly directly to Los Angeles or San Francisco, however, in March 2001 British Airways began offering direct flights between London and San Diego giving San Diego the opportunity to develop as a primary destination.3 The table below shows the volume of travel to and through California in December 2000 and December 2001. US and California Travel Volume
Dec. 01* Dec. 00* % Change

Total US Travel Business Leisure Total Travel To and Through CA Business Leisure Residents Non-Residents Total Overnight Travel To and Through CA Business Leisure Residents Non-Residents
* Millions of Person Trips

236.3 51.0 185.3 28.9 5.9 23.0 25.2 3.7 12.9 1.6 11.3 10.1 2.8

218.8 48.0 170.8 27.1 7.5 19.6 23.1 4.0 11.3 1.6 9.7 7.9 3.4

8.0% 6.3% 8.5% 6.7% -22.3% 17.8% 9.1% -7.8% 14.6% -0.9% 17.2% 27.3% -16.3%

Source: D.K. Shifflet & Associates

California’s top tourist attractions include high profile amusement and themes parks such as Disneyland, National Park Facilities such as the Golden Gate
1

Data from http://visitcalifornia.com http://www.latours.com/airports.html Further information on travel to and within California see http://totalescape.com/tripez.html

2

3

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Recreation Area and State Parks for example, old town Sandiego state historic park. For further information on visitor numbers to these attractions see annex 1.

ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE
There are number of key players in the California tourism industry including: · Travel Industry Association of America (TIA)4 The Travel Industry Association of America (TIA), was established in 1941. It is a non-profit making association based in Washington DC which speaks on behalf of those in the US travel industry. In addition to representing industry views the TIA is a source of research, analysis and forecasting for the travel and tourism industry and represents the industry to the domestic and international media. The TIA also lobbies government to protect the industry from initiatives, which may be detrimental to travel and tourism business. The Travel Industry Association of America is an industry body whose role is to promote and facilitate increased travel to and within the United States. On its website the TIA sets out the following five objectives: - To promote a wider understanding of travel and tourism as a major U.S. industry that contributes substantially to the economic well-being of the nation; - To bring cohesion to the travel industry and provide communications forums for industry leaders; - To serve as the authoritative source for travel industry research, analysis and forecasting; - To initiate and to co-operate with government entities in the development and implementation of programs, policies and legislation that are responsive to the needs of the industry, and to intervene in those issues and initiatives that would directly affect the facilitation and promotion of travel to and within the United States; - To develop and implement programs beneficial to the travel supplier and consumer. Three industry councils are organised under the umbrella of the TIA. The councils provide a number of services and act as national forums for these segments to share information and experiences, and represent their interests in industry matters through TIA. The three councils involved are: - National Council Of Attractions (NCA) - National Council of Destination Organisations (NCDO) - National Council of State Tourism Directors (NCSTD) ·
4

California Travel and Tourism Commission (CTTC)

For further information see http://www.tia.org/Tourism/timeline.PDF

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The CTTC is made up of 37 members, 24 of which are elected by the travel industry and 12 are appointed by the State Governor to represent the 12 tourism regions of the State. The Secretary of Trade and Commerce acts as the Chair of the CTTC. The CTTC administers the funds gathered from local businesses to pay for a state-wide, collective tourism marketing strategy. The CTTC meets three times a year at various locations around California in order to give businesses the opportunity to participate. It is responsible for: implementing the Tourism Marketing Plan; representing the state at domestic and international trade fairs; carrying out and publishing research to determine current and future visitor profiles; identifying and developing computer-based public-access information systems and more generally taking advantage of promotional opportunities. · California Tourism California Tourism serves as the marketing umbrella under which the state’s destinations can be promoted to consumers, the trade and the media. It is California Tourism’s role to: · Encourage competing business destinations to work together to attract visitors to California · Use research to segment marketing activities by demography, sociography, geography and travel interests · To use well-known tourism sites such as the Golden Gate Bridge, Disneyland and the Hollywood sign to encourage potential visitors to recognise the ‘California’ brand and buy holidays to California. Working in partnership with a number of other organisations including the CTTC and California Cultural Tourism Coalition (CCTC), California Tourism makes extensive use of the internet in the promotion of the region. The visitcalifornia website run by California Tourism averaged 5.6 million hits a month during the period March – May 2002. The website offers information on destinations, activities and attractions; maps of the regions; information on accommodation and facts and figures of interest to those involved in the travel industry (such as visitor numbers and lists of top attractions). California Tourism is also responsible for developing several marketing initiatives including Shop California5, a California co-operative marketing programme designed to encourage travellers to retail centres and shopping districts. Once California Tourism has developed program proposals they are presented to the Californian Travel and Tourism Council (CTTC). California Tourism has public relations representatives in Australia, Brazil, Germany, Japan, Mexico and the UK. Though California Tourism promotes the state as a whole its efforts do not replace the private sector’s marketing of individual destinations and businesses.
5

