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1987 Annual Report on Alaska s Mineral Resources

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					1987 Annual Report on
Alaska's Mineral Resources
DIEDRA BOHN, Editor


U.S. GEOLOGICAL S U R V E Y CIRCULAR 1012


P r e p a r e d i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e B u r e a u o f Land Management, t h e Fish a n d
Wildlife Service, the N a t i o n a l Park Service, t h e U.S. Bureau of Mines,
t h e U.S. F o r e s t Service, and t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f Energy, a s mandated b y
S e c t i o n 1011 of t h e A l a s k a N a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t Lands C o n s e r v a t i o n Act,
Public L a w 9 6 - 4 8 7 , of December 2, 1980
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

DONALD PAUL HODEL, Secretary


U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
D a l l a s L. P e c k , Director




      Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:

Annual report on Alaska's mineral resources. 1982-[Reston, Va.]: D1
the I n t e r i o r , U.S. CeoLogical Survey. [ 1982-
v . : maps; 26cm,--(U.S. Geological Survey Circular)
Annual.
" A s mandated by Section 1011 of the Alaska National Interest Lands
Conservation Act, Public L w 96-487, of Dec, 2, 1980."
                                 a
Supt, of Docs. no.: 1 19.4/2:
GPO:    Item 620-A
lSSN 8755-0709 : Annual report on Alaska's mineral resources.

1.   Mines and mineral resources--Alaska--periodicals. 1. U.S. Geological
     Survey. 11. Series: United States. Geological Survey Circular 1012.
     TN24 .A4A66 533' .09798-dc19 86-642168 AACR 2 M R - Library of
                                                         A CS
     Congress [86041




F r e e on a p p l i c a t i o n to t h e Books and Open-File R e p o r t s Section,
U.S. Geological Survey, F e d e r a l C e n t e r , Box 25425, Denver, CO 80225
                                                CONTENTS

                                                                                                     Page
Summary
    Energy Resources .....................................................                    ....
          O i l and gas ..........................................................
          Coal and peat .......................................................
          Uranium .............................................................
          Geothermal resources ...............,.,.......................**......
    Nonfuel-mineral resources ................................................
          M e t a l l i c minerals ....................................................
          I n d u s t r i a l minerals ..................................................
Introduction              .............................................................
Mineral programs .............................................................
    Department of t h e I n t e r i o r ...............................................
          U.S. Geological Survey ...............................................
          U.S. Bureau of Mines .................................................
          Bureau of Land Management ............................................
          Fish and W i l d l i f e Service ............................................
          National Park Service ................................................
    Department of Agriculture ................................................
          U.S. Forest Service ..................................................
    Department of Energy .....................................................
    Contacts f o r f u r t h e r information .........................................
Energy resources .............................................................
    O i l and g a s .............................................................
          Overview o f production and p r j c e s ....................................
          Development and technology ...........................................
          S t a t e a c t i v i t i e s and l e a s e s a l e s .....................................
                                ....................................................
          Industry a c t i v i t y
          A c t l v i t y by Federal agencies .........................................
                 U.S. Geological Survey ...........................................
                          National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska .........................
                          Gas hydrates .................................................
                                                                                 ..............
                          Petroleum p o t e n t i a l of t h e e a s t e r n Brooks Range
                          I n t e r i o r b a s i n s of Alaska ....................................
                          Central Arctic Management Area ...............................
                          Additional studies ...........................................
                 Bureau of Land Managenlent ........................................
                 Fish and W i l d l i f e Service ........................................
                          Kenai National W i l d l i f e Refuge ...............................
                                                                       ......................
                          A c t i v i t i e s under Section 1008 of A N l L C A
                          Mineral-activity-impact assessment ...........................
                 Department of Energy .............................................
                          Arctic a c t i v i t i e s ............................................
                          S e a - f l o o r - s o i l s research .....................................
                          Petroleum research ...........................................
                 Arctic National Wildlife Refuge ..................................
                          Fish and Wildlife Service ....................................
                          Bureau o f Land Management ....................................
                          U.S. Geological Survey .......................................
    Coal a n d peat ............................................................
          Activity by Federal agencies .........................................
                 U.S. Geological Survey ...........................................
                 Bureau of Land Management ........................................
                 F i s h and Wildlife Service .....................,.,...+....*.......
                 Department of Energy .............................................


                                                     iii
   Uranium ..................................................................
        Activity by Federal agencies .........................................
                U.S. Geological Survey ...........................................
                U.S. Bureau of Mines .............................................
    beotherrnal resources .................................................
        Activity by Federal agencies ..........................................
                U.S. Geological Survey ...........................................
                Department of Energy .............................................
Nonfuel-mineral resources ......... .....................................**....
   Metallic minerals ...........,..........................+...+*............
        Industry a c t i v i t y ....................................................
                Precious metals ..................................................
                S t r a t e g i c and c r i t i c a I minerals ..................................
                Other metals .....................................................
        Activity by Federal agencies ....................................*...
                                            ..........................................
                                                                                                  .
                U.S. Geological Survey
                        Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program         ...................
                        Preclous metals ..............................................
                       S t r a t e g i c and c r i t i c a l minerals ..............................
                       Other metals .................................................
                U.S. Hureatl o f Mines .............................................
                       Minerals Availability Program ................................
                       Minerals policy and analysis .................................
                        State mineral a c t i v i t i e s .....................................
                        Mineral land assessment ......................................
                                                             ..............................
                        C r i t i c a l and s t r a t e g i c minerals
                        Placer-mining e f f l u e n t s ......................................
                Bureau of Land Management ........................................
                Fish and Wildlife Service ...............................*......                ..
                National Park Service ............*.*.........*.*.*....*.*.                .......
                U.S. Forest Service ..............................................
    Industrial minerals ......................................................
         Activity by Federal agencies .........................................
                Bureau o f Land Management ........................................
                Fish and Wildlife Service ........................................
                U.S. Forest Service ..............................................
References c i t e d .............................................................
Appendix 1.--Alaska mineral reports released during 1986 and early
                  1987 ............................................................
    Department of the Interior. ...............................................
         U.S. Geological Survey ...............................................
         U.S. Bureau of Mines .................................................
         F i s h and Wildlife Service ............................................
         N a t ~ o n a lPark Servlce ................................................
         Department of Energy .................................................
         Other Federal agencies ...............................................
         Non-Federal reports ..................................................
                Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys ............
                Additional non-Federal publications ..............................
Appendix 2.--Roles of Federal agencies in mineral programs ...................
    Department of the Interior ...............................................
         U.S. Geological Survey ...............................................
         U.S. Bureau of Mines ..........                                      .......................
         Bureau of Land Management .....                                      .......................
         F i s h and Wildlife Service .....                                   .......................
         National Park Service ................................................
    Department of Agriculture .................                               .......................
         U.S. Forest Service ...................                              .......................
    Department of Energy ......................                               .......................
                                               ILLUSTRATIONS

                                                                                                               Page
Figures 1-2.   Maps showing :
                    1. Federal land ownership in A l a s k a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       5
                    2 . National w i l d l i f e refuges in Alaska. ...................                          7
               Photograph of Mount Spurr, one s i t e of Department
                   of Energy-sponsored geothermal research ....................                                  8
               Map showing l o c a t i o n s of exploratory w e l l s , o i l and gas
                    f i e l d s , and possible petroleum-bearing onshore
                    sedimentary basins .........................................                                10
               Graph of t o t a l U.S. o i l production and the p r ~ c eof o i l
                    f o r t h e y e a r s 1977 t o 1986.. ...............................                       11
               Maps showing:
                    6. Areas of o i l and gas l e a s e s a l e s .......................                       12
                    7. Onshore Favorable Petroleum Geological
                                   Provinces, land u n i t s referred t o i n t e x t ,
                                   and l o c a t i o n s of Department of Energy-funded
                                   research during 1986,. .............................                         16
               Photograph of t h e 1002 a r e a , Arctic National
                    W i l d l i f e Refuge ............................................                         21
               Map showing location of the 1002 a r e a , Arctic
                    National Wildlife Refuge ...................................                                21
               Photographs o f :
                  10. A musk ox, A r c t ~ cNational Wildlife Refuge                   .............            22
                  1 1 . U.S. Geological Survey g e o l o g i s t s examining coal
                                   cores a t the Sagwon Bluffs on the North Slope             ......            25
                  12. A coal geologist a t U s i b e l l i Coal Mine, Inc ............                          25
               Map showing a r e a s of p o t e n t i a l coal and p e a t , uranium,
                    and geothermal resources.. .................................                                26
               Photographs o f :
                  1 4 . Emmons Lake c a l d e r a , s u b j e c t of
                                   U,S. Geological Survey geothermal research .........                         28
               Klawasi mud volcano, t a r g e t of Department
                    of Energy-sponsored geothermal research ....................                                28
               The &, a new offshore gold dredge in the Nome a r e a . . . . . . . . . .                        29
               Maps showing:
                  17. Areas of s i g n i f i c a n t industry a c t i v i t y f o r m e t a l l i c
                                   minerals (excluding uranium) i n 1986, and mine
                                   l o c a t i o n s r e f e r r e d t o i n t e x t ....................*.     30
                  18. Location of U.S. Geological Survey metallic-mineral
                                   s t u d i e s i n 1986.. ..................................                  32
               Map showing s t a t u s of l e v e l 111 Alaska Mineral
                    Resource Assesvrnent Program s t u d i e s , February 1987.. .......                        33
               Photographs showing:
                  20. U.S. Geological Survey g e o l o g i s t a t an hydraulic
                                   gold-mining s i t e . ..................................                     36
                  2         Rocks in the Midas mine near Valdez. ............ ,                       ...  ,
                                                                                                           ,    36
               Maps showing :
                  22. Locations of minerals on the U.S. Bureau of Mines
                                   Minerals A v a i l a b i l i t y System (MAS) d a t a base
                                   in Alaska ..........................................                         37
                  23. Locations of U.S. Bureau o f Mines s t u d i e s of mining
                                   d i s t r i c t s a n d c r i t i c a l and s t r a t e g i c minerals
                                   during 1986,,, ....................................                          40
               Photograph of U.S. Bureau of Mines g e o l o g i s t s sampling
                    placer gold in the Juneau mining d i s t r i c t . . ................                       42
                                                                TABLES

                                                                                                                            Page
T a b l e 1.   O n s h o r e o i l a n d g a s l e a s e s a l e s , 1986 ..............................                     13
          2.   E x p l o r a t o r y t e s t wells o n S t a t e l a n d s , 1986  ........................                   13
          3.   Mining p r o d u c t i o n i n A l a s k a , 1984-86 ...............................                          29
          4.   L e v e l IV s t u d i e s o f t h e Alaska M i n e r a l R e s o u r c e Assessment
                        Program a c t i v e i n 1986.. ......................................                                34
         5.    A r e a s o f U.S. Bureau o f Mines a c t i v i t y i n m i n i n g d i s t r i c t s
                        a n d c r i t i c a l and s t r a t e g i c m i n e r a l s i n 1986 ...................             41




Any u s e of trade names and t r a d e m a r k s i n t h i s r e p (                 at- d e s c r i p t i v e p u r p o s e s o n l y
a n d d o e s n o t c o n s t i t u t e e n d o r s e m e n t by t h e U.S. Geological S u r v e y .
                   Acronyms g$
                             r   Abbreviations


AAPG    American Association of Petroleum Geologists
AC C    Alaska Crude Corp.
ADS
 DG     Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys
AO
 FC     Alaskan Field Operations Center
AMRAP   Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program
A IC
 NL A   Alaska National I n t e r e s t Lands Conservation Act
ANWR    Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
A CS
 NT     Alaska Natural Gas Transport System
AOHIS   Arctic and Offshore Research Information System
AC
 SE     Arctic Slope Consulting Engineers
BLM     Bureau of Land Management
R/MIS   Bibliographic/Management Information System
CAMA    Central Arctic Management Area
COST    Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test
DOE     Department o r Energy
EA      Environmental Assessment
EIS     E n v i ronmental-Impact Statement
FS
 W      Fish and Wildlife Service
MAS     Minerals Availability System
MILS    Minerals Industry Location System
MD
 RS     Mineral Hesources Data System
NEPA    National Environmental Policy Act
NPRA    National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska
NS
 P      National Park Service
NU RE   National Uranium Resource Evaluation
PCB     Polychlorinated B i p h e n y l
PEO     Polyethylene O x i d e
PGM     Platinum-Group Metals
RARE    Hoadless Area Review and Evaluation
REE     Rare-Earth Element
SEMS    Seafloor Earthquake Measurement System
SP
 EM     Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists
TC
 AT     Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect
TG
 AS     Trans-Alaska Gas System
UB
 SM     U.S, Bureau of Mines
USFS    U , S . Forest Service
UG
 SS     U.S. Geological Survey




                                 vii
                 1987 Annual Report an Alaska's Mineral                   Resources