http://www.shopcalifornia.org/

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· California Cultural Tourism Coalition (CCTC) The CCTC is responsible for the promotion of California’s arts and tourism industries. Its role is to develop a sustainable cultural marketing effort and establish strategic alliances between the CCTC and private corporations. The CCTC members include amongst others: - California Travel and Tourism Commission - California Arts Council - California State Park - San Francisco Convention & Visitors Bureau - Los Angeles County Arts Commission CCTC recently launched a website to promote California’s arts and tourism industries, which is linked to California Tourism’s main website.

FUNDING TOURISM MARKETING IN CALIFORNIA
The California Tourism Marketing Act 19956 changed the way in which tourism marketing was funded in California. For the purposes of the Act, the travel and tourism industry has been divided into four categories: · Accommodation · Restaurants and retail · Attractions and recreation · Transportation and travel services The Act authorised a state-wide referendum of businesses benefiting from travel and tourism spending. Passed in October 1997 The tourism marketing referendum approved the mandatory taxation of all travel and tourism businesses in order to fund a collective marketing programme7 and established the California Travel and Tourism Commission (CTTC). The passing of the referendum made California the first state in the USA to partially fund tourism marketing activities through industry-elected “assessments”. Assessments are local taxes levied on over 3200 travel-and-tourism-related businesses.8. Certain businesses and organisations are exempt from assessment.9 The rate of assessment is $450 per million dollars of travel and tourism revenue (90 cents for each $2000 in travelgenerated sales). The Act states that businesses may pass fees on to customers. The industry’s funds are held separately from the State Government in a private non-profit corporate account to which the State does not have access. Additional
6

http://www.visitcalifornia.com/tourism/pdfs/BC_AP_Tourism_Marketing_Act.pdf

7

This is a new way of funding the promotion of tourism, however, self-assessment has been used by the agriculture industry in California to promote an increase in consumption of agricultural products such as Californian eggs, milk, beef, almonds and strawberries. 8 California Technology, Trade and Commerce Agency, March 2001, 2000 Annual Report California Division of Tourism (California Tourism) 9 See Annex 2 for examples

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funds generated by the assessment of these businesses are managed by the CTTC.10 The new money raised increases California’s total marketing budget from $7.3million to approximately $12.8million making it the 12th largest state tourism budget in the USA. California Tourism raised approximately $20million in additional partner funds in the financial year 2000-01 to promote travel to California through leveraging11 the purchasing power of the state’s $7.3million tourist budget.

Financial Year 2002/03 California Tourism Marketing Plan

Assessment Administration 4% CTTC Operations 11%

Research California Countryside 4% 3% Collateral and Fulfillment 11%

California Tourism Operations 13%

Reserve 1% Communications/Media relations 4% International Marketing 9% National Marketing/Co-op Budget 40%

National advertising is aimed at non-resident leisure travellers, identified as being the group best able to increase visits and revenue to the state12. Primary Target Audiences Within California: Adult travel consumers 25+, with annual income over $35000 In North America: Adult travel consumers 25+, with annual household income over $50000 Outside North America Tour operators, tour wholesalers, receptive operators, travel agents Consumer and travel media

· · · · ·

The marketing campaign run by California Tourism in 2001, included: two thirty second television commercials which ran in key feeder markets; four national and regional print adverts which appeared in lifestyle, travel and home magazines and
10
11

California Travel and Tourism Commission (CTTC) has been fully-funded and operational since 1999. Leverage is the use of credit or borrowed funds to improve one's speculative capacity and increase the rate of return from an investment, as in buying securities on margin. 12 California Tourism