                                           Diedra Bohn, editor


                    SUMMARY
        Section 1011 of the Alaska National Interest   revenue from royalties and taxes on oil
 Laads Conservation Act (ANLCA) of 1980 re-            production, Industry responded to the drastic fall
 quires that "On or before October 1, 1982, a d        in oil prices by tightening budgets and reducing the
 annually thereafter, the President shall transmit     number of employees. Operations ceased a t the 1-
 to Congress all pertinent public information relat-   year-old Milne Point field on the North Slope by
 ing to minerals in Alaska gathered by the United       the end of the year.
 States Geological Survey, Bureau of Mines, and               Oil production increased slightly in Alaska
 any other Federal agency." This report has been       during 198b, in spite of the decline in market
prepared in response to that requirement.              value. Alaska continues to rank second among the
        The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the      oil-producing States, and supplies approximately
 U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) are the principal         20 percent of domestic oil production. Propor-
 Federal agencies that publish information about        tionally more oil was produced from North Slope
 mineral resources in Alaska. Their reports and        fields as production levels fell in the Cook Inlet
data are commonly used by other Federal agencies       area. By September, oil production was estimated
 in decisionmaking on land use, access, environ-        to have reached the halfway point for recoverable
 mental impacts, and claim evaluation. Because of      reserves from the Prudhoe Bay field. Eight new
the time required for sample analysis, data synthe-    exploratory wells were drilled on the North Slope
sis, and the publication process, scientific reports    during the year. Also on the North Slope, industry
are generally issued a year or more after the          further developed two promising technologies:
initial sample and data collection. Other sources      horizontal drilling and manmade ice islands.
                                                                          -
of information include Federal and State publica-             Three competitive onshore oil and gas lease
tions, trade and professional journals, newspaper      sales held by the State during 1986 attracted $3.9
articles, presentations at public meetings and          million in high bids for 704,000 acres of land.
hearings, and press releases.                                 Energy-resource studies by the USGS con-
        This Circular is the sixth in a series of      centrated on the North Slope of Alaska, including
annual ANILCA reports.         The report provides     a compilation of technical papers on the National
information about current Alaskan mineral pro-         Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA), research on
jects and events during 1986 and in the early          natural-gas hydrates, and an assessment of the
months of 1987; the emphasis is on Federal ac-         petroleum potential of the central North Slope
tivity.     In general, the report addresses only      area. South of the Brooks Range, the USGS con-
onshore areas of Alaska, Information is provided       tinued research on the petroleum potential of the
for two broad categories of minerals:        energy    sedimentary basins in interior Alaska, and released
resources and nonfuel-mineral resources.               a volume of reports related to the drilling of a
                                                       well in Cook Inlet.
                ENERGY RESOURCES                              The Bureau of Land Management (BLM)
                                                       continued its oil and gas leasing program on three
                                                       areas south of the Brooks Range but postponed a
                                                       lease sale in the NPRA, owing to low demand. The
      The oil industry in Alaska was severely          BLM also provided the Fish and Wildlife Service
stressed by the rapid fall in the price of domestic    (FWS) with petroleum assessments for four nation-
crude oil during 1986. The far-reaching effects on     al wildlife refuges by June 1987, and continued
the State's oil-based economy had implications for     cooperative oil and gas studies with the USGS on
most aspects of life in Alaska, including markedly     lands of the central North Slope.
increased unemployment and decreased construc-                Zn keeping with its mission to protect fish,
tion activities. Declining oil prices crippled the     wildlife, and habitat, the FWS monitored and
State government, which collects 85 percent of its     evaluated the environmental impact of existing
petroleum-related activities, and proposed devel-        was active during the year. The FWS provided
opment on several national wildlife refuges.             information related to environmental concerns for
      Continuing Arctic and offshore research by         planned coal development on Native inholdings
the Department of Energy (DOE) in 1986 included          within the NPRA. Research funded by the DOE
expansion of a computerized data base of Arctic          included a study of liquefaction of Alaskan coals
energy-related technical information, coordination       by the University of Alaska.
and funding of interagency studies, and research
on recovery techniques for Arctic petroleum. The                              Uranium
DOE also sponsored new technological studies on
gas hydrates (a solid, icelike form of gas) and                  Most U.S. uranium producers cannot compete
deep-source gas (from depths greater than 30,000         a t 'the price of imported uranium, and so there is
ft).                                                     little uranium exploration activity nationwide and
      Arctic National Wildlife Refwe.-During             particularly in Alaska, with its high exploration
1986, the draft report and recommendations t o           and production costs.
Congress and the legislative environmental-impact                Uranium studies by Federal agencies were
statement (EIS) on the Arctic National Wildlife          minimal during 1986. The USBM released a report
Refuge (ANWR) coastal-plain resource assessment          on an investigation of the uranium source for the
were published; the final report was released in         Death Valley prospect on the Seward Peninsula.
April 1987. This report marks the culmination of
several years of geologic, geophysical, wildlife,                      Geothermal Resources
wilderness, and subsistence studies by the FWS,
BLM, and USGS.                                                  There are many potential geothermal-energy
                                                         sources from the numerous volcanoes in Alaska,
                   Coal and Peat                         but few source areas are close to existing power-
                                                         transmission networks. Mount Spurr, near Anchor-
         In 1986, Alaskan coal was the fourth most       age, is an exception. In 1986, the State of Alaska
valuable mineral commodity in the State, and             competitively leased two geothermal tracts total-
production increased by 9 percent over 1985              ing 2,628 acres near Mount Spurr. The mountain
output. However, a decline in the price for Alas-        was also studied for i t s geothermal potential in a
kan coal resulted in only a minimal economic gain        cooperative project by State and university geolo-
over the previous year's value. The demand for           gists, funded by the DOE.
peat, used primarily in urban areas for horticultur-            On the Alaska Peninsula east of Cold Bay,
al applications, dropped sharply along with the          the USGS began geologic studies to define the
plunge in housing construction.                          geothermal potential of Emmons Lake caldera.
         All of the 1986 Alaskan coal production         Although the USGS continues many other investi-
came from one coal mine in central Alaska, owned         gations of active volcanoes in Alaska, the remote-
by Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc., southwest of                ness of most of the site locations limits potential
Fairbanks. Half of their production was exported         geothermal-resource development.
t o Korea, and the rest was sold for instate heating
and fuel needs. Other industrial activity centered                 NONFUEL-MINERAL RESOURCES
on resource-quality investigations and marketing
strategies for coal from the Beluga, Healy, and                           Metallic Minerals
Jarvis Creek fields.        If plans for a coal-fired
powerplant in Alaska and proposed exports to                   Activity in Alaskan metallic minerals during
Pacific Rim countries a r e successful, Alaskan coal     1986 declined significantly from previous years. In
production will increase in the near future.             a report on Alaska's mineral industry in 1986,
        During 1986, S t a t e of Alaska geologists      Bundtzen     and   Green     (1987) report     that
continued a promising investigation of coal depos-       expenditures for finding, developing and producing
i t s for local use by village residents of the Seward   Alaskan minerals fell 14 percent, while the number
Peninsula.                                               of people employed through mining dropped by 19
         Federal activity related to coal included       percent.
research, leasing management, and an assessment                The greatest decrease in mining activity was
 of coal development's environmental impact. The         in placer gold mining, a s one-sixth of the claims
 USGS continued research into the quality and            active in 1985 ceased operations. A full 22 per-
 chemical composition of coals statewide. USGS           cent fewer new claims were filed in 1986 than
projects included assessments of the resources in        1985. Contributing t o the decline in placer mining
 the very large Northern Alaskan coal field, the         ia recent concern about compliance with S t a t e
petroleum-source potential of coals near Healy,          water-quality standards. According t o Bundtzen
 the geochemistry of Usibelli coal, and the quality      and Green, 30 mining operations employing 175
of the State's thickest-known coal seam on the           people were temporarily halted by litigation
 Seward Peninsula. Interest in the BLM coal-leas-        affecting 3 units of the national park system. A
ing program is low a t this time, and only one lease     lawsuit filed against the ELM threatened to shut
     down operations at an estimated 242 mines, but an                      Industrial Minerals
     out-of-court    settlement on the temporary
     restraining order was reached before the mining              Sand and gravel provided the second most
     season began.                                          valuable mineral production in the State of Alaska
           For lode deposits, the rising dollar value for   again in 1986.      Nevertheless, production rates
    gold offset the 16-percent decline in Alaskan gold      dropped by one-quarter over the 1985 rates, as oil-
    production for 1986. Gold production valued at          related construction on the North Slope and urban
    $60.8 million accounted for 98 percent of the           construction declined in reaction to plunging oil
    Alaskan metals market.        Tin, silver, antimony,    prices.
    tungsten, and mercury constitute the rest of that             Building-stone use increased substantially as
    market, of which only tin showed an increase in         a result of major construction projects in the
    production and value during 1986. The only mining       Pribilof Islands, near Nome, and east of Homer.
    of platinum in the United States continued in 1986            Leasing, permitting, and mitigating the
    a t Goodnews Bay, Alaska; production statistics are     impacts of mining sand and gravel were the major
    held confidential.     As prices for zinc and lead      Federal activities related to industrial minerals in
    began to rise in late 1986, development plans for       Alaska. In 1986, the ELM issued permits for sand
    the Red Dog zinc-lead-silver deposit in northwest-      and gravel along the Trans-Alaska Pipeline. The
    ern Alaska centered on port construction and road       FWS exchanged subsurface rights to sand and
    development. The lead-zinc-silver-gold deposit at       gravel on land within the Kenai National Wildlife
    Greens Creek in southeastern Alaska awaits devel-       Refuge for an easement along the Kenai River.
    opment approval by the new owners.                      The USFS provided sand and gravel for road and
           Federal activity in Alaskan metallic minerals    other construction activities.
    ranged from research to regulatory functions. The
    results of studies that are part of two USGS pro-
    grams, the Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment                           INTRODUCTION
    Program (AMRAP) and the Trans-Alaska Crustal
    Transect (TACT), continued to provide information             Section 1011 of ANILCA of 1980 requires
    about mineral wealth and geologic structures on         that "On or before October 1, 1982, and annually
    both regional and local scales.       USBM reports      thereafter, the President shall transmit to Con-
    released in 1986 include those on predictions of        gress all pertinent public information relating to
    remaining Alaskan precious-metal reserves based         minerals in Alaska gathered by the United States
    on past production; economic-feasibility studies of     Geological Survey, Bureau of Mines, and any other
    mineral deposits near Juneau and for offshore           Federal agency." The USGS has been delegated as
    Alaska; assessment of platinum potential in Good-       the    lead agency in         responding to this
    news Bay; statewide chromite investigations; and        requirement. This Circular, the sixth in a series,
I
    mineral-resource assessments for southern and           synthesizes information made public in 1986 and
I   southeastern Alaska. In 1986, the USBM enlarged         early 1987, and focuses on information about
    its computerized data base for mineral deposits         onshore areas of Alaska.
l
    and lan& status, and continued studies of new                 USGS and the USBM are the principal
    technologies to treat effluent waters from placer       Federal agencies that generate information about
    mines.                                                  mineral resources in Alaska. Their data, analyses,
           In response to litigation concerning the         and reports are used by other agencies i n deci-
    management of mining on national park lands, the        sionmaking on land use, access, environmental
    National     Park    Service (NPS) significantly        impacts,    and,    in some instances,        claim
    increased its minerals-management staff in Alaska       evaluation.
    during 1986. NPS activity centered on the task of             In February 1987, representatives from six
    developing     and implementing        policies   and   Federal agencies (USGS, USBM, BLM, FWS, NPS,
    programs designed to comply with Federal regula-        and USFS) and the State of Alaska met to coordi-
    tions for environmental impacts resulting from          nate research plans for Alaskan minerals with
    mining activities.                                      agency needs for minerals management. Further
           The U.S. Forest Service (uSFS) continued         cooperative efforts among these agencies are
    environmental-impact studies of the Greens Creek        expected in 1987.
    and Quartz Hill proposed mine-development plans               As    used    herein,    the   term    "public
    in southeastern Alaska. In addition, the USFS is        information" includes results of Federal projects
    compiling mineral-resource data on Tongass Na-          as   published    in Government reports and
    tional Forest for land-management purposes.             professional and trade journals; talks by represen-
           In 1986, the EWS conducted baseline studies,     tatives of Federal and State agencies and industry
    environmental analyses, and monitoring to ensure        at symposia, conferences, and other public forums;
    protection for fish, wildlife, and habitat during       and proceedings volumes, press releases, and
    mining activities a t several national wildlife         newspaper articles. Cited references are listed a t
    refuges.                                                the end of this report; additional pertinent litera-
                                                            ture selections are listed in appendix l. Data from
the annual summary of industrial-minerd activity          on the assessment, reduction, and prediction of
in Alaska, published by the Alaska Division of            volcanic hazards; (S), the Geologic Framework
Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS), are           Program, involving both general and specialized
used in parts of this report.                             research on the regional geology of the State; (4)
      The report is structured around two primary         studies of mineral resources on public lands; (5)
categories of minerals: energy resources (oil, gas,       the Development of Assessment Techniques
uranium, geothermal, coal, and peat) and nonfuel-          Program, whose goal is improvement of the ability
mineral resources (metallic and industrial                to identify and evaluate mineral resources; (6) the
minerals).                                                Critical and Strategic Minerals Program, for
      The next several pages describe the current         identifying the potential of these resources to
onshore mineral programs of land-management and           meet national military and economic needs; (7) the
other Federal agencies in Alaska. The roles of            Sedimentary Basins Program, which conducts
these agencies as they relate to minerals are             studies of depositional, structural, diagenetic, and
discussed in appendix 2.      The distribution of         thermal processes to predict and evaluate water,
ANILCA conservation units and the locations of            mineral, and petroleum resources; and (8) the
lands under Federal management are shown in               Geothermal Investigations Program, which focuses
figure 1.                                                 on studies of the nature, distribution, and energy
                                                          potential of these resources nationally. TACT, a
                                                          recent informal program, applies a multidisciplin-
            MINERAL PROGRAMS                              ary approach to study the Earth's crust along a
                                                          corridor from the Pacific Ocean to the Arctic
                                                          Ocean. This program is coordinated with the
           DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR                     Trans-Alaska Lithosphere Investigation that
                                                          includes earth scientists from the ADGGS, the
               US. Geological Survey                       University of Alaska, other universities, and
                                                          private industry. The mineral-related aspects of
      As directed by Section 1010 of ANILCA, the           many of these programs are more fully described
Secretary of the Interior requires an assessment of       in later sections of this report.
"the oil, gas, and other mineral potential on all
public lands in the State of Alaska in order to                   Economic-geologic information for mineral
expand the data base with respect to the mineral          occurrences in the United States and worldwide is
potential of such lands." AM RAP is an example of         available through the USGS, Mineral Resources
the response of the USGS to this legislation. The         Data System (MRDS) computerized files.             In
goal of this program is a systematic investigation        Alaska, recently updated records focusing on
of the State's metallic-mineral resources, through        metallic minerals contain 2,051 entries for forty
                                                           I :250,000-scale quadrangles in the south-central
four progressively more detailed levels of study.
Studies at levels I and I1 are general and cover          and southeastern areas of the State. Data in these
large areas. Studies a t level 111 draw on many           files include mineral-deposit size, type, descrip-
                                                          tion, location, reserves, and pertinent literature
geologic disciplines to produce areal resource            references For known or potentially locatable
reports and maps at scales of 1:250,000 and
1:125,000. In all, 29 level 111 studies have been         mineral resources (see Leonard and Huber, 1987).
finished or are nearly complete. A total of 37            Geologic information from the Alaska MRDS files
level 1V studies were under way i n 1986, including       can be used to complement economically oriented
detailed studies of specific mining districts, m j n -    data from the USBM's Mineral Availability and
era1 deposits, or topics related to the genesis of        Mineral Industry Location Systems computerized
mineral deposits. These studies are used to help          files, discussed in the next section. Further MRDS
determine the distribution and quality of national        information can be obtained from Donald P.
mineral and energy endowments and to aid in               Huber, Central and Western Regional Kepresenta-
formulating policy affecting their use and in             tive, U.S. Geological Survey, M 984, 345 Middle-
                                                                                            S
improving technology to minimize potential               field Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025.
hazards or impacts. These studies also help indus-                        U.S. Bureau of Mines
try locate new mineral deposits and develop con-                 The Alaskan Field Operations Center (AFOC)
cepts, models, and techniques to identify such           of the USBM is currently active in the five pro-
deposits. USGS publications are frequently used          grams listed below; further information on the
by industry as a source of information about known       scope and nature of these programs can be found
mineral deposits in the State.                           in appendix 2.
      The USGS carries on its work in Alaska                     (1) Mineral land assessment--The USBM's
through several programs in addition to AMKAP.            major emphasis in Alaska is to develop area- and
Among the programs active in 1986 were: (I) the           commodity-oriented mineral assessments.            A
Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program, which               major part of this program focuses on evaluations
seeks to mitigate earthquake losses through pro-         of mining districts in Alaska, with assessments of
viding data and evaluations for land-use planning,        the type, quantity, distribution, reserve estima-
engineering, and emergency preparations; (2) the          tion, and beneficiation potential of specific
Volcano Hazards Program, which includes studies           mineral deposits. The program also centers on
L      1         I         I        I                  I
Base from maps prepared by the Bureau of Land Management i 1986.
                                                          n
                                                                I        1
                                                                                  I
                                                                                           I        I        I        I        ,        I        I         I        \        \         I            \   I
    F i g u r e 1.--Federal         Land ownership i n Alaska ( b o u n d a r i e s a s of F e b r u a r y 28, 1986).                      F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s manage
                     a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70 p e r c e n t of a l l l a n d i n t h e S t a t e of Alaska:               F i s h and W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e , 21 p e r c e n t ; U.S.
                     F o r e s t S e r v i c e , 5 p e r c e n t ; N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e , 15 p e r c e n t ; and Bureau of Land Management, 2 7 p e r c e n t
                     ( w i t h a final t a r g e t of 18 p e r c e n t a f t e r ELM l a n d conveyances t o t h e S t a t e of A l a s k a and Alaska N a t i v e
                     organizations).
criticd- and strategic-mineral studies throughout     ties i n cooperation with the land manager to
the State. USBM geologists and engineers locate,      assure proper surface protections.
map, and estimate the size and grade of mineral
deposits, and collect samples for metallurgic                      Fish and Wildlife Service
research.
       (2) Minerals Availability--The two computer-          Mineral activities on FWS land in Alaska
ized components of this program are the Minerals      mudt conform to the agency's mission of
Availability System (MAS) and the Minerals Indus-     protecting fish, wildlife, and their habitat. In
try Location System (MILS) data bases. The MAS        Alaska, PWS activities include administration of
contains information on reserve estimates, mineral    7 7 million pcres of national wildlife refuge land,
extraction and beneficiation methodologies, envi-     fish and wildlife research, law enforcement, and
ronmental constraints on mining, and cost analyses    habitat protection through agency review of and
for selected major mineral deposits. The MILS         comments on permit requests, environmental-
lists basic information on the identification and     impact statements, and other items. The FWS has
location of known mineral deposits.                   an environmental-contaminants program that
       (3) Minerals policy and analysis--This         includes sampling and reporting on contaminants in
program compiles analyses of mineral data with        waters, sediments, and organisms affected by oil
respect to local and national needs. Technical,       and gas exploration and development, placer
institutional, political, social, and economic pa-    mining, and other mineral activities.
rameters are used to identify mineral issues.               The locations of the 16 national wildlife
       (4) State mineral activities--A        USBM    refuges managed by the PWS i n Alaska are shown
Alaskan State Mineral Officer compiles and            in figure 2.
analyzes mineral data to report on activities and
trends within Alaska's mining industry.                             National Park Service
       (5) Mineral research--In addition to mineral
assessment, the USBM and university research                Minerals management programs of the NPS
centers are attempting to provide solutions to        in Alaska include mineral examinations to deter-
mineral-recovery      problems.        The USBM's     mine claim validity, engineering analyses and
Tuscaloosa, Ala., Kesearch Center has been            environmental assessments (EA's) of proposed
involved in field-demonstration projects i n Alaska   plans of operations, bonding, monitoring, and
applying techniques to reduce turbidity in waters     reclamation of approved operations. Guidelines
discharged in placer-mining operations.               for the NPS management and regulation of mining
                                                      activities are discussed in appendix 2.
           Bureau of Land Management
                                                                            F
                                                                DEPARTMENT O AGRICULTURE
      The principal activities of the BLM that are
related to Alaska's onshore mineral and energy                       U.S. Forest Service
resources are: (I) preparation for the scheduling
of Federal oil and gas leases in onshore areas with          Under a memorandum of understanding with
the concurrence of the surface-management             the BI,M, the USFS jointly administers the general
agency, (2) organization and evaluation of Federal    mining laws on its own lands in Alaska. A           n
oil and gas leases, (3) mineral and resource          example of this joint responsibility is the patent
assessments of National Wildlife Refuges, (4)         issued to U.S. Borax and Chemical Co. for mining
recording of mining claims and determination of       claims a t their Quartz Ilill deposit near
the validity of claims for mineral patents, and (5)   Ketchikan. The USFS recommended issuance of
regulation of mining activities on BLM lands to       this patent on the basis of favorable findings in the
protect the environment.         The BLM is also      mineral report prepared by USFS mineral
responsible for enforcing environmental and           examiners.
technical stipulations of the Agreement and Grant            The USPS cooperates with Department of
of Right of Way for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline.        the Interior agencies, particularly the BLM, in
The overall goal is to maintain a continuous supply   issuing mineral leases and assuring mitigation of
of energy with minimal environmental impact. In       surface impacts of such activities. The USFS also
addition, the BLM issues land-use authorizations      cooperates with the State of Alaska and the
and conducts mineral and material sales to support    private sector in development of energy and
preconstruction activities for the planned natural-   mineral resources on inholdings. One such inhold-
gas pipeline and other projects.                      ing is the Bering River coal field, under considera-
       Administrative responsibilities for minerals   tion for possible development by Chugach Alaska,
require close coordination with other surface-        Inc., and others in a consortium.
 management agencies. Generally, in the case of              In Alaska, 23 million acres of land are
upland or onshore leases, the RLM issues leases       administered by the USFS (fig. l), whose regional
and integrates leasing with other land uses in        office is in Juneau. Offices for Chugach National
cooperation      with   the    surf ace-manage ment   Forest are in Anchorage, Seward, and Cordova,
agency. After a lease is issued, the BLM assumes      and for Tongass National Forest i n Sitka,
jurisdiction of exploratory and development activi-   Ketchikan, and Petersburg.
F i g u r e 2 .--National w i l d l i f e refuges in Alaska.
  Figure 3.--Mount Spurt- volcano, 70 m i west of Anchorage, is subject of geothermal-resource
              research funded by the Department of Energy. Photograph by M.E. Yount.


            DEPARTMENT O ENERGY
                        F                                    The DOE is working to evaluate Alaskan coal
                                                      in terms of its contribution to the total resources
      In Alaska, the DOE is focusing its efforts on   of the Nation. Coal research currently centers on
petroleum, coal, and geothermal resources. The        utilization rncthods suitable to Alaskan coals and
DOE in Alaska administers current petroleum acts      conditions.
and Congressional mandates relating to energy,               The UOE has established several computer-
monitors grants, and oversees contracts for           ized data bases, including the Arctic and Offshore
energy-resource studies. DOE funding helps to         Research Information System (AORIS), which is
support USGS resource-assessment studies and          designed to provide scientific oil- and gas-related
research by the ADDGS and the University of           information for use by the Arctic energy commu-
Alaska.                                               nity. AORlS is composed of a directory of 85
      To develop a better understanding of both       available enel-gy-related data bases; a bibliography
conventional    and unconventional petroleum          containing approximately 7,000 citations; and a
resources and to provide fundamental information      quantitative database on sea ice, ice gouging, and
to accelerate use of these resources, the DOE         subsea-permafrost characteristics.
focuses    on     investigating  resources     and           The DOE'S Geothermal Energy Program
technologies that continue to expand the body of      provided funds in Alaska to the University of
essential    basic    scientific  knowledge      of   Alaska's Geophysical Institute and the ADGGS for
conventional and heavy petroleums, shale oil, tar     research about specific geothermal systems (fig.
sands, gas hydrates, and deep-source gas. Gas         3). Through the cooperation of lrederal and State
hydrates, deep-source gas, and Arctic offshore        agencies, a significant information base on
energy are specific targets of DOE research in        Alaska's geothermal resource has been developed
Alaska.                                               and is now available to the public.
       The DOE'S National Uranium Resource            U.S.   Forest Service
Evaluation (NURE) Program, formerly active in
Alaska, has been terminated. All nonproprietary                           Michael Barton, Regional
geoscience data from this program have been                                  F o r e s t e r , Alaska Region
transferred to the USGS. Proprietary information                          P.0. BOX 1628
about reserves or production are being retained by                        Juneau, AK 99802
the DOE Energy Information Administration.
Inspection of cores and cuttings can be arrariged
through T.C. Michalski, U.S. Geological Survey,       Department of Energy
M S 975, Box 25046, Denver Federal Center,
Denver, CO 80225;          information about sample               Hydrocarbon resources
analyses can be obtained from B.R. Burger, MS
973, a t the same address.                                                 Joseph Lagler
       The DOE closed its regional office in                               Morgantom Energy
Anchorage in 1985.         Requests for information                           Technology Center
about DOE Alaskan activities should be addressed                           p.0. Box 880
t o the offices listed below.                                              C o l l i n s Ferry Road
                                                                           Morgantown, WV 26505

                 O
       CONTACTS F R FURTHER INFORMATION
                                                                  Geothermal resources
Bureau of Land Management
                                                                           Marshall Reed
                      Michael Penfold, S t a t e                           Geothermal Technology
                        Director                                             Division
                      Federal Building                                     U.S. Department of Energy,
                      701 C S t r e e t , BOX 13                              CE-342
                      Anchorage, AK 99513                                 Washington, DC        20585

Fish and W i l d l i f e Service

                     Walter 0. S t i e g l i t z ,                 ENERGY RESOURCES
                       Regional D i r e c t o r
                     1011 East Tudor Road
                                                                          OIL AND GAS
                     Anchorage, AK 99503-6119
                                                                Overview of Production and Prices
National Park Service
                                                             In 1986, as in the previous several years, oil
                     Boyd Evison, Regional            and gas were the most valuable commodities
                       Director                       produced in Alaska. Alaska's two oil-producing
                     Alaska Regional O f f i c e      areas, the Arctic North Slope and Cook Inlet (fig.
                                                       4), supplied a total of 68 3 million bbl (1 bbl = 42
                     2525 Gambell S t r e e t                                    L
                     Ahchorage, AK 99503-2892                        I
                                                      gal) of oil, 18 billion f t of dry natural gas, and
                                                       1.20 bElIion f t of casinghead gas in 1986. These
                                                      values represent an increase over 1985 production
U.S.   Bureau of Mines                                of about 2.3 percent for oil and 4.3 percent for gas
                                                      (Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission,
                     Donald P. Blasko, Chief           1987).    Production increases on the State of
                     Alaska F i e l d Operations      Alaska's North Slope leases offset the production
                       Center                         declines from Cook Inlet. Alaskan oil production
                     201 East Ninth Avenue,           increased by about 42,000 bbl/d in 1986, mainly as
                       S u i t e 101                  a result of production increases from the Kuparuk
                     Anchorage, AK 99501              River field (World Oil, Feb. 1986). The rate of oil
                                                      production from the entire State of Alaska a t the
                                                      end of 1986 amounted to 1.87 million bbl/d, or
U S. Geological Survey
 .                                                    about 20 percent of U.S. daily production.
                                                             A decline in t h e world price of oil that began
                     Donald Grybeck, Chief            in late 1985 continued into 1986 (fig. 5), Between
                     Branch of Alaskan Geology        December 1985 and July 1986, the price declined
                     4200 U n i v e r s i t y Drive   from about $27/bbl to $9/bbl (Petroleum Informa-
                     Anchorage, AK 99508-4667         tion's Alaska Report, July 9, 1986). By the end of
                                                           Alaska's share consisted of production modules for
                                                           the Endicott field development.          Meanwhile,
                                                           Marathon Oil Co. began building the largest dril-
                                                           ling and production platform i n Cook Inlet. Plat-
                                                           form Steelhead, located in the McArthur River
                                                           field (the largest of the four fields in Cook Inlet),
                                                           is capable of supporting 48 wells, which will
                                                           further develop the estimated 316 billion f t 3 of
                                                           gas reserves and 5 million bbl of oil reserves
                                                           (Pacific Oil. World, Jan. 1987).
                                                                  New technologies were tested on the North
                                                           Slope during 1986. Standard Alaska Production
                                                           drilled three horizontal development wells in the
                                                           Prudhoe Bay field. The advantage of a horizontal
                                                           well in comparison with a conventional well is that
                                                           more area in the productive zone is exposed to the
                                                           well bore, thereby allowing more oil to be
              Alaska State Oil & Gas Commiss~on 1985)      produced (Oil and Gas Journal, Feb. 16, 1986).
                                                           Ilorizontally drilled wells also have the potential
        77   78    79   80   81    82    83 84   85   86   to produce from areas of a reservoir that would
                                  YEAR                     not be practical to produce by using conventional
                                                           wells, such as a very thin but laterally extensive
       Figure 5.--Total U.S. o i l production and          portion of a reservoir.
                   price of o i l f o r the years 1977            Another new technology tested in 1986 was
                   t o 1986.                               Amoco Production Co.'s ice island in the Beaufort
                                                           Sea, the first commercial island built entirely out
                                                           of spray ice. This low-cost alternative to costly
    1986, the price of North Slope crude oil had           gravel islands involves spraying seawater into the
    increased to $14.25/bbl, delivered to the West         air that freezes into ice granules, collects on the
    Coast (Petroleum Information's Alaska Report,          sea floor, and builds up layers of ice that eventu-
    Jan. 7, 1987). The State of Alaska's economy is        ally form an island (Petroleum Information's
    especially vulnerable lo fluctuations in crude-oil     Alaska Report, Sept. 25, 1985). Since Amoco's
    prices because 85 percent of the State's current       test was successful, future construction of man-
    revenue is derived from royalties and taxes paid on     made islands in shallow Arctic marine basins will
    State-owned oil and gas leases (Alaska Division of     probably utilize this economical, low-impact
    Geological and Geophysical Surveys, 1986). The
    sensitivity of exploration for, and production of,      method.
    oil fields to world oil prices was reflected in the
    curtailment of many industry activities.        For              State Activity and Lease Sales
    example, the Milne Point oil field, the third field
    to produce on the North Slope, was completely                During 1986, State agencies conducted three
    shut down by the end of the year. The major            onshore competitive oil and gas lease sales, moni-
    operators have announced drastically reduced           tored and supervised lease development, collected
    capital budgets, which affect all aspects of the       rent on leases and royalties on prodution, and
    business and have a trickledown effect on other        conducted numerous geologic and geophysical
    industries in the State. ARC0 Oil and Gas, Stan-       studies relating to oil and gas resource evaluation
    dard Oil Co., and Chevron Corp. all had lower net      and land classification.     In 1986, the Alaska
    incomes for 1986, attributed mainly to the falling      Department of Natural Resources published Infor-
    crude-oil prices.                                       mation Circular 31, "Oil-and-Gas Resources of
                                                           Alaska," which presents an overview of the history
I                 Development and Technology               of exploration and development, current prospects,
                                                           resource estimates, and the State's leasing
          Despite the depressed condition of the oil       program.
    industry, development of the present fields is               At the competitive lease sales, a total of
    proceeding on or ahead of schedule. Contributing       $3.9 million was offered in high bids to acquire
    to the ongoing development of the North Slope,         about 704,000 acres for future exploration. At
    the 1986 sealift was the largest of its kind since     least 10 oil companies and several independent
    1975 and included 27 barges shared by ARC0             investors participated in 1 or more of the 3 sales.
    Alaska and Standard Alaska Production. ARCO1s          Information about the lease sales is summarized in
    share included modules for three major projects: a     table 1, and the locations of the lease areas are
    new miscible-gas-injection project for the Prudhoe     shown in figure 6. The terms of the leases, which
    Bay field, a third production facility for the         in 1986 were all on State lands, can be obtained
    Kuparuk River field, and the first major produc-       from the Lease Administration Office, Alaska
    tion facility for the Lisburne field. Standard         Department of Natural Resources, 555 Cordova
    F i g u r e 6.--Areas o f o i l and gas lease sales.



-
                                       Table 1.    --        Onshore o i l and gas l e a s e s a l e s , 1986
                    [Areas shown i n f i g u r e 6. All s a l e s were conducted by t h e S t a t e of Alaska;
                    v a l u e of high b i d s - i n m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s . Data from Alaska Division of O i l
                    and Gas ]


                                                               Acres o f f e r e d       Acres b i d         T o t a l high
                         Area       Sale      Sale d a t e        (~1,000)           ,   on(x1,OOO)                 bids




                          Table 2.--Exploratory              test wells on State and Native lands, 1986
        [Data from Alaska D i v i s i m o-n g r2F r
                                         fa d ue r o                            l o c a t i o n s . P&A, plugged and abandoned ;
        S, suspended]


                                                                       Location                          Total         Date   Remarks
        Well      Company              Well name                  (Umiat meridian)                    depth ( f t ) completed

               Texaco         C o l v i l l e Delta 2         Sec.   23,   T. 13 N., R. 7 E.
               Texaco         C o l v i l l e Delta 3         Sec.   33,    .         .
                                                                           T 13 N., R 7 E.
               Amerada Hess   C o l v i l l e Delta 25-1      Sec.   25,   T 13 N., R. 6 E.
                                                                            .
               Chevron        K I C ~ Well 1                  Sec.    1,   T. 8 N., R. 36 E.
               ARC 0          Kuparuk River                   Sec.   22,   T. 10 N., R 10 E..
                                                                                      .
                                 Unit WT-1
               Standard Prod. Niakuk 6                        Sec. 25, T 12 N.,
                                                                        .                R. 15 E.
               Amerada Hess   Norchstar l 2                   Sec. 32, T. 14 N.,         R.   13 E.
               Amerada Hess   Norrhsrar 2                     Sec. 32, T 14 N.,
                                                                        .                .
                                                                                         R 13 E.


                             ovik
          l ~ ~ ~ = ~ a k t Inupiat Corp.
          20i1 discovery
1
        Street, Anchorage, A K 99501. For further infor-                   Information). Oil discovered in the Amerada Hess
        mation about State petroleum-related activities,                   Northstar No. I well is believed to be an extension
        the reader should contact the Alaska Division of                   of the Colville Delta reservoir, first discovered in
        Oil and Gas, 3601 C Street, Anchorage, AK 99503;                   1985 by Texaco and its partners. Chevron USA,
        or obtain Information Circular 31 from the Alaska                  Inc., Standard Oil Co., and BP Alaska Exploration
        Department of Natural Resources, Division of                       Co. drilled the first exploratory well on Native
        Geological and Geophysical Surveys.                                lands in the ANWR. There has been great interest
                                                                           in waiting for results of the KIC (Kaktovik Inupiat
I                         Industry Activity                                Corp.) No. 1 well because the ANWR is considered
                                                                           to contain the most promising accumulation of
              Industry activity for onshore Alaska in 1986                 hydrocarbons remaining on the North Slope.
        included further delineation of a new oil field and                       The Prudhoe Bay field (fig. 4), the world's
        startup of oil production from another field, both                 19th largest producer (Tiratsoo, 1984) and the
        of which a r e located on the North Slope, as well a s             largest field in the United States, produces 1.53
        geophysical and geologic surveys and drilling of 8                 million bbl/d of oil. A seawater-treatment plant
        exploratory wells (fig. 4; table 2) and about 135                  installed in 1984 injects about 1.4 million bblld of
        development wells.       Development drilling was                  water into the producing reservoir to increase the
        concentrated primarily on the North Slope in four                  amount of oil recovered (Petroleum Information's
        producing and several developing fields. The eight                 Alaska Report, Feb., 1987). In September 1986,
        exploratory wells are all located on the North                     the Trans-Alaska Pipeline transported its 5-
        Slope. Little information has been released to the                 billionth barrel from the North Slope to the deep-
        public, but some is being made available through                   water terminal a t Valdez, in the Gulf of Alaska.
        private subscription services, such as the weekly                  This record represented the estimated halfway
        Alaska     Report      (published   by    Petroleum                point for production from the Prudhoe Bay field,

    I
        which has accbunted for about 17 percent of the        November, ACC had suspended operations a t the
I   -   Nation's output since 1977 (Pacific Oil World, Jan.    Katalla River location, where the company had
        1987).                                                 planned to drill 10 shallow production wells to
               The second largest oil field in the United      recover an estimated 3 million bbl of oil (Petro-
        States, the Kuparuk River field, produced about 94     leum Information's ALaska Report, Dec. 31, 1985).
        million bbl of oil in 1986, or an average of about
        258,000 bblld.     Beginning in December, a new                  Activity by Federal Agencies
        production facility was brought on line to boost
        daily output by about 16 percent to 300,000                           U.S. Geological Survey
        bblld.     The Kuparuk field produced its 200-
        millionth barrel after 4 years of operation (Alaska          The North Slope continues to be the focus of
        State Oil and Gas Conservation Commission,             most USGS studies related to onshore oil and gas
        1987).                                                 resources. Many of these studies are part of the
                                                               Evolution of Sedimentary Basins program or the
               The Milne Point field, the third field to       Gas Hydrate program. South of the Brooks Range,
        produce oil on the North Slope, has suspended          basin studies are supported by the AMRAP. The
        production only 1 year after beginning operation.
                                                               paragraphs below summarize recent activities;
        Conoco, Inc., and partners (Champlin Petroleum
                                                               selected pertinent reports are listed with the
        Co., Cities Service Oil and Gas Co., Chevron USA,      USGS and DOE publications in appendix I.
        Inc., and Reading and Bates Petroleum Co.) cited
        several factors for the shutdown, including the              Many of the numerous talks and posters
        depressed price of crude oil, and equipment prob-      concerning the geologic aspects of Alaskan oil and
        lems that cut daily output by half (from 20,000 to     gas resources that were presented a t the regional
                                                               meeting of the American Association of Petroleum
        10,000 bblld).     The Milne Point field contains
                                                               Geologists (AAPG) and the Society of Economic
        estimated recoverable reserves of 100 million bbl,
                                                               Paleontologists and Mineralogists (SEPM) held in
        with plans for the field to produce 30,000 bbl/d.
                                                               Anchorage in 1985 are nearing publication. More
        Conoco is keeping the facility operational, should
                                                               than 100 papers and abstracts are scheduled for
        there be a sudden increase in the price of oil
        (Petroleum Information's Alaska Report, Dec. 10,       mid-1987 publication by the SEPM'S Pacific
                                                               Section and the Alaska Geological Society
        1986).
                On December 15, 1986, the Lisburne field       (Tailleur and Weimer, 1987).        The National
        became the fourth oil field t o begin production on    Convention of the AAPG and SEPM, to be held in
        the North Slope. ARCO Alaska, Inc., and its            Los Angeles in June 1987, will have several talks
        partners Exxon Co. USA and Standard Alaska             and posters reviewing studies in Alaska by the
        Production Co. plan to produce 40,000 to 50,000        USGS (for list of abstracts, see AAPG Bulletin, v.
        bbl/d from the field, which underlies the              71, no. 5, 1987).
        northeastern part of the Prudhoe Bay field. The
                                                               National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska
        Lisburne production facility has a capacity to
        produce 100,000 bbl/d from the 300 million bbl of            The operational phase of the Federal petro-
        estimated recoverable reserves (Petroleum Infor-       leum-exploration program in the NPRA was com-
        mation's Alaska Report, Dee. 17, 1986).                pleted in 1981. A nontechnical report (Gryc, 1985)
                The Endicott field, with reserves a t 350      describes this program. Meanwhile, more than 30
        million bbl of oil and 800 billion f t 3 of gas, is    technical papers by USGS scientists will be
        scheduled to begin production in late 1987. Stan-      published as a future USGS Professional Paper.
        dard Alaska Production Co. is using two island         Topics included are stratigraphy, sedimentation,
        bases for the development of this field. Oil from      seismic stratigraphy, petrography, paleontology,
        the Endicott field will be transported by pipeline     biostratigraphy, petroleum source-rock geochern-
        to the Trans-Alaska Pipeline's Pump Station No. 1      istry, structural geology, direct hydrocarbon
        a t Prudhoe Bay (Pacific Oil World, Jan. 1987).        detection by aeromagnetic and helium methods,
                ARCO Alaska, Inc., has concluded a 2-year      assessment results, and exploration history. Most
        pilot project to determine the feasibility of          data from the 1974-81 exploration program, as


                                                   '
        producing the estimated 20-billion-bbl heavy-oil
        accumulation at the West Sak field on th North
        Slope. The reservoir covers about 250 mi and is
        located a t depths between 3,000 and 4,000 ft. The
        project involved injecting hot water into the
                                                               well a s numerous pertinent contractor reports, are
                                                               available to the public through the National Geo-
                                                               physical and Solar-Terrestrial Data Center,
                                                               Boulder, CO 80303. Their catalog itemizes infor-
                                                               mation about 38 wells, 14,770 line-miles of
        reservoir in hopes of reducing the viscosity of the    seismic-reflection    surveys,    52,000    gravity
        oil, thereby allowing the oil to flow more easily      measurements, and numerous reports about geol-
        through the reservoir (Anchorage Daily News, Jan.      ogy, geophysics, the environment, construction,
         22, 1987).                                            and logistics.
                The Katalla oil field located in the Gulf of
         Alaska, abandoned since the 19301s, has been          Gas Hydrates
         reactivated. Alaska Crude Gorp. (ACC) resumed
         drilling the K S No. 1 well in 1986. However, by           The North Slope natural-gas-hydrate-dua-
tion project, funded by the DOE, continued to be       basin. During an additional 3-week reconnaissance
very active through 1986. Study of the physical        field program, the petroleum potential of the
properties controlling inplace natural-gas-hydrate     Matanuska Valley north of Anchorage, the Copper
stability dominated the research efforts. Topics       River basin, and the Yukon-Kandik Basin was
of talks and publications during 1986 included: an     assessed.   Two abstracts and a poster session
evaluation of subsurface geothermal gradients and      presented at the 1987 National AAPG Convention
their effect on gas-hydrate stability (Collett and     in Los Angeles review the findings of this recon-
others, 1986b), determination of the regional          naissance work (Cook and others, 1987; Magoon
effect of freezing-point depression a t the base of    and others, 1987).
ice-bearing permafrost (Collett and others, 1986a),
and development of a regional stratigraphic-corre-     Central Arctic Management Area
lation framework (Molenaar and others, 1986a,
b). Geologic and geochemical samples collected               The USGS is working in cooperation with
from an AKCO Alaska Co. production well in the         BLM geologists and geophysicists on an oil and gas
 Kuparuk River field are being studied to determine    assessment of the Central Arctic Management
 the compositions of natural gases in the near-        Area (CAMA), lands between the NPRA and the
surface sediments (at depths of 0-1,000 m) of the      A N W R north of lat 68' N. (fig. 7). The Brooks
 North Slope and to characterize the potential gas-    Range overthrust belt, along the south boundary of
 hydrate reservoirs.                                   the CAMA, is a geologically complex area with
                                                       structures similar to those of oil-bearing areas in
Petroleum Potential of the Eastern Brooks Range        the Rocky Mountains. Fieldwork in the 1:250,000-
                                                       scale Killik River and Chandler Lake quadrangles
      In another DOE-funded study, the USGS and        has been completed, and an evaluation of the
university scientists conducted geologic studies in    petroleum potential is underway. Objectives of
the eastern Brooks Range and Charley River-Eagle       this study include: (1) the type and abundance of
areas (area 9, fig. 7). The goal of these studies is   potential hydrocarbon traps, (2) the extent and
to project the known structural and stratigraphic      distribution of potential reservoir rocks, and (3)
relations into the Yukon Flats sedimentary basin       the potential for hydrocarbon-source rocks by
and to evaluate the potential of that area for         organic geochemical analyses.
generating and trapping deep gas resources. This
work is part of a larger effort to evaluate the        Additional Studies
potential for the occurrence of deeply buried
petroleum resources along ancient convergent                 Results of several USGS studies have
continental margins where obductive processes          recently been released.       USCS Bulletin 1596
have been dominant. Field mapping and paleonto-        (Magoon, 1986) is a collection of a dozen papers on
logic and geochemical studies have shown new age       geologic studies related to the Continental
and structural relations in these geologically         Offshore Stratigraphic Test (COST) well drilled in
complex areas, in which several accreted terranes      Lower Cook Inlet in 1977. In early 1986, the USGS
are now recognized.                                    presented its second annual McKelvey Forum on
                                                       Energy Resources in Denver, Colo. Four talks and
Interior Basins of Alaska                              posters dealing with Alaskan petroleum geology
                                                       and energy resources, most on the North Slope,
      During 1986, USGS scientists continued their     were presented. Abstracts of these were published
work summarizing the geology and evaluating the        in USGS Circular 974 (Carter, 1986).
petroleum potential of the interior sedimentary
basins of Alaska (those south of the North Slope                  Bureau of Land Management
and generally north of Cook Inlet; see fig. 4).
During a 5-week helicopter-supported field                  In establishing and implementing an oil and
program, the facies relations, sedimentology, and      gas leasing program as required by Section 1008 of
biostratigraphy of the Tertiary fluvial and lacus-     ANILCA, the BLM has made land available for
trine deposits in the Nenana Basin were studied.       noncompetitive oil and gas leasing and for mineral
Using Hock-Eva1 pyrolysis, vitrinite reflectance,      entry under the Mining Law of 1872 in three areas
and kerogen tests, the petroleum-source potential      south of lat 68' N. The Minchumina area was
of the coals and mudrocks associated with the          opened in 1981, the Denali-Tiekel area in 1982,
Tertiary deposits was determined. Two articles in      and the Seward Peninsula in 1983.           As of
USGS Circular 998 show the results of the Nenana       December 10, 1986, the BLM had issued approxi-
Basin studies (Stanley, 1987a, b) and a poster         mately 373 leases on 91,951 acres in the
session presented at the 1987 National American        Minchumina area, 6,O 18 leases on 1,119,388 acres
Association of Petroleum Geologists Convention         in the Denali-Tiekel area, and 1,896 leases on
summarizes the reconnaissance study of the Cant-       1,067,706 acres in the Seward Peninsula. A total
well Formation (Stanley, 1987~). Future studies        of 291,285 acres was leased in these areas during
include interpretation of the stratigraphy and         1986. The locations of the general lease areas are
petroleum geology of the two wells drilled in the      shown in figure 7.
F i g u r e 7.--Onshore Favorable Petroleum Geological Provinces, land units r e f e r r e d t o i n
                 t e x t , and l o c a t i o n s o f Department of Energy-funded r e s e a r c h during 1986.
       The National Wildlife Federation v. Rurford      conjunction with USGS geologists to assess the
gt>.     lawsuit, concerning land withdrawals and       petroleum potential of the CAMA.
classifications, specifically affects areas of the            The Annual Report of the BLM's Branch of
Seward Peninsula opened to oil and gas leasing and      Pipeline Monitoring is available through its Public
the mining laws under the authority of Section          Affairs Office in the Federal Building in
204(a) of the Federal Land Policy and Management        Anchorage. This branch, part of the Division of
Act, by Public Orders 6477 and 6559 of October 5,       Mineral Resources, assures that the terms and
 1983, and August 9, 1984, respectively. An injunc-     conditions of the Alyeska Pipeline Service Co.!s
tion effective February 14, 1986: (1) enjoins the       pipeline right-of-way are met.
Department of the Interior from revoking with-                The BLM's involvement with the Northwest
drawal or lermination classifications in existence      Alaska Pipeline Co.'s proposed Alaska Natural Gas
as of January 1, 1981; (2) enjoins the Department       Transport System (ANGTS) remains a t a low level
of the Interior from taking actions inconsistent        because the project has been delayed. The Yukon
with specific terms of the above withdrawals or         Pacific Corp. submitted a modification to its
classifications; (3) suspends all revocations of        right-of-way application to the BLM for its pro-
withdrawals and terminations of classifications         posed Trans-Alaska Gas System (TAGS, fig. 7)
completed after January 1, 1981; (4) allows the         from Prudhoe Bay to tidewater. The liquefied-
Department of the Interior to accept filings            natural-gas Facility and port is now planned for
required by law; and (5) exempts Alaska from the        Anderson Bay in the port of Valdez. The viability
order where lands affected are for Native or State      of both pipeline projects is linked to worldwide
convevances.        Essentially, for the Seward         demand for and price of natural gas.
peninsula area, any pending-offers on oil and gas
leases will be suspended, and no new offers will be                  Fish and-- -. --
                                                                     -- Wildlife Service
considered. Mining Plans of Operations may not                The primary efforts of the FWS in Alaska are
be approved if the lands were not open to location      to protect and conserve fish and wildlife and their
on January 1, 1981, and the lands remain closed to      habitats, and to administer 16 national wildlife
the full operation of the mining laws. However,         refuges (fig. 2). The FWS also cooperates with
 many areas were open to the location of metallif-      other Federal and State agencies in similar efforts
erous minerals under the terms of the withdrawals       on behalf of wildlife throughout Alaska. Any oil-
in effect before January 1, 1981.                       or gas-related activities in refuges are subject to
       A fifth lease sale in the NPRA (fig. 7) was      FWS restrictions and protective stipulations.
postponed again in 1986, owing to low demand for
N P R A leases and fall in^ world crude-oil prices. A   Kenai National Wildlife Refuge
demand and market analysis will be completed in
                                                              The Kenai National Wildlife Refuge is the
 1987 that should shape the leasing schedule for the
                                                        only refuge in Alaska from which oil and gas have
near future. Since leasing began in 1982, 56 leases
                                                        been produced. In 1986, 30 to 35 wells continued
covering approximately 1,350,000 acres have been
                                                        crude-oil production from the Swanson River,
issued in the NPRA; 13 leases were relinquished
                                                        Alaska's first commercial field; production was
or terminated i n 1986.
                                                        down to approximately 5,500 bbl/d. A workover
       There were no new exploratory wells drilled      rig was active in the field, correcting problems a t
on BLM-administered land during 1986.                   several of the wells.      Maximum production of
       By June 1987, the BLM provided the FWS           about 50,000 MCF/d from 4 gas wells and about
with oil and gas resource assessments for 4             450 bbl/d from 2 oil wells is being produced at the
national wildlife refuges; Kenai, Becharof, Alaska      Beaver Creek field.
Peninsula, and Yukon Flats (fig. 2). The FWS will             In 1985, an agreement was reached between
use these assessments to help determine whether         Chevron USA, Inc., and the U.S. Environmental
oil and gas leasing and development is compatible       Protection Agency for the cleanup of polychlor-
with the intent of these refuges.                       inated-biphenyl    (PCB)-contaminated materials
       The RI,M is transferring lands in the "utility   inadvertently used in oil-development activities
corridor" along the Trans-Alaska Pipeline between       for dust control on some Kenai National Wildlife
the Yukon River and Washington Creek (fig. 7) to        Refuge parking areas and roads. That agreement
the State of Alaska. The BLM began preparing a          and the established cleanup levels have been
resource-management plan in 1986 for this               accepted in a memorandum of understanding with
corridor and adjacent RLM-administered lands            ARC0 Alaska, Jnc., the unit operator, as of Octo-
north of the Yukon Kiver. Included in this plan-        ber 1, 1986.     Contaminated roads have been
ning effort i s a study of oil and gas resources,       blocked, and highly contaminated areas have been
wilderness characteristics, and wildlife resources      tarped and secured in response to the agreement.
in the CAMA, as required by Section 1001 of             The change in unit operator necessitated a rebid-
ANILCA. This study, to be completed by the BLM          ding for cleanup of the PCB soil contamination.
no later than December 1988, will be the basis for      Mitigation maps were developed from an analysis
recommendations concerning future use and               of more than 1,000 soil samples. A contract to the
management of BLM land in the central North             successful bidder for cleanup w a s awarded in April
Slope area.      BLM geoscientists are working in       1987.
Activities under Section 1008 of ANILCA                 subject to permits and stipulations designed to
                                                        protect fish, wildlife, and subsistence activities.
       Section 1008 of ANILCA provides for oil and
gas studies on refuges in Alaska to provide infor-      Mineral-Activity-Impact Assessment
mation for use in future land-management                      FWS      mineral-related    activity includes
decisions. In 1986, special use permits were issued     making recommendations for mitigating adverse
for surface geologic work in the Alaska Maritime        impacts on fish, wildlife, and their habitats. TO
and Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuges.                                               ..
                                                        this end, the FWS reviews U S Army Corps of
Chevron USA, lnc., obtained a special use permit        Engineers permit applications under Section 404 of
for a gravity study in the Kenai National Wildlife      the Clean Water Act of 1977; these applications
Refuge. Special use permits include numerous            may involve public or private lands. This review
stipulations for ensuring that permitted activities     includes making recommendations for minimizing
are environmentally sound and compatible with           h,         ises in all proposals for new or modified
refuge purposes, and are designed for the specific      r(         s, well sitings, and operations.
locale and activities of the proposal. Bonds of                     a result of Section 404 permit
$10,000 must be posted before any company can                   ~
                                                        n c raa ~ ,~~ concerning the onshore part of the
                                                                       n s
undertake such work in Alaska refuges. Copies of        Lisburne project (fig. 4 ) , a 1984 letter of agree-
data resulting from such exploration must be            ment from ARCO Alaska, Inc., stated their intent
submitted to the FWS; they remain confidential in       to mitigate for habitat losses from gravel fill in
storage with the RLM.                                   consultation with the PWS. Negotiations under
       Section 1008 of ANILCA also calls for estab-     this agreement to ensure that impacts are fully
lishing a program for oil and gas leasing on Federal    mitigated continued in 1986. The process of
lands south of lat 68' N., pursuant to the Mineral      quantifying losses and determining exactly how to
Leasing Act of 1920 as amended. This program            minimize them has been difficult, Compensation
does not apply to those refuge lands where the          of losses through acquisition and management of
Secretary of the Interior determines, after con-        habitat outside the project area may be
sideration of the national interest, that oil and gas   necessary. However, ARCO Alaska, Inc., has not
exploration or development would be incompatible        yet agreed to compensate for habitat losses.
with the purposes of the refuge. Section 304(g) of      Discussions have begun on controlling gull and fox
ANILCA cites a comprehensive conservation               populations that have become abnormally high in
planning process as the means for identifying parts     North Slope oil-development areas, resulting in
of refuges where leasing or related activities may      increased predation on eggs and young birds.
be compatible. A final plan was issued for the          However, the FWS does not support predation
Togiak National Wildlife Refuge in 1986 (U.S. Fish      control as an appropriate mitigation for habitat
and Wildlife Service, 1986e). Draft plans were          losses.
released for the Kanuti, Koyukuk, Nowitna, and                Field activities in northern Alaska included
Selawik National Wildlife Refuges in 1986 (U.S.         continuing water-quality studies of North Slope
Fish and Wildlife Service, 1986a, b, c, d); final       lakes and tundra ponds both within and away from
versions for those refuges, as well as for the          development areas between the Colville and
Yukon Flats, Tetlin, and Kodiak National Wildlife       Canning Rivers.         Contaminant studies in the
 Refuges, are scheduled for 1987. Draft and final       Prudhoe Bay/Kuparuk oil fields included collecting
plans for the Yukon Delta and lnnoko National           sedgegrass, chironomids, and Daphnia for analysis
Wildlife Refuges will be prepared in 1987. Draft        of metals uptake; sedgegrass samples were
plans prepared for the Alaska Maritime and Arctic       analyzed for the uptake of hydrocarbons. Water
National Wildlife Refuges in 1987 will be finalized     and sediment samples were also collected.
in 1988 (see fig. 2 for N W K locations).                     The FWS helps monitor studies regarding
       National-interest determinations involved in     impacts to birds and fish from the offshore produ-
the Section 1008 process are being requested from       ction well, causeway, and related facilities for the
the DOE. In 1986, the DOE determined it to be in         Endicott project. The studies began in 1985 and
the national interest to allow leasing anywhere         are to continue throughout the lifetime of the
 within the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The        project. The PSW is a member of the interagency
 BLM is providing the FWS with information on the       technical-review committee involved with this
oil and gas potential of refuges for use in final-      project. As part of the mitigation required for the
izing leasing policy on the comprehensive conser-       Endicott project on the North Slope, the FWS has
vation plans, Preliminary information has been          been jointly managing, with Standard Alaska
provided for the Alaska Peninsula, Becharof, and         Production Co., a study of Arctophila (Arctic
 Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuges.                 pendant grass) to determine the feasibility of
        Refuge lands leased by the BLM will be          revegetating disturbed wetlands.
 competitively leased if the land is in a Favorable           The Habitat Management Plan for the Tesh-
 Petroleum Geologic Province (as identified by the       ekpuk Lake Special Area (fig. 7 , in the northeast-
                                                                                          )
 Minerals Management Service) (fig. 7), or noncom-       ern part of the NPRA, was developed in 1986 by
 petitively leased if not within such a province, All    the BLM in cooperation with the FWS and the
 leasing, exploration, and production would be           Alaska Department of Fish and Game, in accor-
    dance with a 1985 memorandum of agreement.               gas resources. It has three principal components:
    One of the most productive and diverse wetland           a directory that lists approximately 85 data bases