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internet banners which appeared on AOL, double Click Travel and Chicago Tribune as well as on the magazine websites mentioned above. · Convention and Visitor Bureaux13 Convention & Visitors Bureaux operate throughout California promoting cities and regions as a destination for meetings, conventions, trade shows and leisure travel. In so doing, the Bureaux enhance the visibility of their member companies within the visitor market. Local tourism businesses are encouraged to adopt membership of visitor and convention bureaux. Membership entitles them to advertise online and in publications published by the bureau with which they are registered members. Convention and Visitor Bureaux offer information and services to those interested in holding conferences or organising visits in the area in which they operate. Many services are offered at no cost and include: · General tourism information by region · Itinerary planning for individuals, agencies, groups or tour operators · Brochures/maps in Spanish · Calendar of Events · Support to travel agents for groups and conventions · Theme parks and cultural sites information · Press information on California tourism Many of the bureaux have a long history of promoting tourism. Funding arrangements for local Bureaux are negotiated with local government, an example is the San Diego Convention and Visitor Bureau. San Diego Convention and Visitor Bureau (ConVis)14 The Bureau has existed in various forms since 1919. Following a merger between two local bureaux in 1954 it was necessary to establish a sound base of financial support. This meant setting up a realistic dues structure and negotiating with the City and County of San Diego for matching funds. ConVis is currently funded through the “Transient Occupancy Tax.” The city adopted the tax in June 1965, to raise funds for tourism, despite industry opposition. The adoption of this method of finance provided a new, larger base of public funding for the Bureau, resulting in a surge in local convention bookings and visitors to San Diego.

13

A list of California’s Convention and Visitor Bureaux can be found @ http://www.california.org.mx/Aboutus/convention_and_visitors_bureaus.htm
14

For further information see http://www.sandiego.org/convis_history.asp

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· Welcome Centres15 Welcome Centres receive funding from California Tourism as part of the national marketing and advertising campaign in addition to raising money from members. California Welcome Centres (CWC) provide visitor information for their surrounding area. Maps, brochures and travel information are available at each CWC. The centres are represented by the Travelling Bear Logo located on highways.

BRITISH TOURISM AUTHORITY (BTA) IN CALIFORNIA
The BTA was established under the Development Tourism Act 1969 and is funded by grant-in-aid from the Department of Culture, Media and Sport. As UKwide body the BTA is accountable to the Westminster Parliament, the Scottish Parliament and the National Assembly of Wales. Total grant-in-aid for 2000-01 was £35.5million The BTA is responsible for marketing Britain globally as a destination both on behalf of and in partnership with UK national a regional tourist boards, through Overseas Marketing Agreements, which are designed to avoid duplication of effort and to promote a coherent image of Britain overseas. BTA has a network of overseas offices working with British diplomatic staff and the local trade travel and media to promote Britain abroad. In the UK the BTA has partnership arrangements with the British Council, BITOA and the UK immigration Service. The marketing Strategy adopted by the BTA is aimed at targeting specific groups of customers in order to generate the greatest possible financial return. The BTA’s business plan16 is available online. The table below shows Britain’s Share of World Tourism. Table 1: UK Share of International Tourist Arrivals
(Data as collected by WTO August 2001)
Rank (2000) Country International Tourist Arrivals 1999 73.0 46.8 48.5 36.5 27.0 25.4 International Tourist Arrivals 2000 75.6 47.9 50.9 41.2 31.2 25.2 % Change Market Share %

1 2 3 4 5 6
15

France Spain United States Italy China UK

3.5 2.4 4.9 12.8 15.5 -0.7

11.1 7.2 6.5 5.7 4.8 3.6

Further information can be found @ http://visitcalifornia.com/state/tourism/tour_htmldisplay.jsp?iOID=27429&sFilePath=/tourism/htdocs/welco mecenters/index.html&sTableName=&BV_SessionID=@@@@0894476230.1033481369@@@@&BV_ EngineID=fadcffgggdhkbemgcfkmchcog.0&sTOURHash= http://www.visitbritain.com/corporate/bizplan_summary_2002.pdf

16

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Table 2: UK Share of International Tourist Receipts
(Data as collected by WTO August 2001)
Rank (2000) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Country Receipts (USS billion) 1999 74.9 32.4 31.5 28.4 20.2 16.7 Receipts (USS billion) 2000 85.2 31.0 29.9 27.4 19.5 17.8 % Change 13.7 -4.3 -5.1 -3.2 -3.4 6.5 Market Share % 17.9 6.5 6.3 5.8 4.1 3.7

United States Spain France Italy UK Germany

646000 visitors from California visited the UK in 200017 making it the most important source of American tourists to the UK. The BTA in Los Angeles works with the travel trade (business and leisure travel) and press in the Western region (11 states) to generate more visitors to Britain. Consumer enquiries are handled through a toll free call centre based in New York. The office specialises in the Gay & Lesbian market, running BTA's campaign to target this segment via direct mail, advertising, online promotions, trade and consumer events. Due to the proximity of the film industry, BTA in Los Angeles works closely with the British Film Institute and other bodies and travel providers catering for this lucrative market.