I   ecosystems i n Arctic Alaska, this area may be
    made available for leasing, although it has a low
    oil and gas potential, given current economics and
    logistics of development. A final decision on the
                                                             containing Arctic energy-related information and
                                                             how to access them; a bibliographiclmanagement
                                                             information system (B/MIS) containing approxi-
                                                             mately 7,000 references and abstracts on energy-
I
    plan was postponed, pending results of further           related research; and a scientific and engineering
    studies on black brant use of the area.                  information system containing quantitative data
          The FWS commented on several proposed              on sea ice, ice gouging/scouring, and subsea-
    State oil and gas lease sales (fig. 6) during 1986: 45   permafrost characteristics from the B/MIS
    (Hope Basin), 49 (Cook Inlet), 50 (Camden Bay), 51       citations. AORIS also contains much unpublished
    (Prudhoe Bay Uplands), 54 (Kuparuk Uplands), 55          information on the Arctic.
    (Demarcation Bay), 56 (Alaska Peninsula), 57
    (North Slope Foothills), and 63 (Tanana Basin), as       Sea-Floor-Soils Research
    well as the proposed 5-year plan for State oil and             To improve Arctic petroleum-development
    gas lease sales. Additionally, the PWS commented         technology, the DOE sponsored sea-ice and sea-
    on the Minerals Management Service draft envi-           floor-soils research through several institutions
    ronmental-impact statement for the Federal               and agencies.      At the University of Alaska,
    Beaufort Sea Lease Sale 97, and two plans of             research was on ice-island generation from the
    operation for the previous Beaufort Sea Lease Sale       Canadian Islands ice shelves and their drift paths
    87.    The PWS's Fish and Wildlife Enhancement
                                                             into the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, and on determining
    field office i n Fairbanks continued permit review
                                                             spray-ice bond strength to offshore structures and
    and consultation activities for infill projects,         vessels. Several ice islands that have calved off
    primarily secondary and tertiary recovery, a t the       the Canadian Ellesmere lsland ice shelves during
    Prudhoe Bay oil field and for expansion of the           the past few years are being electronically tracked
    Kuparuk oil field.                                       in hopes of developing a drift-simulation model.
          A report on the 1985 PWS workshop on the
                                                             Most of these buoy-equipped ice islands are cur-
    potential impacts to caribou and the mitigation          rently located off Axel Heiberg Island, about 375
    possibilities with oil development on the coastal        miles west of Greenland, and are slowly
    plain of the ANWR was prepared by Elison and             proceeding southwest toward Alaska. Sea-spray-
    others (1986), before a similar conference
    sponsored by the Alaska Oil and Gas Association          ice bond shear strength to various structural and
                                                             prot ctive coatings has also been determined (1-4
                                                             Iblinh).
    and the Alaska Department of Fish and Game.
    The second conference, in October 1986, addressed                      Research demonstrated that a
    the broader issue of the impact on caribou from oil      polyethylene coating showed the most potential
    and gas development throughout the North Slope.          for rapid shedding of spray ice by gravity loading.
    The FWS was a conference participant.                          Through the U.S. Armv's Cold Regions Re-
                                                                                                      ~
                                                             search and Engineering ~ a b o F a t o r in, cooperation
                   Departmen! of Energy                      with the USGS, research is desianed to determine
                                                             the seasonal changes in temperature and salinity

I   Arctic Activities
          The    Arctic    and    Offshore    Research
                                                             at the seabed and how those changes influence
                                                             seabed freezing and the occurrences of ice-bonded
                                                             permafrost. During August 1985, four instrument
    subprogram of the DOE'S Advanced Process Tech-           packages that measure temperature and salinity
    nology program was established to enhance petro-         values a t the seawaterlseabed interface were
    leum-energy development by examining critical            deployed in Harrison and Prudhoe Bays (fig. 7).
    natural forces (such as sea ice and subsea-perma-        Information was collected hourly over the past
    frost formation) and their effects and to establish      year, and the instruments and data were retrieved
    a data base for Arctic parameters. Much of the           in August 1986. The data are currently being
    subprogram's efforts are directed a t offshore           evaluated.
    development (Morgantown Energy Technology                      Research conducted by Sandia National
    Center, 1987a); onshore objectives involve               Laboratories, i n cooperation with the Minerals
    enhanced oil recovery and study of heavy oil, oil        Management Service, was on measuring accelera-
    shale, and tar sands.                                    tion and velocity responses of the sea-floor soils to
          In 3986, the DOE continued developing the          strong earthquakes. A redesigned Seafloor Earth-
    Arctic energy-related technology data base               quake Measurement System (SEMS 11) unit was
    (AORIS), sponsoring seminars (Morgantown Energy          deployed near Shell's Ellen-Elly platforms about 1 0
    Technology       Center,    1986),     coordinating      mi west of Long Beach, Calif., in 250 f t of water.
    interagency     research,   and    studying     the      This unit successfully monitored two separate
    applicability of recovery techniques to Arctic           earthquakes measuring 6.0 and 5.8 on the Richter
    petroleum occurrences.                                   scale that occurred in southern California in July
          AORIS is a computerized information service        1986. This was the first time earthquakes that
    designed to assist the technological and planning        occurred near an offshore drilling platform have
    community in the development of Arctic oil and           been monitored simultaneously by sensors located
on land (USGS seismic stations along the coast),      public in 1986 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and
aboard offshore platforms (Shell-installed instru-    others, 1986). This report is the culmination of
mentation), and beneath the sea floor (the SEMS I 1   several years of Congressionally mandated studies.
monitor, buried about 5 ft into the seabed). The             The Arctic National Wildlife Range was
DOE plans to deploy SEMS I1 in the Bering Sea         created in 1960 by Public Land Order 2214,
during the late 1980's (fig. 7).                      encompassing 8.9 million acres of northeastern
       Also in cooperation with the USGS, DOE         Alaska. In 1980, with the enactment of ANILCA,
research was on the age and features of deep-         this unit was enlarged to 18.06 million acres and
water ice gouging (155- to 210-ft water depth) in     renamed the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.
the Beaufort Sea and the factors controlling the      Subsequently, other additions, including the utility
location of the ice-ridging shear zone, where         corridor immediately south of the original range,
shorefast ice meets the moving icepack. These         have increased the size of the ANWR to about 19.5
sea-floor chracteristics are important in locating    million acres. Also in ANILCA, Congress desig-
sea-floor equipment and pipelines in the area of      nated approximately 8 mjllion acres of the ANWR
the shear zone. The icegouging study demon-           as wilderness to be managed under the terms of
strated strong geologic evidence that the gouges      the Wilderness Act (78 Stat. 892).
observed in water depths to 210 f t could have              In Section 1002 of ANILCA, Congress: man-
occurred during the past few hundred years. The       dated a comprehensive and continuing inventory
ice-ridging shear zone occurs at essentially the      and assessment of the fish and wildlife resources
same position (in about 60 f t of water) year after   on an approximately 1.5-million-acre strip of
year, general]y associated with a break in slope.     coastal plain, now known as the 1002 area,
The bulldozing action of the ice and the currents     between the Staines-Canning River boundary of
shape and maintain thcse shoals.                      the ANWR and the Aichilik River (figs. 8, 9);
                                                      required an analysis of the environmental impact
Petroleum Research                                    of oil and gas exploration, development, and
                                                      production; and authorized exploratory activity
       A primary petroleum target is gas-hydrate      within the 1002 area in a manner that would avoid
 reservoirs, which contain gas in a solid, icelike    significant adverse effects on the fish and wildlife
 form. Occurrences of such hydrates have been
                                                      and other resources. That section required the
 identified on Alaska's North Slope, and the tech-
                                                      Secretary of the Interior:
 nology for characterizing and developing this
 resource is under study as part of the DOE1s Envi-   1,   To conduct a baseline study: to assess the
 ronmental and Advanced Research subprogram.               size, range, and distribution of the populations
 Subprogram efforts have recently been concen-             of fish and wildlife; to determine the extent,
 trating on laboratory testing of natural and syn-         location, and carrying capacity of the habitats
 thetic hydrates to define the pressure and temper-        of the fish and wildlife; to assess the impacts
 ature conditions and geophysical and mechanical           of human activities and natural processes on
properties in both inhouse and contractors1                the fish and wildlife and their habitat; and to
facilities (Morgantown Energy Technology Center,           analyze the potential impacts of oil and gas
 1987b). Arctic onshore and offshore research              exploration, development, and production on
studies to determine the inplace conditions of gas-        such wildlife and habitats, and on the culture
hydrate deposits have been initiated by the DOE in         and lifestyle of affected Native and other
cooperation with the USGS as well as with ARC0             peoples; and
Alaska, Standard Oil Co., and CONOCO.                 2.   To prepare and submit, not earlier than De-
       The DOE'S research on deep-source gas i s           cember 2, 1985, and not later than September
focused on evaluating the potential for recovering         2, 1986, a report to Congress containing: the
gas from depths greater than 30,000 ft, based on           identification, by means other than drilling of
the hypothesis that natural gas would be generated         exploratory wells, of those areas within the
in sediments carried to these depths by tectonic           1002 area that have oil and gas production
processes. Primary reservoir targets are former            potential, with estimated volumes; the
subduction zones where suitable sediments have             description of the fish and wildlife, their
been encapsulated. One of the study areas is               habitats, and other resources within such
Yukon Flats near Fairbanks (no. 9, fig. 7), where          areas; and an evaluation of the adverse
cooperative     stratigraphic,    structural,   and        effects that the carrying out of further
magnetotelluric     studies    are     under   way         exploration for, and the development and
(Morgantown Energy Technology Center, 1987~).              production of, oil and gas within such areas
The DOE has also sponsored a search for such gas           will have on the resources described. This
sources in south-central and southwestern Alaska           report shall also contain: a description of how
through the University of Alaska.                          such oil and gas may be transported to proces-
                                                           sing facilities; an evaluation of how such oil
         Arctic National Wildlife Refuge                   and gas relates to the national need for addi-
                                                           tional oil and gas; and recommendations as to
     The first multidisciplinary compilation of            whether further exploration, development,
Federal reports on the ANWH was released to the            and production should be permitted and, if so,
Figure 8.--1002 area of the Arctic Coastal Plain, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, is
            subJect of a petroleum assessment. Sadlerochit Mountains i n background are
            p a r t of a designated wilderness area. Photograph courtesy of Fish and W i l d l i f e
            Servi c e .
147O                 14E0                145O         14Q0     143O            142O            141"
r                     I                   I            I        I               1               I      I
       u
       0