STAR CENTRES
The STAR Centre network is a service available to Scottish technology companies trying to establish themselves in North America. There are four STAR Centres in America based in California, Florida, Texas and Virginia. These are key regions in terms of the technology market accounting for three quarters of US turnover in this market. STAR Centres are an initiative run by Scottish Development International (a division of Scottish Enterprise responsible for helping Scottish companies to break into overseas markets). According to Scottish Enterprise,
“An integral part of the STAR Centre service is the Market Access Programme (MAP), which offers Scottish companies a flexible, low-risk method of developing business opportunities in key markets, through a global network of in-market managers”.

The network provides office and networking services: Research – offers research assistance to Scottish companies looking for market information and help in identifying Joint Ventures Transit Office – “hot desking sites” can be used by companies working in the US for short periods, visiting on business or attending conferences Virtual Office – provide companies with a USA mailing address and telephone number
17

Source: International Passenger Survey (IPS) 2000, Office of National Statistics

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Incubator Office – a furnished office in a STAR Centre which is rented on a short-term lease of up to 18 months STAR Centres are staffed by local business people and offer services such as: market intelligence and orientation; business development and support including an assessment of market entry strategy including e-business conditions; matchmaking; access to business space and advice on setting up in the US.

NATIONAL PARKS
The establishment of National Parks in Scotland is a relatively new phenomena (although such parks have long been established in England and Wales). On 5 July 2000 the Scottish Parliament unanimously passed the National Parks (Scotland) Act.18 Two sites in Scotland were proposed these were the areas covering Loch Lomond and the Trossachs, and the Cairngorms. 19 The Loch Lomond and the Trossachs National Park opened on 19 July 2002. It is the first national park in Scotland. Plans for the Cairngorms National Park are under way with the powers, boundaries, structure and membership being set out in Draft Designation Orders.

18

http://www.hmso.gov.uk/legislation/scotland/acts2000/20000010.htm

19

See SPICe Briefings 02/82 and 02/92 for further information

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State Parks in California are important visitor attractions (see table below for details). Comparison of State Park Attendance by Areas/Type of Parks
Area/Type of Park Redwood Parks Sacremento Area State Parks Lake Tahoe Area Gold Country State Park Santa Cruz – Monterey Area San Francisco Area Southern California Beaches Desert State Parks 1 Quarter 948643 979371 336372
st

2

nd

Quarter

3 Quarter 256660 266758 290407

rd

4 Quarter 637411 464515

th

325064 302019 305720

311311 609886 619517 235441 274281 1379006 677737 1257251 1225941 6249873

208584 53337 105423 158682 247318 1091621 826852 761258 815182 2568349

325942 66977 53914 133321 179003 860197

309146

326925

1122992

616607

1393093

2522680

5574456

7559921 130052 110515

2748779 265020 281816

2732597 350809 400900

377076

(Source: California State Parks) 2000/2001 fiscal year 2001/2002 fiscal year

Golden Gate Recreation Area California GGNRA20 The Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA) was designated as a National Park on October 27, 1972. It is the largest urban national park in the world. The total park area is 75,398 acres. It is one of most visited National Parks in the USA. Golden Gate NRA comprises a number of sites, including Alcatraz, Marin Headlands, Fort Funston, Fort Mason, Muir Woods National Monument, Fort Point National Historic Site, and the Presidio of San Francisco.

20

For further information see http://www.nps.gov/goga/

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Presidio of San Francisco21 In 1962 Presidio of San Francisco was designated a National Historic Landmark District. On 1 October, 1994, the Presidio became part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. Since 1998, the Presidio has been jointly managed by the National Park Service and the Presidio Trust. The Presidio Trust is a special public-private governmental agency whose role it is to manage many of the buildings of the Presidio and making the park financially self-sufficient by 2013. Presidio covers 1,480 acres. In this area there are more than 500 historic building, a collection of coastal defence fortifications, a national cemetery and an historic airfield. Within the park there are also a saltwater marsh, forests, beaches, native plant habitats, coastal bluffs, miles of hiking and biking.