       0   10   20
                              30 MILES

                      30KILOMETERS


                                  BEAUFORT      SEA




 Figure 9.--Location of Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 1002 area.         KIC, Kaktovik Inupiat
             Corp. lands.
     what additional legal authority is necessary to
     ensure that the adverse effects of such activi-
     ties are avoided or minimized.
      The PWS is the overall coordinator of the
Section 1002 resource assessment. In June 1983,
an interagency memorandum of understanding was
negotiated that provided for assistance from the
BLM and the USGS in assessing the hydrocarbon
potential of the 1002 area of the coastal plain and
in preparing the report to Congress. An Inter-
agency Review Panel, composed of representatives
from these three agencies and chaired by the FWS,
was formed to review and make recommendations
concerning the proposals from industry to conduct
geologic studies and geophysical surveys in the
1002 area. An Interagency Advisory Work Group,
composed of representatives from the same
agencies and again chaired by the FWS, was
formed in March 1984 to oversee preparation,
including the writing of some sections, of the
report. This group called on more than 50 scien-
tists from the Department of the Interior to
provide data and analyses of the biologic, physical,     Figure 10.--The musk ox is o n e o f t h e
cultural, and economic environments; conduct                           i n h a b i t a n t s b e i n g s t u d l e d i n the
geologic and geochemical investigations; and                           Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
provide interpretations and analyses of the geo-                       1002 area. P h o t o g r a p h courtesy
physical surveys, principally seismic and gravity,                     o f F i s h a n d Wildlife Service.
for the Secretary's report to the Congress.
Fish and Wildlife Service                               ANWR as navigation aids for offshore oil and gas
                                                        exploration and drilling activities. All exploration
       The F W S conducted baseline studies, as         activities were closely monitored by the FWS, and
directed by the Congress, from 1981 to 1985.            all companies were required to submit copies of
These studies focused on defining: (I) the ecology,     the data obtained as a result of their studies. The
distribution, and abundance of fish and wildlife                                          s
                                                        confidentjality of those data i addressed under
species (fig, 10); (2) wildlife habitats within the     the regulations that govern the 1002 area explora-
1002 area; and (3) the impacts of seismic explora-      tion program.
tion on tundra vegetation.      A initial baseline
                                 n                             A lawsuit filed by a coalition of environ-
report on fish, wildlife, and habitat resources was      mental organizations (Trustees for Alaska,
prepared by Garner and Reynolds, (1983), with            American Wilderness Alliance, Defenders of
annual updates for field studies from the years          Wildlife, Northern Alaska Environmental Center,
1983-84 (Garner and Reynolds, 1984, 1985); a             and the Wilderness Society) delayed submission of
report summarizing these results was prepared by         the report to the Congress. The court ruling in the
Garner and Reynolds (1986).                              organizations' favor was upheld upon appeal. That
       Under PWS special permits, Geophysical            1986 ruling required the FWS to prepare an EIS and
Service, Inc., sponsored by 23 participants the first    to solicit public comments before the Secretary's
season and by 21 participants the second season,         submission of the report to the Congress.
conducted group seismic surveys during the                     The draft, "Arctic National Wildlife Refuge,
winter-spring months of 1984 and 1985. A total of        Alaska, Coastal Plain Resource Assessment,
760 line-miles of seismic data, with associated          Report and Recommendation to the Congress of
gravity observations, was obtained in 1984, and          the United States and Legislative Environmental
573 line-miles of Vibroseis seismic data i n 1985.       lrnpact Statement," was released on November 24,
      Geologic field parties from 13 different           1986 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and others,
companies collected surface geologic information         1986).     The public-comment period extended
in the 1002 area during the summers of 1983-85.          through February 6, 1987, and three hearings were
International Technology, Ltd./Photogravity Co.          held on the report: January 5, 1987, in Anchorage,
was authorized to obtain gravity readings on an          Alaska; January 6 in Kaktovik, Alaska; and
approximately 1-by-2 -mi grid spacing over the           January 9 in Washington, D.C.
entire 1002 area in fall 1983; approximately 1,300             More than 11,000 letters were received
gravity readings were obtained during this               during the public-comment period. Approximately
survey. Chevron Alaska, Inc., conducted a surface        two-thirds favored opening the 1002 area of the
geologic study on the adjacent wilderness area           coastal plain to oil and gas leasing; one-third
under a special use permit i n 1986. Also under a        supported no development and a wilderness desig-
special use permit, two towers were erected in the       nation for the area.
      The final report was released on. April 20,              crude-oil market prices, inflation rates,
1987 (Clough and others, 1987). It includes a                  discount rates, and royalty rates; and
separate 998-page volume of all substantive com-          9.   Assessment of the effect of major oil and (or)
ments received from the public, as well as various             gas discoveries within the 1002 area on the
opinion letters and substantive written testimony              national security and flexibility for indepen-
received a t the public hearings. The Secretary of             dent action, the Nation's economic health, and
the Interior confirmed the draft recommendation                balance-of-payments problems at the turn of
of the Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife               the century.
and Parks.       His recommendation is that the
Congress authorize f u l l leasing of the 1002 area, in    ..
                                                          U S Geological Survey
an orderly oil and gas leasing program which                    The USGS cooperative contribution to the
avoids unnecessary adverse effects on the 1002            ANWR 1002 area studies, mandated under
area's wildlife, habitat, and environment.                ANILCA, and to the draft of the Secretary's report
                                                          to the Congress included determination of the
Bureau of Land Management                                 geologic framework, geologic trends and strati-
                                                          graphic relations, petroleum geology, potential
       The BLM1s cooperative contribution to the          development in conjunction with the BLM, and a
ANWR 1002 area studies, mandated under                    resource assessment, as well as a description of
ANILCA, and to the Secretary's report to the              the physical environment ol the 1002 area.
Congress included geophysical mapping of geologic         Specific studies and accomplishments included:
structures with the potential for economically            1. Participation on the PWS-USGSBLM Inter-
recoverable oil and natural gas resources, delin-             agency Review Panel for proposed geologic
eating the infrastructure required to get the                 and geophysical exploration plans;
potential resources to a point of transshipment to        2. Participation in the FWS-USGS-BLM Inter-
market, and evaluating the relation of those                  agency Advisory Work Group and assistance in
potential resources to the national needs for                  the preparation of, and in the reviews of, the
domestic oil and gas resources. Specific studies               various sections of the Secretary's report;
and accomplishments included:                             3. Geologic fieldwork, including rock sampling
1.   Participation on the FWS-BLM-USGS Inter-                  for organic and other chemical analyses, a t
     agency Review Panel for proposed geological               various localities within the 1002 area and in
     and geophysical exploration plans;                        adjacent areas where rock formations, antici-
2. Participation on the FWS-BLM-USGS Inter-                   pated to underlie the 1002 area, crop out;
     agency Advisory Work Group and assistance in         4.   Reconnaissance snow and spring-discharge
     the preparation of, and in the reviews of, the            surveys, and computation of drainage areas,
     various sections of the Secretary's report;               maximum flood discharges, unit runoffs, 2-
3. Analyses and interpretations of geophysical                 and 50-year-flood characteristics, for major
     survey data, principally seismic, provided by             streams within the 1002 area;
     industry; the integration, in conjunction with       5. Preparation, in cooperation with the FWS and
     the USGS, of these interpretations with                   the U.S. Army's Cold Regions Research and
     geologic information provided from surface                Engineering Laboratory, of "Vegetation and
     outcrops and from well logs in adjacent areas;            Land Cover'' maps (1:250,000 scale) for the
     and the preparation of time, depth, and                   1002      area,    using     digital    Landsat
     isopach maps for the 1002 area;                           multispectral-scanner and digital-terrain data
4.   Seismic delineation and mapping of 26 signif-             (Acevedo and others, 1982);
     icant oil and (or) gas prospects on, or              6. Preparation of "Engineering-Geologic Maps of
    generally within, the 1002 area boundaries;                Northern Alaska Coastal Plain and Foothills
5.   Participation with the USGS in developing the             of the ANWR," including generalized surficial
     assessment of both potential inplace and                  deposits of the 1002 area, on a 1:250,000 scale
     potential recoverable petroleum resources in              (Carter and others, 1986);
     the 1002 area;                                       7. Preparation of a newly compiled geologic map
6.   Projection of an exploration (drilling), devel-           (1:250,000 scale) of the 1002 area, the contin-
     opment, production (with associated infra-                uation of the coastal-plain areas to the east
    structure), and transportation scenario,                   and to the west, and the mountainous areas,
     including a generalized pipeline routing, for             with outcrops of significance to 1002 area
     bringing any discovered and economically                  studies, to the south (Bader and Bird, 1986);
    recoverable petroleum resources to market;            8. In cooperation with BLM geoscientists,
7. Assessment of various options, with an evalu-               determination of the geologic-structural
     ation of their engineering, environmental, and            framework, identification of regional and
     economic advantages and disadvantages, for                local geologic trends and stratigraphic rela-
     transportation of petroleum from the 1002                 tions, and integration of surface geology with
    area;                                                      the geophysical survey data, principally
8. Determination of threshold oil-field sizes for              seismic, provided by industry to analyze the
    economic viability under various assumed                   petroleum potential of the 1002 area; and
9.   Development, with assistance from the ELM,         ent rank of subbituminous B to C.
     of estimates of both potential inplace and                The ADGGS continued its investigation of
     potential recoverable petroleum resources in       the Chicago Creek coal field on the Seward Penin-
     the 1002 area.                                     sula (fig. 13). Feasibility studies on supplying coal
       A collection of 23 technical reports, sum-       to nearby villages for heat, as well as for fuel to a
marizing the petroleum geology used in assessing        powerplant, have been completed (Retherford and
the oil and gas resources of the 1002 area, will be     others, 1986). Articles in Petroleum Information's
published as U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1778       Alaska Report (May 14, 1986) and the Alaska
(Bird and Magoon, 1987). That volume will provide       JournaI of Commerce and Pacific Rim Reporter
a technical supplement to the report to the Con-        (Sept. 1, 1986) note that the Deadfall syncline area    I


gress.                                                  (fig. 13) i n the northern Alaska coal fields can
                                                        supply coal for heating to local villages for a t       I
                                                        least 100 years. Detailed environmental studies

                  COAL AND PEAT
                                                        are ongoing. Current plans call for surface mining
                                                        6 months per year at a rate of 50,000 tonslyr; the
                                                        coal will be trucked to nearby Omalik Lagoon and
                                                                                                                1
                                                                                                    -
                                                        stockpiled to be barged to coastal villages.
       Alaska's 1986 coal production was 1.49                 Peat mined i n Alaska is used primarily in
million tons (up 190,000 tons from 1985), with          agriculture and greenhouses as a soil conditioner;
exports at 700,000 tons (up 105,000 tons from           minor amounts are burned locally in villages for
1985) (Bundtzen and Green, 1987), in spite of a         heat. Because of the continued slump in Alaskan
forecast by the lndependent Petroleum Association       housing construction, peat production or use by
of America predicting a 1-percent decline in 1986       housing contractors was only 50,000 ydi, about 41
      ..
for U S coal production (Alaska Report, Nov. 5,         percent less than in 1985 (Bundtzen and Green,
1986). Alaskan coal production in 1986 was valued       1987).
at $40.1 million, an increase of $37,000 over the
1985 vaIue, and the fourth most valuable mineral                   Activity by Federal Agencies
commodity to the State of Alaska.
       During 1986, industrial activity focused on                    U.S. Geologic@SII~V~J
three Alaskan coal fields: Beluga, Healy, and
Jarvis Creek (fig. 13). The Diamond Alaska Coal                The USGS investigated the quality and
Co. plans to drill 36 coreholes in their Beluga         quantity of coal in the Chandler Lake 1:250,000-
resource-area lease beginning in 1987, to add           scale quadrangle (Pig. 13) in the southeastern part
statistical confidence to the company's coal-           of the Northern Alaska coal field as part of
quality information (Alaska Journal of Commerce         AMRAP. Coal of Cretaceous age in the north
and Pacific Rim Reporter, Mar. 17, 1986). Usibelli      third of the quadrangle has low contents of sulfur
Coal Co., located near Healy (fig. 13) and the only     (0.13-0.56 weight percent) and ash (2.7-15.4 weight
active coal mine in Alaska, produced 1.49 million       percent), and an apparent rank of high-volatile
tons of coal in spite of a March 1986 fire in the       bituminous A to high-volatile bituminous C. Also
conveyor system in their loading facility, and          as part of AMRAP, coal of Tertiary age in the
October floods that washed out sections of the          Nenana coal field has been mapped in the Healy
Alaska Railroad tracks south of Anchorage. The          1:250,000-scale quadrangle in central Alaska (fig.
railroad is used by Usibelli to haul coal to the part   13; Csejtey and others, 1986).
of Seward for loading onto transport ships bound               Coal of Late Cretaceous to Tertiary age in
for Korea. In 1986, half of the coal Usibelli pro-      the eastern part of the Northern Alaska coal field
duced was sold in Alaska to supply electricd            (fig. 13) has been sampled as part of the USGS
power and beating needs, and the remaining              Sedi mentary Hasins program.         This program
700,000 tons was exported to Ko~ea (Alaska              includes studies of depositiond, structural, dia-
Journal of Commerce and Pacific Rim Reporter,           genetic, and thermal processes useful in resource
Feb. 9, 1987). In January 1987, exports were            analyses. Preliminary results of two coal cores
halted for a limited time, owing to a temporary         from the Sagwon Bluffs along the Sagavanirktok
glut of coal at the powerplant in South Korea.          River (fig. 11) indicate that these Tertiary coals
Shipments are expected to resume in March               have a mean sulfur content of 0.12 weight percent
(Anchor~geDaily News, fan. 29, 1987). Usibelli          (0.08-0.17 weight percent), a mean ash content of
Coal Co. is currently attempting to expand their        8.0 weight percent (2.7-16.4 weight percent), and a
market, both instate and to other Pacific Rim           mode apparent rank of subbituminous B (range of
countries (Alaska JournaI of Commerce and               lignite A to subbituminous U). Efforts to correlate
Pacific R i m Reporter, Feb. 9, 1987). The Delta        coal beds (both surface and subsurface), evaluate
Coal Co., holder of a BLM preferential lease in the     the size of the resource area and determine depo-
Jarvis Creek coal field (fig. 131, has completed        sitional environments are continuing (Stephen
feasibility studies for mining coal. A t present,       Roberts, written commun., 1987).
they do not have a surface-mining permit or a firm             Coals from the Nensna field near Healg (fig.
market. "I'hecoal is reported to have a low sulfur      13) have been evaluated as petroleum sources.
content (0.42 to 1.5 weight percent) and an appar-      These Tertiary coals can be considered as
                                                       coal development    envisioned by the Diamond
                                                       Alaska Coal Co.

                                                                  --- of
                                                                  Bureau     Land Management
                                                              The BI,M continued its management of the
                                                       Delta Coal Co.'s lease in the Jarvis Creek coal
                                                       field south of Delta Junction (fig. 13). Coal from
                                                       this field is a potential feed stock to produce gas,
                                                       which, in turn, would be used to generate
                                                                                    ..
                                                       electrical power for the U S Army base a t Fort
                                                       Greeley, south of Delta Junction. Interest in
                                                       additional coal leasing on Federal land is low a t
                                                       this time.

                                                                    Fish and Wildlife Service

                                                            The North Slope Borough conducted a phase
                                                       I1 feasibility assessment for western Arctic coal


 Figure 11.--U.S. Geological Survey
               geologists examine coal cores a t
               the Sagwon Bluffs on the North
               Slope. Photograph by A.C.
               Cl.ark.


potential sources of gas and possibly oil, but they
are thermally immature (Stanley, 1987a). The
horizontal and vertical variation across the strip-
mine face of coal beds in the Usibelli mine have
also been studied (fig. 12). The upper part of the
No. 3 coal bed shows a marked increase in the
contents of beryllium, chromium, molybdenum,
niobium, scandium, sulfur, vanadium, ytterbium,
and yttrium, due to an interaction of oxygen-
charged ground-water solutions that came in
contact with the upper part of the coal bed and, in
part, to plant takeup of selected elements as
nutrients in the original peat swamp (R.H. Affolter
and C.D. Stricker, written commun., 1987).
       The USGS has been investigating the thickest
known coal bed in the State. The 185-ft-thick bed
is located on the Seward Peninsula in the Death
Valley area (fig. 13). This Eocene coal bed is
overlain by basalt and underlain by uranium-
enriched floor rock. The apparent rank ranges
from low-volatile bituminous A near the top of the
bed to subbituminous A near the base (G.D.
Stricker, written commun., 1987).
      The USGS is continuing its investigations of
the Beluga resource area on the west side of Cook
Inlet (fig. 13). The coal there has an apparent rank
of subbituminous C to B, a low sulfur content
(0.08-0.33 weight percent), and varying ash
content (4.7-46.5 weight percent) (Stricker and
others, 1986). The coal-ash mineralogy contains
mainly kaolinite and minor mica-type clays,
varying amounts of quartz, and scattered occur-          Figure 12.--U.S. Geological Survey geologist
rences of the phosphate mineral goyazite (M.E.                        examines a coal seam a t the
Brownfield, written commun., 1987). This infor-                       Usibelli Coal Mine, I n c ,
mation will provide background data for the future                    Photograph by R . H . Affolter.
F i g u r e 13.--Areas of potential coal and peat, uranium, and geothermal r e s o u r c e s mentioned
                  in text.
                                                                              GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES
1
I
             development on Native inholdings in the NPRA.
             The FWS provided input to this planning report
             relative to environmental concerns i n the area.            Alaska's geothermal resources are currently
r                                                                  used on a small, highly localized scale for recrea-
I                          D9artment of- Energy
                           -     - -- -                            tion, space heating, and agriculture. Potential
                                                                   sources of geothermal energy are widespread, as
I                  The DOE is examining coal resources in          indicated by present and former volcanic activity
             Alaska as part of Its Arctic and Offshore Research    on the Aleutian Islands, the Alaska Peninsula, the
I
I            subprogram. The goal of this subprogram is to         Wrangell Mountains, and elsewhere in the State
i            evaluate coal in terms of its contribution to the     (fig. 13). Such geothermal areas as Mount Spurr,
It           national resource base. The DOE also is actively
             studying coal-bed methane on a nationwide basis,
                                                                   which are close to existing power-transmission
                                                                   networks, are potential sources of power for the
             and has sponsored research projects through the       population centers of Alaska, whereas other areas,
I            University of Alaska that investigate means of        such as those in the Aleutians, may find principal
             liquefying certain Alaskan coals and the beneficia-   application as power sources for the fishing indus-
1            tion potential (for improvement of the ore grade)     try.
             of coals crushed to various fragment sizes.                 The Alaska        Department    of    Natural
                                                                   Resources, Division of Oil and Gas held a geo-
                                                                   thermal lease sale for the Mount Spurr area on
                                                                   June 24, 1986. Two tracts, totaling 2,628 acres,
    I
    I                              URANIUM                         were offered and attracted three bids; a previous
                                                                   sale in 1983 attracted one bid for 640 acres. The
                                                                    10-year geothermal-prospecting leases are renew-
                   Despite a 7-year decline in uranium explora-    able if production is obtained.
    I        tion in the United States, the uranium industry              Makushin Volcano, near Dutch Harbor and
             appears to have stabilized during 1986. lmported       Unalaska, has long been considered a potential
             uranium is a problem for domestic producers and       source of geothermal power. Studies of Makushin
             continues to supply about 4 0 percent of U.S.         funded by the Alaska Power Authority and the
             requirements. In 1986, $17 million was spent on       DOE have helped to delineate the resource. As a
             uranium exploration in the United States, and         followup to those studies, an engineering-geologic
             about 14 million lb of U308 was produced (Cheno-      site evaluation of the area of a proposed power-
             with, 1986).                                          plant and the transportation corridors from it has
                   There was no uranium exploration or produc-     recently been completed by the ADGGS (Updike,
        L*
        I    tion in Alaska during 1986. High exploration and       1986).
             production costs in the State discourage uranium
             activity during periods of low or moderate                       Activity by Federal Agencies
        i    demand.      However, certain kinds of potential
             uranium deposits could be of interest, such as                      U.S. Geological Survey
             surficial~depositswhere exploration and develop-
             ment costs are generally low.                               The USGS began detailed mapping a t
                                                                   Emmons Lake caldera (fig. 14) in 1986. Estimates

        I               Activity by Federal Agencies

                           pi&   Geological Survey
                                                                   by Smith and Shaw (1975) indicate that the
                                                                   Emmons Lake system may have one of the highest
                                                                   igneous-related heat contents in the Aleutian
                                                                   volcanic arc; McNutt and Jacob (1986) reported
                   Few reports specifically on uranium are         seismic evidence for the presence of a crustal
             being prepared by the USGS. However, reports          magma chamber beneath Emmons Lake. Geologic
             being prepared [or current mineral-assessment         mapping will provide more reliable data on the
             studies may include uranium along with other          ages and volumes of silicic eruptions, which will
             commodities.                                          refine estimates of the resource base.

                                                                                 Department     Enerpy

                   The USBM published a report on uranium                The DOE provided funds in fiscal year 1985
             occurrences i n the northern Darby Mountains on       for investigation of the geothermal-resource
             the Seward Peninsula of Alaska (Foley and Barker,     potential of Mount Spurr, and these studies contin-
             1986). Although no uranium ore deposits are           ued in 1986. The cooperative project by the
             known in the Darby Mountains, a local granite is      ADGGS and the University of Alaska included
             considered to be the source of the sedimentary-       mapping and dating of volcanic deposits and chem-
             rock-hosted uranium a t the Death Valley prospect,    ical and geophysical surveys. Their work docu-
             which occurs in the Death Valley sedimentary          mented the presence of a long-lived magmatic
             basin adjacent to the Darby Mountains (Uickinson      system (not necessarily a high-level magma cham-
             and Cunningham, 1984).                                ber), identified areas of thermal springs and fuma-
                                                    rolic activity, and delineated targets for further
                                                    study (Turner and Wescott, 1986).
                                                          A DOE-funded study of the Tolsona and
                                                    Klawasi mud volcanoes (fig. 15) in the Copper
                                                    River basin by Motyka and others (1986) examined
                                                    the chemistry of gases and waters from the two
                                                    areas, t o determine whether a geothermal
                                                    resource is present.    Applicable chemical geo-
                                                    thermometers indicate that Klawasi reservoir
                                                    temperatures are 100-125 OC, whereas those a t
                                                    Tolsona are 50-60 OC. Chemical and geophysical
                                                    evidence suggests that an igneous intrusion
                                                    beneath Klawasi may be 2.5 to 3.0 km deep. Both
                                                    areas are presently considered subeconomic for
                                                    geothermal-resource development.


Figure 14.--Emmons Lake caldera e a s t of Cold          NONFUEL-MINERAL RESOURCES
             Bay is s u b j e c t of U.S.
             Geological Survey geothermal-                         METALLIC MINERALS
             resource research. View shows
             western caldera wall and                                 Industry Activity
             Aghileen Pinnacles i n
             background. Photograph by M.E.               Overall, the national and worldwide metals
             Youn t .                               market remained depressed in 1986. Precious-
                                                    metal prices were relatively stable; consequently,
                                                    industry exploration activity in Alaska in 1986
                                                    concentrated on gold and, to a lesser degree,
                                                    platinum.
                                                          A total of 5,315 new mining claims were
                                                    filed in Alaska during 1986, i n comparison with
                                                    6,773 in 1985--a decrease of 22 percent. The
                                                    number of active claims maintained in 1986 was
                                                    71,024, in comparison with 81,782 for 1985--a
                                                    decrease of 1 4 percent.
                                                          Data obtained by the State of Alaska
                                                    (Bundtzen and Green, 1987) indicate that
                                                    statewide production of metals totaled about $62
                                                    million in 1986 (table 3), a decrease of about 0.3
                                                    percent relative to 1985. Gold accounted for 98
                                                    percent of the 1986 value. A total of 195 mecha-
                                                    nized placer gold mines were in operation in 1986,
                                                    in comparison with 266 in 1985--a drop of 27
                                                    percent. Cold production i n 1986 was 160,000 troy
                                                    oz, in comparison with 190,000 troy oz in 1986--a
                                                    decrease of 16 percent. Because the average price
                                                    of gold increased from about $320/troy o s in 1985
                                                    to about $380/troy oz in 1986, the dollar value of
                                                    gold produced in 1986 ($60,800,000) decreased only
                                                    0.3 percent from the 1985 value ($61,175,000).
                                                          The reason for the decrease in the number of
                                                    operating placer gold mines in 1986 is complex.
                                                    The most signilicant factor is increased enforce-
                                                    ment of enviromental regulations regarding the
                                                    quality of water discharged from the mines. Three
                                                    national parks and preserves were effectively
                                                    closed to mining in 1986 owing to litigation (see
                                                    next subsection). A lolal of 30 mining operations
Figure 15.--Klawasi mud volcar~o in the             employing 175 people were unable      taoperate in
            copper ~ i v basin is one t a r g e t
                            e ~                     1986 because of this lawsuit (Rundtzen and Green,
            of Department of Energy-                1987).
            sponsored research. Photograph                Areas of important industry activity in 1986
            by T . P . Miller.                      are shown in figure 17.
  'Information w i t h h e l d by mine operators


                 Precious Metals

      The most significant precious-metals devel-
opment in Alaska in 1986 was the anset of offshore
mining near Nome by Inspiration Gold, Inc. (IGI).
After a successful sampling program in 1985, IGI
purchased and moved a large offshore dredge, the
 m
B ,    from lndonesia in July 1986. Th Bima (fig.
                                       f
16) is capable of processing 40,000 yd Id of sand
and gravel.    Actual mining was hampered by
unusually bad weather and shortcomings in the
circuit for handling the concentrates; still, the
venture was considered encouraging enough for IGI
to barge the dredge to Seattle for refitting during     Figure 16.--The     m,  a new offshore gold
winter 1986-87. The project employed 66 people                       dredge i n the Norne area, is
during operation from July to October, 44 of whom                    approximately 525 ft long, 140
were Nome residents. In 1986, Nerco Minerals Co.                     f t wide, and 14 s t o r i e s h i g h .
and Meridian Minerals Co. signed an agreement to                     Inspiration C o l d , I n c . ,
conduct exploration for gold and ather metals in                     photograph by Laura KoseL1,
Alaska (Alaska Journal of Commerce and Pacific
Rim Reporter, May 5, 1986). Actual exploration
was to be carried out by Research Associates of       (Northern Miner, Mar. 17, 1986). Plans called for
Alaska (Fairbanks, Alaska), a wholly owned subsid-    partial rehabilitation of the mine workings and an
iary of Nerco. On December 18, 1986, Nerco            evaluation of the remaining reserves. Echo Bay
announced plans to relocate most of its geologists    Mines Ltd. made plans to evaluate gold reserves at
to Vancouver, Wash., reducing the size of the         the Juneau and Treadwell mines near Juneau
Fairbanks office by 75 percent.                       (Petroleum Information's Alaska Report, Oct. 8,
      Several Canadian companies explored for         1986). Discovery Gold Explorations had plans to
precious metals in Alaska in 1986. Queenstake         continue evaluating the Dawson mine cm Prince of
Resources acquired lease rights to the Chichagof      Wales Island (Alaska JournaE af Commerce and
and adjoining Wirst-Chichagof mines near Juneau       Pacific Rim Reporter, Yeb. 2, 1987).
h     w
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      In January 1986, the Grant gold mine near                Greens Creek, located on Admiralty Island in
Fairbanks was shut down after only 2 months of          southeastern Alaska, is a lead-zinc-silver-gold
operation (Petroleum Information's Alaska Report,       deposit that also holds great promise of becoming
Jan. 8, 1986) because Aurex, Inc. w a s disappointed    a producing mine.      In February 1986, Amselco
by initial operating results. Aurex, Inc., a subsid-    Minerals, a subsidiary of BP North America,
iary of Marubeni Corp. of Japan and a major             purchased Anaconda Minerals Co.'s share (39.4
partner in the operation, later withdrew from the       percent) of the deposit (Petroleum Information's
project (Petroleum Information's Alaska Report,         Alaska Report, Feb. 5, 1986).        In May 1986,
Jan. 29, 1986).                                         Amselco purchased Noranda Mining, Inc.'s share of
                                                        39.5 percent (Petroleum Information's Alaska
          Strategic and Critical Minerals               Report, May 14, 1986). Road construction a t the
                                                        deposit began in August 1986, but a final decision
       Industry activity in 1986 in strategic and       about developing the property is not expected until
critical rninerals was limited to tin and platinum.     early 1987.
Tin City Mining Co. continued to mine placer tin              For U.S. Borax's Quartz Hill molybdenum
a t Tin City on the Seward Peninsula (T.K.              deposit, the year was one of waiting. Efforts to
13undtzen, oral corn rnun., 1987). Although small       obtain    necessary     permits   continued,   but
amounts of tin are produced a t a few gold placer       molybdenum prices will have t o improve before
mines, the Tin City mine is the United States' only     mine construction can begin (Alaska Journal of
producing primary tin mine. In 1986, approxi-           Commerce and Pacific R i m Reporter, Oct. 27,
mately 340,000 Ib of tin metal was produced             1986).
(averaging about 7 5 weight percent Sn), up from
the nearly 300,000 Ib produced in 1985. Hanson
P~operties continued to mine placer platinum a t                  Activity By Federal Agencies
Goodnews Ray (fig. 17); production figures are
confidential. Fears about the unstable political                      UIS,. Geological Survey
situation in South Africa generated numerous
inquiries about the Goodnews Ray mine, the only               Studies of nonfuel minerals in Alaska are an
significant producer of platinum in the United          important part of the USGS programs in Alaska.
States (Petroleum Information's Alaska Report,          AMRAP continues as a major USGS program for
July 23, 1986). The Canadian firms American             geologic mapping and assessment of the mineral
Platinum, Inca., and Orbex Industries announced         potential of Alaskan lands. AMRAP activities in
plans to examine the Salt Chuck mine, a former          1986 were commensurate with the past few
producer of copper, gold, silver, and palladium (a      years. The 'I'ACT program (fig. 18) continues, and
platinum-group metal) (Mining Journal, Oct. 31,         many of the data have been gathered for the
19861,                                                  southern and central parts of the transect.
                    Other Metals
                                                        Alaska Mineral Resource Assessrnent Program
        Zinc and lead prices began to rise slowly in
 the second half of 1986, reversing the trends of
                                                               AMKAP studies are conducted a t four pro-
 previous years and providing further economic
                                                        gressively more detailed levels to produce com-
 hope for several major mineral deposits in
                                                        prehensive assessments of Alaska's mineral and
 Alaska. Red Dog, one of the largest undeveloped
                                                        energy resources. Level 1 studies are statewide in
 zinc-lead-silver deposits in the world, continued to
                                                        scope; published maps are generally a t a scale of
 move closer to becoming a mine. The deposit,
                                                        1:2,500,000. I n 1986, work continued on maintain-
 located in northwestern Alaska, has proven
                                                        ing and updating the mineral data base for the
reserves of 85 million tons of einc-lead-silver ore
                                                        entire State of Alaska, including a major compil-
 and a projected mine life of 50 years (Mining
                                                        ation of the significant metallic lode deposits and
 Engineering, Dec. 1986). The State of Alaska
                                                        placer districts of Alaska (Nokleberg and others,
authorized $175 million in loans for construction
                                                         1981).
of a port facility to service the mine and for a
road from the mine to the port.            In March,          Level I1 studies address large parts of the
 Cominco Alaska, Inc., Mining Co. and the State         State; resulting maps are generally a t a scale of
reached an agreement on financing and on a loan-        1:1,000,000. Studies related to the metallogenesis
 repayment schedule for the road (Anchorage Daily       of the eastern Alaska Kange continued, and the
 News, Mar. 18, 1986); construction of the port         last level 11 study in Alaska, on the geology and
facility began in 1986. Request for bids for road       mineral resources of the Alaska Peninsula, began
construction are to begin during winter 1986-87,        in 1986.
with construction to start during winter 1987-88.             Level 111 studies continue to receive the
In November 1986, Cominco officials formally            major effort of AMRAP (fig. 19), consisting of
announced plans to develop the deposit; construc-       multidisciplinary   evaluations involving team
tion of the mine could begin as early a s 1987          studies of selected lo by 3 (1:250,000 scale)
                                                                                       '
(Alaska Journal of Commerce and Pacific Rim             quadrangles.     Geologic, geochemical, and geo-
 Reporter, June 16, 1986).                              physical data are gathered to define and assess
Figure 18.--Locations of U.S. Geological Survey metallic-mineral studies in 1986.
areas of mineral-resource potential for specific                            others, 1986); geology and mineralization a t
types of deposits. Studies are in progress i n 20                           several mineral deposits i n the Brooks Range
quadrangles.    17ieldwork in the Bendeleben and                            (Folger and Schmidt, 1986; Schrnidt and Folger,
Solomon quadrangles was completed in 1985; the                              1986); rock geochemical data for the Port Moller,
geologic map and fossil data have been published                            Stepovak Bay, and Simeonof Island quadrangles
(Till and others, 1986), and other reports are in                           (Angeloni and others, 1986); geologic maps o f t h e
preparation. In 1986, fieldwork was cornpleted in                           Rendeleben and Solomon quadrangles, and the
the Baird Mountains, Port Moller, Stepovak Bay,                             southern part of the ~ o t z e b quadrangle (Till and
                                                                                                             ~e
Simeonof Islands, lditarod (a joint project with the                        others, 1986); a geologic map of Chugach National
ADGGS), Mount Katmai, Naknek, Anchorage,                                    Forest (Nelson and others, 1986); a geologic map
Killik River, and Chandler Lake quadrangles;                                of the Wiseman quadrangle (Dillon and others,
reports are currently in preparation for these                              1986); and analytical data for sediment samples
areas.    Fieldwork continues in the Livengood,                             from    the    Cordova     and    Middleton    Island
Juneau, Taku River, Craig, Dixon Entrance, and                              quadrangles (Sutley and others, 1986). Many other
Gulkana quadrangles; studies in Lime Hills and                              reports resulting from USGS activities in 1986 are
Bethel quadrangles were started in 1986. Most                               in press or in preparation; among those relevant
level Ill AMRAP projects also publish an assess-                            t o mineral deposits are: geologic maps and (or)
ment of the mineral resources of the quadrangle                             mineral-resource appraisals of the Katmai,
examined.                                                                   Naknek, Baird Mountains, Port Moller, Stepovak
       Level 1V studies consist of detailed mapping                         Bay, Sitneonof Islands, Iditarod, Mount Hayes,
(at a scale of 1:63,360 or larger) of mining dis-                           Chandler I.ake, Rendeleben, and Solomon quad-
tricts, specific mineral deposits, and related                              rangles and the southern part of the Kotzebue
subjects. The locations of level IV studies are                             quadrangle; rnetallogeny arld major mineral
shown in figure 19, and the project titles are listed                       deposits of Alaska; and melalliferous lode deposits
in table 4,                                                                 and placer districts of Alaska.
       Some of the reports published in 1986 as a                                 The third annual Mcfielvey Forum, entitled
result of AMRhP and related USGS programs                                   "USGS Mjneral Resources Research: Progress and
include: examination of lode and placer gold                                Perspectives, 1987," included several oral and
deposits in part of the Iditarod quadrangle (fig. 20;                       poster presentations on research of mineral
Bundtzen and others, 1986); geology of placer                               deposits in Alaska, The forum was held March 11-
deposits in the lditarod quadrangle (Bundtzen and                           12, 1987, in Denver, Colo.


                   Table 4.--Level          I V s t u d i e s of t h e Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment
                                                       Program a c t i v e i n 1986

      [ F i g u r e 18 shows g e n e r a l i z e d a r e a s under s t u d y . Project chiefs a r e l i s t e d in
      parentheses.        P r o j e c t s marked by an a s t e r i s k a r e o f s t a t e w i d e scope. Data modified
      from Winkler and Grybeck ( 1 9 8 6 ) l

                                     --     -         -.            --                     --



                                              Areal m i n e r a l - r e s o u r c e   assessments


      *Tin commodity s t u d i e s (B.L. Reed)
      * P l a c e r gold d e p o s i t s t u d i e s (W.E. Yeend)
      * S u b j e c t i v e p r o b a b i l i t y e s t i m a t i o a s of Alaskan m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s (W.D. Menzie)
       Mineral d e p o s i t s , w e s t e r n Brooks Range (J.M.                 Schmidt)
       M e t a l l o g e n e s i s , e a s t e r n Alaska Range (W.J.           ~okleberg)
       Geology and m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s , Yukon-Tanana Upland (H.L. F o s t e r )
        Geology and m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s , Norton Bay-Unalakleet a r e a (W.W.                          Patton)
       T i n and t u n g s t e n d e p o s i t s , C i r c l e d i s t r i c t (B.L. Reed and W.D. Menzie)
        Ore d e p o s i t s of Chugach N a t i o n a l F o r e s t (S.W. Nelson)


                                               Areal energy-resource                  assessments


        Petroleum p o t e n t i a l of t h e Yukon-Kandik Basin (H.E. Cook)
        Geologic framework and petroleum p o t e n t i a l of t h e Nenana Basin (R.G.                              Stanley)
        Coal s t u d i e s i n the Nenana Basin (C. Wahrhaftig)
 Genesis o f t r a c e elements of t h e Nenana Basin c o a l f i e l d s (G.D.                         Stricker)
 Coal r e s o u r c e s of n o r t h e r n Alaska (G.D. S t r i c k e r )
 Uranium p o t e n t i a l of Alaskan b a s i n s (K.A. Dickinson)



                                           Exploration geophysical studies


 G r a v i t y s t u d i e s ( i n c l u d i n g Red Dog, H a i n e s , and Red Mountain d e p o s i t s ) (D.J.     Barnes)
 Geophysics of t h e Yukon-Koyukuk Basin and i t s b o r d e r l a n d s (J.W. Cady)
 Mining g e o p h y s i c s of c e n t r a l Alaska (D.L. Campbell)



                                                Biostratigraphic studies


 Brooks Range and A r c t i c Slope s t u d i e s (L.N. Marincovich)
* P a l e o z o i c and Mesozoic r a d i o l a r i a n s (C.D. Blome and B.L. Murchey)
*Brachiopod and conodont paleogeography (J. T, Dutro and A.G. H a r r i s )
 Mesozoic d i n o f l a g e l l a t e b i o s t r a t i g r a p h y , s o u t h e r n Alaska (N. A l b e r t )



                                             Framework o r p r o c e s s s t u d i e s


 Yukon-Koyukuk c r u s t a l t r a n s e c t s t u d y (W.W. P a t t o n )
 S t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s of i n t e r i o r metamorphic t e r r a n e s (J.H. Dover)
 Mafic and u l t r a m a f i c r o c k s of Alaska (B.A. Loney)
 C o a s t a l sediments of upper Cook I n l e t ( S . Bartsch-Winkler)
 Upper Mesozoic s t r a t i g r a p h y of t h e Alaska P e n i n s u l a (R.L. Detterman)
 Upper Cook I n l e t - N e l c h i n a a r e a s t r a t i g r a p h i c s t u d i e s (A. Grantz and T.E.      Moore)
*Paleornagnetism of a c c r e t e d t e r r a n e s (C.S. Gromme)
*Metamorphic-facies map of Alaska (C. Dusel-Bacon)
 Northwestern Alaska c r u s t a l s t u d y (A.B. T i l l )



                                          E x p l o r a t i o n geochemical s t u d i e s


 Alaska p l a c e r g o l d d e p o s i t s (J.C. A n t w e i l e r )
 Southern Alaska l o d e g o l d d e p o s i t s (J.R. G o l d f a r b )
 Geochemistry i n g l a c i a l a r e a s (E.B. Evenson)



                                          I s o t o p i c and r a d i o m e t r i c s t u d i e s


*K-Ar s t u d i e s and radiometric-age f i l e (N. Shew)
*Lead and oxygen i s o t o p e s t u d i e s (S.E. Church)
 Geochemical c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of a c c r e t e d igneous a r c s , s o u t h e r n Alaska (F. B a r k e r )
                                                      Other Metals

                                                            Studies of other types of mineral deposits in
                                                      Alaska include an examination of mineral deposits
                                                      in the western Brooks Range, and examination of
                                                      ore deposits in Chugach National Forest (fig. 21).




 Figure 20.--U.S. Geological Survey geologist
             examining hydraulic gold-mining
             operation near Iditarod during
             mineral-assessment study.
             Photograph by D . J . Grybeck.