SAN FRANCISCO
San Francisco is located at the top of the San Francisco Peninsula and surrounded by the Pacific and the San Francisco Bay. The city has an area of 47 square miles (125 square kilometres). Its population is 789600.22 San Francisco’s tourist industry is important to the city’s economy. In 2001, 15.7 million visitors came to San Francisco and spent $6.07 billion. This represents $16.6 million spent each day by visitors in shops, restaurants, hotels and other businesses.23. (see Annex 3 for break down of Visitor Profile)

LOS ANGELES24
The city of Los Angeles is the second most populous city in the United States. According to 2000 figures, the population is approximately 3.7 million25. Los Angeles can be broken up into six main regions made up of a distinctive group of city communities and neighbourhoods: · Santa Monica and the beaches · L.A’s west side and Beverly Hills · Hollywood · Downtown · Fernando Valley · Pasadena and environs LA’s major industries include services, wholesale and retail trade, manufacturing, government, financial service industries, transportation, utilities, and construction.

21 22 23

For further information see http://www.nps.gov/prsf/index.htm Data from http://www.gayglobal.com/san_francisco/info/index.html

These expenditure estimates include only direct visitor spending and exclude multiplier effects and spending related to transportation to and from San Francisco. 24 For further information see http://www.lacity.org/cao/econ0103.pdf 25 City of Los Angeles 2000 Economic and Demographic Information

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Tourism is concentrated in the city's western districts, where the majority of attractions, restaurants, and shops are located. L.A. has an extensive system of toll-free, high-speed freeways connecting the city’s districts, however, navigating the city on public transport can pose some difficulties. Pasadena Pasadena is located 10 miles (16 kilometers) northeast of downtown Los Angeles. The city is bordered by the San Gabriel Mountains to the north and seven cities-La Canada Flintridge, South Pasadena, Arcadia, Sierra Madre, San Marino, Glendale, Los Angeles and unincorporated Altadena. Pasadena has an area of 23 square miles, with an average of nine residents per acre. According to the 2000 Census26 Pasadena's population is 133,936. A 1.8% increase since 1990. The 2000 Census found 53.4% of Pasadenans are white, 33.4% are Latino, 14.4% are African-American, 10% are Asian, 0.7% are American Indian and Alaska Native, 0.1% are Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and 16% are some other race. English only is spoken by 64% of the population over age five. The Spanish language is spoken by 22.8% of the population over age five. The proportion of those speaking a language other than English at home is 35.8%; 18.4% do not speak English well. There are 84,000 professional, technical, sales, managerial and clerical jobs in Pasadena. In 1990 the proportion of people 16 years and over who were employed were as follows: 38.4% managerial and professional speciality occupations; 30.7% technical, sales, and administrative support, 12.9% service, 7.2% precision, production, craft, and repair, and 8.8% operators, fabricators, and labourers. Major employers are Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Huntington Memorial Hospital, Bank of America, Kaiser Permanente, Pasadena Unified School District, Pasadena City College, Countrywide Credit Industries, City of Pasadena, Pacific Bell, and the Ralph M. Parsons Company. The city has 6.2 million square feet of office space. The residential neighbourhoods in Pasadena and its adjacent communities provide examples of successful revitalisation projects. The regeneration strategy prioritises commercial development, the creation of housing, the preservation of historic and cultural assets and the development of employment opportunities throughout the community. Regeneration projects include: · Housing and development
26

Census data found @ http://www.ci.pasadena.ca.us

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The Development and Housing Divisions of the Planning and Development Department currently focus on four major areas: the Northwest, the Central Area, economic and business development and housing. · Shorefront improvement The Pasadena Shorefront Improvement Program was established in 1992. This matching grant program was introduced to improve the appearance of Pasadena’s commercial and business facades and to renovate, restore and preserve its historic buildings. The program provides assistance to commercial business and property owners in the redevelopment areas and target improvement areas. · Enterprise Zone The Enterprise Zone is a State of California tax incentive program aimed at stimulating business development and employment growth. The objective of the Zone is the reduction of the cost of doing business through the offering of tax credits to companies/businesses located in the target area.

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ANNEX 1
California’s Top Visitor Attractions (Source: http://visitcalifornia.com) TOP CALIFORNIA AMUSEMENT/THEME PARKS Based on 2001 attendance Disneyland, Anaheim 12350000 Universal Studios, Hollywood 4732000 Sea World, San Diego 4100000 Knott’s Berry Farm, Buena Park 3589000 Six Flags Magic Mountain, Valencia 3200000 Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk, Santa 3000000 Cruz Six Flags Marine World, Vallejo 2120000 Paramount’s Great America, Santa 1750000 Clara Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey 1725411 LEGOLAND, Carlsbad 1375000
Sources: Amusement Business (Year-End Issue, 2001) Monterey Bay Aquarium, 2002-09-30