      The third year of work on the TACT program
was completed on schedule. This program is a
major integrated multidisciplinary investigation
designed to study the geology, tectonics, and deep-
crustal structure or Alaska along a corridor
parallel to the Trans-Alaska Pipeline. Fieldwork
in 1986 concentrated on deep-crustal seismic-
refraction studies in the central section of the
transect (fig. 18). Recent reports include a major
summary article on the geology, geophysics, and
tectonics of southern Alaska (Page and others,
1986), and companion articles about the geology
and geophysics of sections of the transect.            Figure 21.--1nterbedded massive s u l f i d e o r e
                                                                    (dark l a y e r s of chalcopyrite and
Precious Metals                                                     p y r i t e ) and sandstone ( l i g h t
      USGS geologists are involved in several                       l a y e r s ) i n main stope of the
studies of precious-metal occurrences in Alaska.                    Midas mine near Valdez. Study
Research underway and reports published in 1986                     is p a r t of U.S. Geological
include those on: gold veins of the Seward Penin-                   Survey i n v e s t i g a t i o n of o r e
sula, gold deposits of the Juneau area (Leach and                   deposits i n Chugach National
others, 19861, and gold occurrences in south-                       Forest. Photograph by S.W.
central Alaska (Goldfarb and others, 1986). In                      Nelson.
1986, a report was published on placer gold occur-                    U.S. Bureau of Mines
rences in the Koyukuk-Chandalar mining district.
Most level JJI A M K A P studies also involve some          The USBM's AFOC is responsible for con-
aspect of precious-metal deposits.                    ducting four programs under the directorate of
                                                      Mineral Data Analysis and for coordinating work
Strategic and Critical Minerals                       with other USBM research centers throughout the
       In 1986, the USGS initiated a study of the     United States.
Salt Chuck copper, gold, silver, and palladium
deposit, which also contains minor amounts of         Minerals Availability Program
platinum. Budget constraints in 1986 prevented
continuing a study of tin occurrences on the                The Minerals Availability Program is
Seward Peninsula; this study is anticipated to        described in appendix 2 of this report. A density
resume in 1987. Also in 1986, a report was pub-       plot of mineral locations on the Minerals Avail-
lished on strategic and critical minerals in the      ability System (MAS) data base in Alaska is shown
N P R A (Ellersieck and Tailleur, 1986).              in figure 22. In 1986, data for 145 Alaskan proper-
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ties were entered in its MILS data base (a subset       The program will identify the type, amount, and
of MAS) as potential mineral producers. A MILS
                                            n           distribution ol mineral deposits i n the district,
directory for Alaska, listing the names and loca-       determine ore reserves, study bencficiation tech-
tions of 281 deposits and detailed information for      nologies for the ore, make feasibility studies, and
67 significant deposits, is i n the final editorial     address economic and legislative effects on min-
process. Minerals Availability Program activities       eral development. The Juneau study is a cooper-
included an economic-feasibility analysis of off-       ative effort involving the USBM and the ADGGS.
shore gold mining in the Norne area, which is to be     ADGGS personnel make detailed geologic studies
included in a USBM report to the Minerals               of selected areas, while USHM personnel conduct
Management Service.                                     site-specific examinations.
                                                              'I'he Juneau mining district has been sub-
      Other activities during 1986 included a study
                                                        divided into four areas for evaluation, shown in
of Alaska placer and lode production to predict         fig. 23: the Glacier Bay/Mouni Fairweather area;
remaining reserves of past Alaska precious-metal        the Volcanic area, which includes the West Lynn
producers, and a study of the feasibility of mining
                                                        Canal, Haines, and Porcupine areas; the Juneau
near-shore and offshore mineral deposits of
                                                        Gold Belt; and the Molybdenite area, bordering
Alaska, initiated in 1986 as part of USRM partici-
                                                        Canada, north and east of the Juneau Gold Belt.
pation in an Exclusive Economic Zone study.
                                                               Work i n Glacier Ray is nearing completion.
Minerals Policy and Analysis                            A metallurgic test sample collected from the
                                                        upper and lower nunataks of the Brady Glacier
      The USBM's Division of Minerals Policy and        nickel-copper-cobalt/platinum-group          metals
                                                        deposit is being evaluated for recovery of cobalt
Analysis centered its attention on the status of
land that is available for mineral exploration and      and platinum-group metals (PGM).                        ,
development in Alaska versus land that is                      In the Iiaines area, a granite porphyry was
restricted.   Map overlays at 1:250,000 scale           discovered north of Klukwan that contained copper
showing the categories of land availability for         mineralization. Samples collected from a mag-
northern, north-central, south-central, and south-      netite-copper-cobalt skarn discovered on the south
eastern Alaska have been open-filed in the USBMts       side of the l'sirku River contain traces of gold. On
Anchorage,    Fairbanks, and Juneau offices             the basis of sample results and geologic examina-
(Roberts, 1985; Rottge, 1986b, c; Maas, 1987).          tion, several West Lynn Canal areas were deter-
Keports that include analytical data and land-          mined to be favorable for hosting significant
availability maps at 1:500,000 scale have been          mineralization.
published for southeastern, north-central, and                 During July 1986, a USBM crew discovered
south-central Alaska (Roberts, 1985; Rottge,            copper-gold mineralization in a roadcut 3.1 mi
1986b, c), The report on northern Alaska is in          south of the city of Haines. Subsequent work on
press, and a compilation for western and south-         the prospect consisted of trenching, mapping,
western Alaska is in preparation. A report com-         sampling, and geophysical surveys. Preliminary
paring the cost effectiveness of company towns          sample results indicate gold values as high as 0.9
versus commuting camps i n developing Alaska's          troy oz/ton and copper values as high as 22 weight
mineral resources was also published (Bottge,           percent. Geophysical surveys conducted over the
1986a).                                                 roadcut indicate that the mineralized zone extends
                                                        for at least 1,000 ft along strike and that a smaller
State Mineral Activities                                mineralized area exists 130 f t east of the roadcut
                                                        zone.
       Reports written under the auspices of the               As part of the USRM-AD G S cooperative
State Mineral Officer include the Alaska chapter        project, approximately 380 krn'        in the upper
in the "Minerals Yearbook, Volume 11" and the
annual preliminary "Mineral Industry Survey,"
                                                        Chilkat and Kelsaw River drainages (Skagway C-
                                                        and C-4 quadrangles) and approximately 260 k m     a
which details significant mineral activity through-     in the northern Chilkat Mountains (Skagway A-2,
out the State in the preceding year. Periodic           A-3, and A-4 quadrangles) were geologically
updates have been prepared for the "Alaska               mapped at a scale of 1:40,000, and sampled for
Mineral Briefing Profile,'! as have listings of          mineral content by State geologists.
associations and organizations interested in miner-             The USBM and ADGGS completed an evalua-
als, and of meetings, conferences, and symposia of      tion of the placer resources of the Porcupine
the mineral industry. The State Mineral Officer          mining area near Haines during 1986. The USBM
continues to participate with the interagency team       sampled and evaluated the placer deposits (fig.
preparing the EIS for the Quartz Hill molybdenum         24),    and the ADGGS mapped the geology and
mine project.                                            summarized the glacial geologic history of the
                                                         area. Three types of placer deposits occur in the
Mineral Land Assessment                                  area:     (1) stream-channel gravels; (2) bench
                                                         placers; and (3) alluvial fans.      Each of these
      The USRM's fieldwork in the Juneau mining          deposit types was sampled to estimate resources,
district (loc. A, fig. 23) is part of a 4-year study.    identify gold fineness (a measure of gold purity),
        determine mineral-development-potential ratings       tions in drainages with anomalous placer-sample
        for streams, and calculate optimum screening          values also identified previously unknown lode
        sizes for use in recovery plants. For 1 3 samples,    mineralizaton.
        gold fineness ranged from 6fi9 to 902 and averaged           Information Circular 9113 (Hoekzema and
                                                              others,1986) describes the history, characteristics,
                                      4
        837; the fineness of pure gol is 1,000. Identified
        resources include 932,000 yd of gravel rated a t      distribution, and mineral-development potential of
        moderate or high mineral-development potential.       21 lode gold deposits in or near Chugach National
        A report summarizing the results of the study was     Forest. The report includes findings from a 4-year
        published by Hoekzema and others (1986).              (1979-82) mineral evaluation conducted by the
              During the 1986 field season i n the Juneau     USBM and the USGS This evaluation, undertaken
        Gold Belt, the USRM located 5 1 prospects men-        to provide the USFS with mineral-resource data
        tioned    in   various literature sources and         for decisionmaking on land use, included site-
        reexamined 21 others. Field crews collected about     specific mapping and sampling of more than 200
        600 samples and mapped 7,850 f t of underground       lode gold deposits. Of the 21 lode gold deposits
        workings. Metallurgic test samples were collected     described in Information Circular 9113, 14 contain
        from the Alaska Juneau mine, the Treadwell            a combined identified resource of 117,750 tons
        Mexican pit No. 1, Nevada Creek, the Ibex, the        averaging 0.55 troy oz Au/ton and 0.2 troy oz
     J Peterson, the E Pluribus Unum, and the Jualin.
      "                                                       Ag/ton. Two mineralized felsic dikes in the Sum-
4-
        Two USUM open-file reports were released on the       mit Lake-Palmer Creek area contain a combined
        Juneau Gold Belt, one on the results of 1985 work     identified resource of 18 million tons grading 0.02
        (Redman and others, 1986) and one on the              troy oz Au/ton and 0.16 troy oz Ag/ton. Identified
        historical development of mining in the gold belt     resources were not determined for the remaining
        (Redman, 1986).                                       five deposits because of an absence of
              Work in the Molybdenite area (fig. 23) was      information.
        limited to reconnaissance efforts. Preliminary               Open-Pile Report 50-86 (Meyer, 1986) sum-
        data analysis indicates that although molybdenum      marizes investigations of lode and placer deposits
        is widespread, concentrations are very rare.          in the Valdez Creek mining district east of Cant-
        l~owever,the data indicate that areas in Boundary     well. Three significant mineralized areas were
        Creek and the north fork of the Speel River are       delineated: the Chulitna River-Broad Pass area,
        worthy of a followup investigation, and several       the Clearwater Mountains area, and the., Maclaren
        adjacent areas o f metamorphic rock may contain       River and Glacier.
        significant concentrations of base or precious               An evaluation of the mineral-development
        metals. State geologists reconnaissance-mappe         potential of onshore platinum and gold resources in
        and geochemically sampled approximately 850 km   9    the Goodnews mining district was completed in
                                                              1986. Preliminary results from the samples col-
        of the northern part or t h e Molybdenite area
1       (Skagway C-1, C-2, C-3, and 11-2 quadrangles).        lected indicate that        minor precious-metal
                                                              resources exist along the beaches between
              Fieldwork for the Chugach National Forest
        Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE) 1      1   Chagvan and Goodnews Bays, drainages in the Red
        study was completed in 1982. USBM reports             Mountain area contain significant placer platinum
        published in 1986 evaluating placer and lode gold     values, and two drainages in the Wattamuse area
        deposits in and near Chugach National Forest are      have significant mineral development potential for
        described below.                                      placer gold. Float samples collected from the
              Information Circular 9091 (Hoekzema and         Upper Wattamuse Creek area contained as much
        Fechner, 1986) summarizes the USRM placer gold        as 2 troy oz Au/ton. Bulk samples collected from
        studies in Chugach National Forest. Five types of     the top of Red Mountain show a source of both
        placer gold deposits were identified: alluvial,       platinum and gold for the Salmon River placer
        bench, eluvial, glacial, and marine. Placer mining    deposits.
        from the mid-1890's through 1982 produced an                 Additional reports summarizing USBM recon-
        estimated 133,800 troy oz of gold, of which two-      naissance in the Yentna and Willow Creek mining
        thirds was produced before 1920. As much a s          districts were completed (Fechner, 1986; Kurtak,
        6,800 troy oz of placer gold was produced from         1986).
         1979 t o 1982; most production came from Crow,
        Canyon, and Resurrection Creeks.                      Critical and Strategic Minerals
              Placer sampling indicated a potential for
        gold production from alluvial and bench placers             As part of the studies mandated by ANILCA,
        associated with historically mined drainages, such    the USBM is evaluating occurrences of strategic
        as Crow, Canyon, Kesurrection, Sixmile, and Mills     and critical minerals. Project work in 1986 was
        Creeks, and from unmined drainages, including the     divided    between    studies   of   tin-tantalum-
        Avery, Kings, Snow, Copper, and Tasnuna Rivers        columbium and chromium-cobalt-PGM.              The
        and several smaller streams throughout Chugach        results of USBM chromite investigations in Alaska
        National Forest. Results of tests indicated that      were summarized by Poley and others (1986).
        gold from Chugach National Forest ranges in           Locations of the 1986 USBM project work are
        fineness from 455 to 950. Subsequent investiga-       shown in figure 23 and listed in table 5. Deposits
        T a b l e 5.--Areas        of U.S.      Bureau o f Mines a c t i v i t y i n m i n i n g d i s t r i c t s and c r i t i c a l
                                                 and s t r a t e g i c m i n e r a l s i n 1986

      [ S e e f i g u r e 23 f o r l o c a t i o n s .   FCM, platinum-group          m e t a l s ; REE, r a r e - e a r t h    element]
                                                                                                                     ---   -. .
                                                                                                                             . .

                    Mining d i s t r i c t a r e a                                   Deposit of major i n t e r e s t


                         A.     Juneau                                A.   Lode g o l d , v o l c a n o g e n i c m a s s i v e s u l f i d e ,
                                                                             sediment-hosted massive s u l f i d e ,
                                                                             molybdenum p o r p h y r y , p l a c e r g o l d .

                         B.     Goodnews Bay                          B.   P l a c e r g o l d and p l a t i n u m

      Area o f c r i t i c a l and ~ t r a t e g i cm i n e r a l s               Element o r m i n e r a l o f i n t e r e s t


                      Cape P r i n c e o f Wales,                                 Tin
                         Cape Mountain.
                      Kougarok                                                    T i n , t a n t a l u m , columbium
                      Selawik H i l l s                                           Columbium, REE m i n e r a l s , f l u o r i t e
                      Darby Mountains                                             Uranium, columbium, t i n
                      Bornite                                                     Copper, c o b a l t
                      Bear Mountain                                               Molybdenum, t u n g s t e n , columbf urn
                      Kanuti r e g i o n                                          Tin
                      F o r t Hamlin H i l l s                                    Tin
                      Old Crow E i l l s                                          T i n , REE m i n e r a l s , columbium
                      Lime Peak (Rocky Mtn.)                                      Tin
                      Ketchum Creek                                               Tin
                      Tofty                                                       Columbium, REE m i n e r a l s , t i n
                      Tozimoran Creek                                             Tin
                      Kuskokwirn                                                  C o b a l t , PGM
                      Sheep Creek                                                 Lead, z i n c , t i n
                      Chultina area                                               Tin
                      Rainbow Mountain                                            Copper, n i c k e l , c o b a l t , PGM
                      Tonsina                                                     Chromium, PGM
                      MacClaren                                                   Copper, c o b a l t , PGM
                      Goodnews Bay a r e a                                        PGM, g o l d
                      Red Mountain                                                Chromium
                      H a l i b u t Bay                                           PGM
                      Brady G l a c i e r                                         Copper, n i c k e l , PGM, c o b a l t
                      Salmon Bay                                                  REE m i n e r a l s , columbium
                      Bokan Mountain                                              REE m i n e r a l s , columbium, u r a n i u m ,
                                                                                    zirconium.


of columbium and r a r e - e a r t h elements (REE's) on                    t h e Kuskokwim and MacClaren a r e a s (locs. 14 and
Prince of Wales Island were mapped and sampled                              19, fig. 23). Further work i s planned f o r t h e s e
in detail.             Mapping, geophysical surveys, and                    a r e a s in 1987.
sampling were continued in t h e a r e a s of PGM-                                    D a t a compilation and laboratory studies
bearing marine placers near Goodnews Bay, and of                            w e r e in progress during 1986 f o r marine tin placers
lode and placer tin occurrences in t h e F o r t Hamlin                     a t C a p e Prince of Wales, a tin placer a t
tlills (loc. 8, fig. 23). Limited diamond drilling was                      Tozimoran, a PCM occurrence on Kodiak Island,
utilized t o f u r t h e r evaluate the chromite-PGM                        and columbium-REE occurrences in both t h e
o c c u r r e n c e s near Tonsina, where large but low-                    Selawik Hills and Salmon Bay (fig. 23). E f f o r t s t o
g r a d e zones o f disseminated and stringer chromite                      develop a cobalt-recovery technique f o r copper
occur,                                                                      o r e from t h e Bornite deposit a r e under way a t t h e
          Reconnaissance field studies were conducted                       USBM's           Albany,   Oreg.,  Research     Center.
For tin, KEK's, and columbium in t h e Old Crow                             Similarly, t h e Albany Kesearch C e n t e r worked on
Hills (loc. 9, fig. 23), and f o r cobalt and PGM in                        tin recovery f r o m t h e deposits a t Ketchum Creek,
                                                                            Placer Mining Effluents

                                                                                  During 1986, the USBM Tuscaloosa Ala.,
                                                                            Research Center conducted field-test operations
                                                                            to clarify Alaskan placer-mining effluents a t four
                                                                            sites in Alaska:     C r o ~ k e d Creek in the Circle
                                                                            mining district, Fairbanks Creek in the Fairbanks
                                                                            mining district, Olive Creek in the Livengood
                                                                            mining district, and Resurrection Creek in the
                                                                            Hope mining district. 'l'he results of this testing
                                                                            program were positive and indicated that the clay-
                                                                            dewatering technique using the flocculant poly-
                                                                            ethylene oxide (PEO) may be a means of mining
                                                                            some placer deposits within the framework of
                                                                            curren 1 regulation.

                                                                                                of Land
                                                                                        Bureau -- --
                                                                                        -                 Management

                                                                                   The BLM issued one mineral patent in 1986
                                                                            for 21 placer gold claims. A total of 351.423 acres
                                                                            was conveyed for these claims in the Rampart
                                                                            area northwest of Fairbanks.       The oil and gas
F i g u r e 2 4 . - - U . S. Bureau of Mines' g e o l o g i s t s           section of this circular discusses the effect of the
                        sampling placer gold o n                                       Wildlife-_Federation v. Burford et_-aL
                                                                            National - .
                                                                            ------
                        P o r c u p i n e Creek i n t h e J u n e a u       lawsuit on mining-claim activity.
                        mining d i s t r i c t .   P h o t o g r a p h by          On February 18, 1986, a coalition of environ-
                        M.P. Meyer.                                         mental and Native groups filed a lawsuit against
                                                                            the BI,M over various National Environmental
Sheep Creek, and Chultina (fig. 23).                                        Policy Act (NKPA) issues. The group asked that
      Ore dressing and beneficiation testing a t the                        all mining on HI,M lands be halted until the BI,M
USBM's Salt Lake City, Utah, Research Center are                            conducted an environmental assessment of each
in progress on ores from the Kougarok tin-                                  mining operation. The order would have closed
tantalum deposit, the Red Mountain chromite                                 operations a t an estimated 242 mines, but an out-
deposits,       the      copper-nickel-cobalt-PG M                          of-court settlement on the temporary restraining
occurrences near Rainbow Mountain and Brady                                 order was reached in April, before the mining
Glacier, and the columbium-REE prospects on                                 season began. In February 1987, a Federal judge
Prince of Wales Island (fig. 23).                                           ruled that the BLM is not required to perform
      Several reports of strategic- and critical-                           either an NEPA analysis or a subsistence
mineral investigations were published in 1986. The                          evaluation pursuant to Section 810 of ANILCA on
results of tin placer and lode studies in the Kanuti                        placer operations that disturb 5 acres or less.
area indicate reserve potential associated with the
Sithylirnenkat pluton in central Alaska (Barker and                                       Fish a!~d Wildlife S ~ v j c e
Foley, 1986). Examination of the lode PGM poten-
tial of the Goodnews Bay ultramafic body found                                     In keep~ngw ~ t hits primary mission, efforts
P G M to be widely disseminated in the ultramafic                           of the FWS relating to mineral activity emphasize
host (Southworth and J'oley, 1986). Columbium                               fish, wildlife, and habitat protection. llowever,
and REE minerals are prevalent in gold placers a t                          some mining claims were located before refuges
Tofty; the report by Warner and others (1986)                               were established, According t o 13LM records, a s of
describes the carbonate sources of these minerals.                          December 1986, there were 1 4 active patented
Uranium vein occurrences in the Darby Mountains                             placer mines, 107 active placer mines, 153 active
on the Seward Peninsula are associated with a                               lode mines, two millsites, and one mineral-survey
regional anomaly of columbium in placer concen-                             application in 12 of Alaska's 16 national wildlife
trates (Foley and Barker, 1986). Chromium invest-                           refuges. Most of the placer mines were in the
igations in Alaska and the results of metallurgic                           Togiak and Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuges,
characterization are described in the proceedings                           and most of the lode mines were in the Alaska
of the chromium conference held i n Corvallis,                              Peninsula and Inn(~ k oNational Wildlife Refuges
Oreg. (Daellenbach, 1986). The USBM has deter-                              (fig. 2).
mined that low-grade Alaskan chromite deposits                                     The FWS. is working to convince the U.S.
                                                                                              --