TOP TEN NATIONAL PARK FACILITIES Based on 2001 attendance Golden Gate National Recreation Area 13459000 Yosemite National Park 3368100 San Francisco Maritime Museum 3257000 Point Reyes National Seashore 2277300 Joshua Tree National Park 1280600 Cabrillo National Park 1034800 Death Valley National Park 1014500 Sequoia National Park 870200 Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National 727700 Recreation Area Santa Monica National Recreation Area 532800
Source: National Park Service, 2002

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TOP TEN STATE PARKS
Based on 200/2001 fiscal year visitation Old Town San Diego State Historic 7809077 Park Sata Monica State Beach 7342250 Lighthouse Field State Beach 3977648 Dockweiler State Beach 3855708 Huntington State Beach 2780409 Seacliff State Beach 2424 Bolsa Chica State Beach 2289342 Doheny State Beach 2145067 Sonoma Coast State Beach 2013574 Folsom Lake State Recreation Area 1684667
Source: California State Parks, 2001

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ANNEX 2
Businesses and Organisations Exempt from Assessment
(Source: VisitCalifornia.com)

·

Public Bodies; Business locations in a non-tourism related industry segment; Business locations with California gross receipts less than $1million; Business locations where less than 8% of the California gross receipts is “travel and tourism revenue”. The business is a travel agency/tour operator that receives less than 20%of its California gross receipts from travel and tourism The business is a regular route intrastate and interstate bus service, which does not derive any revenue from a bus service authority from a certificate of public convenience and necessity, or a permit to operate as a charter-party carrier of passengers; or The calculations on the Tourism Assessment Form show that the travel and tourism assessment would be less than $50 for the business location.

·

·

·

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ANNEX 3 San Francisco Visitor Profile27
(Source SFVB Visitor Statistics)

· · ·

Median Age: 37 Median Household income: $65900 Mode of Transport to San Francisco Air – 81% Car - 13% Coach – 3% Other – 1% Average Length of Stay in City: 4.5 Nights Overnight Accommodation Hotels – 81% Friends and relatives – 14% Other – 3% First Time Visitors - 46% Frequent Visitors (5+ previous visits): 20% Purpose of Visit Leisure / vacation – 44% Meeting / Convention – 30% Individual Business – 25% En-route – 1%

· ·

· · ·

·

Residence: Domestic - 64% International - 36%

·

Most Enjoyed About San Francisco: 1. - People/Diversity 2. - Scenery/Sights 3. - Atmosphere/Ambience 4. - Weather/Clean Air
Data based on findings from the 1995 Survey of San Francisco Visitors conducted by the San Francisco Convention and Visitors Bureau by Economics research Associates. The survey was conducted over a 12 month period and was based on interviews with 3000 visitors from outside the Bay Area (more than 100 miles).

27

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5. - Food/Restaurants · Leading Attractions Visited: 1. - Fisherman's Wharf 2. - Chinatown 3. - Golden Gate Bridge 4. - Union Square 5. - Cable Car Ride Satisfaction with Visit: 84% Very Satisfied 15% Somewhat Satisfied 1% Somewhat Dissatisfied Expressed Desire to Return: 96%

·

·

BREAKDOWN OF SAN FRANCISCO ANNUAL VISITOR VOLUME & SPENDING
SOURCE: SFCVB Research, D.K. Shifflet & Associates, Ltd.
2001 Estimates do not include some spending related to conventions and trade shows which are included in the 2000 estimates.

VISITOR VOLUME (Number of visitors to San Francisco in millions)
Place of Stay San Francisco Hotel Private Home in San Francisco Other Bay Area Locations Bay Area Residents on Leisure Trips Total 2000 4.3 1.5 2.8 4.7 17.3 2001 3.7 1.1 6.5 4.4 15.7 % Change -14.9% -23.5% -4.1% -7.0% -9.2%

VISITOR SPENDING (Visitor spending in San Francisco in billion dollars)
Place of Stay San Francisco Hotel Private Home in San Francisco Other Bay Area Locations Bay Area Residents on Leisure Trips Total 2000 $4.29 $0.90 $0.83 $1.59 $7.62 2001 $3.11 $0.76 $0.85 $1.35 $6.07 % Change -27.5% -15.5% 2.0% -15.6% -20.3%

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SPICe Briefings are compiled for the benefit of Members of the Scottish Parliament and their personal staff. Authors are available to discuss the contents of these papers with Members and their staff but cannot advise members of the general public.

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