are adequate to meet U.S. consumption for a t                               Army Corps of Engineers and the Environmental
least 6 years.      Tungsten-molybdenum porphyry                            Protection Agency t o regulate placer mining under
mineralization a t Bear Mountain in the ANWR was                            the Clean Water Act. Presently, these activities
found t o contain byproduct levels of columbium                             are not fully regulated in compliance with the act,
(Barker and Swainbank, 1986).                                               and the FWS is concerned that impacts on fish and
wildlife are not being adequately considered and             of staff, development of policy and
mitigated.                                                   procedures, and implementation of programs.
       Water and fish have been sampled in streams      2.   Processing and completeness review for 18
downstream from placer mines, as well as at                  plans of operations for mining activities in
control areas i n the Kanuti and Innoko National             five different park units; five plans were
Wildlife Refuges, and water has been sampled in              determined to be complete, and three
the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge. The anal-              received approval by the end of the calendar
ysis of those samples for heavy metals and arsenic           year.
was completed by the PWS1s Patuxent Wildlife            3. Mineral examinations for claim-validity
IZesearch Center in 1986, and the FWS is currently           determinations were completed on 34 lode
reviewing those data,                                        claims and 38 placer claims.
       The I W initiated a study on bald eagles and
            T S                                         4.    Field investigations were completed for
heavy metals relative to Ihe U.S. Borax Quartz               engineering and environmental analyses on the
Hill mine in southeastern Alaska; the study is pre-          five plans of operations.
mine       development,     to     obtain    baseline   5.   Photopaneling and surveying of 361 claims in
in forma tion. The FWS is coordinating with Greens           83 claim groups in five park units w a s com-
Creek Mining, Inc., relative to environmental                pleted.
concerns w i t h their Hawk Inlet Admiralty Island      6. Color infrared and black-and-white aerial
development of a mine for lead, zinc, copper, gold,          photographs were taken of all major claim
and silver,     Probable reopening of several old            areas in Denali and Wrangell-St. Elias
mines i n southeastern Alaska was the impetus for            National Parks and Preserves and in Yukon-
additional environmenlal coordination and baseline           Charley Rivers National Preserve.
sampling activities in 1986, including sampling of      7. A multiyear program was implemented for
sediment and biota for heavy metals at Klag Bay              inventory of cultural resources on all mining
on Chichagof Island.       Discussions are ongoing           claims and potential mining-access routes.
about reopening the Chichagof gold mine by                   Approximately one-third of these areas were
mining the tailings i n the bay, a productive marine         surveyed in 1986. More than 100 cultural-
system. Sampling for heavy-metal concentrations              resource sites have been identified thus far.
and environmental coordination were also under-                On May 9, 1985, the Department of the
taken a t t h e old gold mine in Duncan Canal on        Interior was sued by the Northern Alaska
Kupreanof Island. There has been some coordi-           Environmental Center et al., over noncompliance
nation with RP Alaska Exploration, Inc., relative       with NPS regulations of mineral operations in
to their reopening of the original Juneau gold          Alaska. On July 22, 1985, the Federal District
 mine.                                                  Court issued a preliminary injunction suspending
       The final EIS for Cominco's world-class Red      approval of all existing operations effective at the
 Dog mine north of Kotzebue was completed in            end of the 1985 season, and required the NPS to
 1986; permits for road and dock facilities were        prepare cumulative EISts for the mining operations
obtained, and construction began. The FWS com-          in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve
mented on those permit applications and has             and in Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve.
initiated followup monitoring to ensure compliance             The Government filed a motion for reconsid-
with environmental stipulations.                        eration, which was denied by the court on
                                                        December 4, 1985. In a memorandum and order,
               National Park Service                    the preliminary injunction was amended to include
      The NPS has augmented its minerals-               the requirement of an additional cumulative EIS
management staff in Alaska to ensure that the           for the mining operations in Denali National Park
program protects park resources consistent with         and Preserve. However, the court provided for
law, regulation, and policy. A Minerals Manage-         NPS action on plans of operations within the three
ment Division has been established in the Alaska        units     requiring   EIS's    if  no    cumulative
Regional Office, comprising the Resource Assess-        environmental impacts were to occur. The court
ment and Mining and Minerals branches. These            also invalidated clauses in the NPS mining regula-
branches review and analyze mining plans of             tions (36 CFR 9A) that provided for temporary
operations, gather and analyze natural, cultural,       approval of plans of operations, and the
and physical engineering information on claim           automatic-approval provision, should NPS fail to
areas; conduct claim-validity examinations; and         act within 90 days.
develop and implement a long-term reclamation                  In concert with the EIS's, Minerals Manage-
program.     In addition to the Regional Office,        ment Plans are also being prepared for these park
Denali National Park and Preserve and Wrangell-         units. These plans will provide policy and offer
St. Elias National Park and Preserve have added         park-specific guidance for implementing the
mining engineers and environmental specialists to       recommendations of the proposed action in the
their staffs to implement park-specific aspects of      respective EIS's. To date, the NPS has initiated
the minerals-management prograrn. Major NPS             public and agency scoping, conducted field investi-
accomplishments during 1986 were:                       gations, and is building a geographic-information-
1. Program authorization, hiring and orientation        system data base to assist with EIS preparation.
                U.S. Forest Service                                Activity By Federal Agencies
       One of the largest mining developments in
southeastern Alaska, Greens Creek, is in
Admiralty Island National Monument, which is                       Bureau of Land Management
administered by Tongass National Forest.
Ownership of the mine recently changed;                       The disposal of mineral materials (sand and
AMSELCO Minerals, Inc. acquired a controlling           gravel) is currently not a large activity for the
interest in the deposit. AMSELCO is aggressively        BLM, partly owing to the remoteness of BLM-
pursuing development of the mine. Construction          administered lands. Most of the land near trans-
of an access road from tidewater to the mine site       portation systems has been conveyed to the State
is nearing completion and the construction of a         of Alaska or to Regional Native Corporations. A
second adit, to be used for ore haulage, has            total of 38 gravel permits were issued in 1986,
begun.      AMSELCO intends to be producing             mostly related to operation and maintenance of
concentrate by September of 1988. The Forest            the Trans-Alaska Pipeline north of the Yukon
Service completed an EIS for the Greens Creek           River.
project in January 1983.
       U.S. Borax and Chemical Corp.'s Quartz Hill                   Fish and Wildlife Service
molybdenum deposit is in Misty Fiords National
Monument, on a 152,000-acre tract that is                     Agreement was reached in 1986 between the
excluded from designation as wilderness. The            PWS and the Salamatof Native Association, Inc.,
USFS was the lead agency for the draft EIS              for an exchange within the Kenai National Wildlife
released in 1984; a revision became necessary           Refuge. Under this exchange, the FWS will obtain
when U.S. Borax provided additional information         a nondevelopment easement for approximately 36
about marine tailings disposal. The revised draft       acres in a 50- to 100-ft-wide strip on Native lands
is scheduled for release in 1987, and the final EIS     on either side of the Kenai River. In exchange,
will follow.                                            the FWS will make available subsurface rights to
                                                        sand and gravel on approximately 2,423 acres of
       The USFS is preparing to update minerals-        the Salamatof Native Association's surface
 related data for revision of the Tongass Land          holdings within the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge
 Management Plan, scheduled for completion in           boundary. The FWS provided extensive input to
 1989 and covering the national forest area in          Arctic Slope Consulting Engineers (ASCE) relative
 southeastern Alaska.       Mineral-resource data,      to their gravel-mine proposal on Kaktovik Inupiat
 including areas of mineral interest, claim staking     Corp. lands adjacent to the ANWR 1002 area,
 and exploration activity, and field investigations     under terms of the August 9, 1983, exchange
 (such as the USGS' AMKAP), will be used to update      agreement between the United States of America
 the existing data base. This information will, in      and the Arctic Slope Regional Corp. The ASCE
 turn, be used to determine the areas of Tongass        proposal also involved application for a Clean
 National Forest where mineral exploration and          Water Act, Section 404, permit from the U.S.
 development are most likely to occur and to            Army Corps of Engineers, During the negotiations
 integrate minerals-related activities into the land-   preparatory to final approval of their plan, ASCE
 management process.                                    agreed to redu e the size of their pit from 2.5 to
                                                        1.8 million yd 5, so that they do not disturb the
                                                        valuable lake-basin/wetlands complex in the
                                                        area.    They also agreed to site reclamation
             INDUSTRIAL MINERALS
                                                        requirements and several other mitigating
                                                        measures requested by the FWS.

                                                                       U.S. Forest Service
       Sand and gravel production, valued at $75.8
million, was second only to petroleum production                    ually, the USPS permits the removal of
in Alaska's mineral economy for 1986. Production        many thousands of tons of sand, gravel, and
fell by 26 percent from 1985, owing to the decline      stone. The bulk of this material, in the form of
of oil-and-gas-related developments on the North        quarried stone, is used in Tongass National Forest
Slope and the reduction in urban construction           for the construction of timber-sale roads. Lesser
(Bundtzen and Green, 1987).                             amounts are used by State and local governments
      Building stone ranked fifth in importance to      for the construction and maintenance of break-
the value of Alaska's mineral industry during 1986,     waters, airports, and roads.
an increase of 68 percent over the previous year              Chugach National Forest contains sizable
(Bundtzen and Green, 1987). The greatest use of         deposits of sand and gravel, The Alaska Railroad
                                                        has permits to use ome of this material. A
                                                        volume of 720,000 yd 3 has been sold in the Placer
building stone occurred at three construction
projects: the Nome seawall, the harbor in the
Pribilof Islands, and the Bradley Lake damsite east     River area, for rail-haul sand and gravel intended
of Homer.                                               for use i n the Anchorage metropolitan area.
                                                              Carter, L.D., Ferrians, O J , Jr., and Galloway, J.P.,
                                                                                             ..
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                                                                    coastal plain and foothills of the Arctic National
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      and Wray, James, 1982, Vegetation and land cover,             Report 86-0334, 9 p., scale 1:250,000.
      Arctic National Wildlife Refuge coastal plain,          Carter, L.M.H., ed., 1986, USGS research on energy
       Alaska:     U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous             resources--1986: Program and abstracts:              U.S.
       Investigations 1-1443, scale 1:250,000.                      Geological Survey Circular 974, 84 p.
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                                                                    1987, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska,
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                                                                                       ..
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      rich porphyry molybdenum occurrence a t Bear                 D.R., and Goertz, D.J., 111, 1986, Geology and
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      U.S. Bureau of Mines Information Circular 9107,19            F~le  Report 86-219, scale 1:250,000.
                                                              Elison, G.W., Rappoport, A.G., and Reid, C.M., 1986,
      P.                                                           Report of the caribou impact analysis workshop,
-----1986b, Maps summarizing land availability for
      mineral      exploration    and     development    in        Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, November 19-20,
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      scale 1:500,000.                                             and critical mineral resources of the southern part
-----1986c, Maps summarizing land availability for                 of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska: U.S.
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      File Report 71-86, 21 quadrangle overlays, scale             Mines site specific mineral investigations within
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      Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys               Bureau of Mines Informat~on       Circular 9103, 27 p.
      Public Data File Report 87-2, 4 p.                                ..
                                                              Foley, JY, Barker, J.C., and Brown, L.L., 1986,
Bundtzen, T.K., Miller, M.L., and Laird, G.M., 1986,               Chromite          resources        in      Alaska,      in
      Prospect examination of the Wyrick placerllode               Chromium/chromite:           Assessment and research:
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                                                                   U S Bureau of Mines Information Circular 9087, p.
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                                                                   -- -.
      Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys          Folger, P.F., and Schmidt, J.M., 1986, Geology of the
      Public Data File 86-29, 10 p.                                carbonate-hosted Omar copper prospect, Baird
      Mountains, Alaska: Economic Geology, v. 81, no. 7,         Magoon, L.B., ed., 1986, Geologic studies of the lower
      p. 1690-1695.                                                   Cook Inlet COST No. I well, Alaska Outer
Garner, G.W., and Reynolds, P.E., eds., 1983, 1982                    Continental Shelf: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin
      update report, baseline study of the fish, wildlife,             1596, 99 p,
      and their habitats; Section 1002(c) of the Alaska                      ..
                                                                 Magoon, LB, 1987, Petroleutn system--a classification
      National Interest Lands Conservation Act:                       scheme for research, resource assessment, and
      Anchorage, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region               exploration [abs.]:       American Association of
      7, 379 p.                                                        Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 71, no. 5, p. 587.
-----1984, 1983 update report, basel~ne     study of the fish,   McNutt, S.R., and Sacob, K.H., 1986, Determination of
      wildlife, and their habitats; Section 1002(c) of the             large-scale velocity structure of the crust and
      Alaska Nat~onalInterest Lands Conservation Act:                  upper mantle in the vicinity of Pavlof Volcano,
      Anchorage, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region                Alaska: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 91, no.
      7, 614 p.                                                        B5, p. 5013-5022.
----- 1985, 1984 update report, baseline study of the fish,      Meyer, M.P., 1986, Results of 198QBureau of Mines site
      wildlife, and t h e ~ rhabitats; Sect~on1002(c) of the           specific mineral investigations in the Valdez Creek
      Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act:                 Mining District, Alaska: U.S, Bureau of Mines
      Anchorage, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region                Open-Flle Report 50-86, 24 p.
      7, 2 v.                                                    Mining Engineering, 1986, Progress report on Cominco's
-----1986, Final report, baseline study of the fish,                   Red Dog project in Alaska, second largest zinc
      wildlife, and t h e ~ r
                            habitats; Section 1002(c), Alaska          deposit ever discovered: v. 38, no. 12, p. 1097-
      National Interest Lands Conservation Act:                        1101.
      Anchorage, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region          Mining Journal, 1986, Salt Chuck/Silver Distrlct
      7, 2 v.                                                          review: v. 307, no. 7889, p. 322.
Goldfarb, J.R., Leach, D.L., Miller, M.L., and Pickthorn,        Molenaar, C.M., Bird, K.J., and Collett, T.S., 1986a,
      W.J., 1986, Geology, metamorphic setting, and                    Regional correlation sections across the North
      genetic constraints of epigenetic lode-gold                      Slope of Alaska:           U.S. Geological Survey
      mineralization within the Cretaceous Valdez Group,               Miscellaneous Field Investigations Map MF-1907.
      south-central Alaska, & Keppie, J.D., Boyle, R.W.,         ----- 1986b, Regional stratigraphic correlat~onsections
      and Haynes, S.J., eds., Turbidite-hosted gold                    across the North Slope of Alaska [abs.],      Carter,
      deposits: Geological Association of Canada Special               L.M.H., ed., USCS Research on Energy Resources--
       Paper 32, p. 87-105.                                            -1986:     Program and abstracts: U.S. Geological
 Gryc, George, 1985, The National Petroleum Reserve in                 Survey Circular 974, p. 43.
      Alaska:       Earth-science considerations:         U.S.   Morgantown        Energy     Technology Center,        1986,
       Geological Survey Professional Paper 1240-C, 94 p.                                                         .
                                                                       Proceedings of the Gas Hydrates. Arctic/Offshore-   -


 Hamilton, T.D., and Galloway, J.P., eds., 1987, The U.S.              Research, and Deep Source ~ a s          Contractors
       Geological Survey in Alaska--accomplishments                    Review Meeting: reports DOE/METC-8710247 and
       during 1986: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 998,               NTIS/DE87001028.
       205 p.                                                    -----1987a, Arctic and Offshore Research Technology
 Hoekzema, R.B., and Fechner, S.A., 1986, Placer gold                  Status Report: reports DOE/METC-87/0247 and
       sampling in and near the Chugach National Forest,               NTIS/DE87001028, 32 p.
       Alaska: U.S. Bureau of Mines Information Circular         -----1987b, Gas 1-lydrates' Technology Status Report:
       9091, 42 p.                                                     reports ROEIMETC-8716046 and NTIS/DE87001027,
 Hoekzema, R.B., Fechner, S.A., and Bundtzen, T.K.,                    25 p.
       1986, Distribution, analysis, and recovery of placer      -----1987c,     Deep Source Gas Technology Status
       gold from the Porcupine rnining area, southeast                  Report:        reports DOEjMETC-8710250          and
       Alaska: U.S. Bureau of Mines Open-File Report 86-                NTIS/DE8700 1031, 18 p.
       86, 49 p.                                                 Motyka, R.J., Hawkins, D.B., Poreda, R.J., and Jeffries,
 Hoekzema, R.B., Fechner, S.A., and Kurtak, J.M., 1987,                 W.A., 1986, Geochem~stry,isotopic composition and
       Evaluat~on of selected lode gold deposits in the                 the origin of fluids emanating from mud volcanoes
       Chugach National Forest, Alaska: U.S. Bureau of                  in the Copper River Basin, Alaska: Alaska Division
       Mines Information Circular 9112, 62 p.                           of Geological and Geophysical Surveys Public Data
 Kurtak, J.M., 1986, Results of 1984 Bureau of Mines site               File 86-34,87 p.
       specific field studies within the Willow Creek            Nelson, S.W., Dumoulin, J.A., and Miller, M.L., 1986,
       mining district, Alaska:        U.S. Bureau of Mines             Geologic rrlap of the Chugach National Forest,
       Open-File Report 17-86, 17 p.                                    Alaska:     U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous
 Leach, D B , Goldfarb, R.J., and Light, T.D., 1986, Fluid
            ..                                                          Studies Map M E 1645-5, scale 1:250,000.
       inclus~onconstraints on the genesis of the Alaska-         Nelson, S.W., and Koski, Randy, 1987, The Midas Mine--
       Juneau gold deposit [abs.]:            Association of            a stratiforrn Fe-Cu-Zn-Pb sulfide deposit in Late
       Exploration      Geochemists        Annual    Meeting,           Cretaceous turbidite near Valdez, Alaska [abs.]:
       Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 1986,                       Geological Society of America Abstracts with
       Proceedings, p. 53-54.                                           Programs, v. 19, no. 6, p. 436.
 Leonard, K.R., and Huber, D.F., 1987, Status of Alaska          Nokleberg, W.J., Bundtzen, T.K., Berg, H.C., Brew,
       Mineral Resources Data System,         Hamilton, T.D.,           D.A., Grybeck, Donald, Smith, T.E., and Yeend,
       and Galloway, J.P., eds., The U.S. Geological                    Warren, 1987, Significant metalliferous lode
       Survey in Alaska--accomplishments during 1986:                   deposits and placer districts of Alaska:         U.S.
        U.S. Geological Survey Circular 998, p. 15-18.                  Geological Survey Bulletin 1786, 200 p.
 Maas, K.M., 1987, Maps summarizing land availability             Northern Miner, 1986, Queenstake gets interest in an
        for mineral exploration and development in                      Alaskan property: v. 72, no. I , p. 12.
        northern Alaska: U.S. Bureau of Mines Open-File          Oil and Gas Journal [published weekly by Pennwell
        Report 10-87, 33 quadrangle overlays, scale                     Publishing Co., 1421 South Sheridan Road, Box
        1:250,000.                                                       1260, Tulsa. OK 741011.
Pacific Oil World [published monthly by Petroleum              Stricker, G.D., Affolter, R.H., and Brownfield, M.E.,
       Publishers, Inc., 222 South Brea Blvd., Brea, CA              1986, Geochemical character~zation of selected
       926211.                                                       coals from the Beluga energy resource area, south-
Page, R.A., Plafker, George, Fuis, G.S., Nokleberg,                  central Alaska: Site of a proposed coal mine Labs.],
       W.J., Ambos, E.L., Mooney, W.D., and Campbell,
       D.L., 1986, Accretion and subduction tectonics In
                                                                    -in Carter, L.M.I-i,, ed., USCS research on energy
                                                                     resources--1 986:       Program and abstracts: U.S.
       the Chugach Mountains and Copper River Basin,                 Geological Survey Circular 974, p. 65-66.
       Alaska: Initial results of the Trans-Alaskan Crustal    Sutley, S.J., O'Leary, K.M., and Goldfarb, R.J., 1986,
       Transect: Geology, v. 14, p. 501-505.                         Analytical results and sample locality map of
Petroleum Informat~on,      Alaska Report [published weekly          moraine-sediment, stream-sediment, and heavy
       by Petroleum Informat~on,a subsidiary of Dun and              mineral concentrate samples from the Cordova and
       Bradstreet Corp., P.O. Box 102278, Anchorage,                 Middleton Island lo by 3O quadrangles, Alaska: U.S.
       AK 995101.                                                    Geological Survey Open-File Report 86-381, 1 17 p.,
Redman, EL., 1986, History o f t h e Juneau Gold Belt                scale 1:250,000.
       1869-1965; development of the mines and prospects                    ..
                                                               Tailieur, IL, and Weimer, Paul, eds., 1987, Alaskan
       from Windham Day to Berners Bay: U.S. Bureau of               North Slope Geology: Paciflc Section, Society of
       Mines Open-File Report 9 1-86, 78 p.                          Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists and
Redman, E.C., Roberts, W.S., Clougli, A.H., and Kurtak,              Alaska Geological Society, v. 50, 2 v., 800 p.
       J.M., 1986, Preliminary mine, prospect, and sample      Till, A.B., Dumoulin, J.A., Gamble, B.M., and Kaufman,
       location maps and descriptions, Juneau Gold Belt              D.S., 1986, Preliminary geologic map and fossil
       Area: U.S. Bureau of Mines Open-File Report 85-               data, Solomon, Bendeleben, and southern Kotzebue
       86, 68 p., 4 sheets, varying scales.                          quadrangles, Seward Peninsula, Alaska:                 U.S.
Retherford, R.M., Hlnderman, T.K., and Hawley, C.C.,                 Geological Survey Open-Flle Report 86-276, 69 p,,
       1986, Prelinilnary feasibility study of a coal mine           scale 1:250,000, 3 sheets.
       a t Chicago Creek, Alaska:          Summary Report:     Tiratsoo, E.N., 1984, Oilfields of the world (3d ed.):
      Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical                                                 Press, 392 p.
                                                                     Bucks, U.K., S c i e n t ~ f i c
       Surveys Report of Investigations 86-13, 38 p.           Turner, DL., and Wescott, E.M., cds., 1986, Geothermal
Roberts, W.S., 1985, Maps showing availability of land               energy resource investigations a t Mt. Spurr,
       for mineral explorat~on and development in                    Alaska:        Fairbanks, University of Alaska,
       southeastern Alaska, 1984: U,S. Bureau of Mines               Geophysical Institute Report UAG R-308, I l l p.
       Special Report, 34 p., scale 1:500,000.                 Updike, R.G., ed., 1986, Engineering geology technical
-----1985,      Maps summarizing land availability for               feasibility study, Makushin geothermal power
       mineral     exploration     and      development   in         project, Unalaska, Alaska:             Alaska Division of
       southeastern Alaska, 1980: U.S. Bureau of Mines               Geological and Geophysical Surveys Public Data
       Open-File Report 78-85, 15 quadrangle overlays,               F~le  86-60, 2 v.
       scale 1:250,000.                                        U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1986a, Kanuti National
Schrnldt, J.M., and Folger, P.F., 1986, Pb-Zn-Ag                     Wildlife Refuge, draft comprehensive conservation
       mineralization in Paleozoic dolostones, Powdermilk            plan, wilderness review and environmental impact
       prospect, B a r d Mountains 8-4 quadrangle, In                statement: Anchorage, Alaska, 219 p.
       Bartsch-Winkler, Susan, arid Reed, K.M., e d s z        -----1986b,     Koyukuk and northern unit of Innoko
       Geologic studies in Alaska by t h e U.S. Ceologlcal           National Wildlife Refuge, draft comprehensive
       Survey during 1985:          U.S. Geological Survey           conservation        plan,         environmental     impact
       Circular 978, p. 19-21.                                       statement, and wilderness review:               Anchorage,
             ..
Smith, RL, and Shaw, H.R., 1975, Igneous-related                     Alaska, 265 p.
       geothermal systems,       White, D.E., and Will~ams,    -----1986c, Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge, draft
       D.L., eds., Assessment of geothermal resources of             conlprehens~ve    conservation plan, wilderness review
       the United States-1975:        U.S. Geological Survey         and environmental impact statement: Anchorage,
       Circular 726, p. 58-83.                                       Alaska, 287 p.
                 ..
Southworth, D D , and Foley, J.Y., 1986, Lode platinum-        -----1986d,     Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, draft
       group metals potential of the Goodnews Bay                    comprehensive        conservation plan,          wilderness
       ultramaf~c   complex, Alaska: U.S. Bureau of Mines            review, wild rlver plan, and environmental impact
       Open-File Report 51-86, 82 p.                                 statement: Anchorage, Alaska, 278 p.
 Stanley, R.G.,        1987~1, Effects of weathering on        -----1986e,     Togiak National Wildlife Refuge, final
        petroleum source evaluation of coals from the                comprehensive conservation plan, wilderness review
        Suntrana Forrnation near Healy, Alaska, in                   and environmental impact statement: U.S. Fish and
        Hamilton, T.D., and Galloway, JP, eds., The U.X
                                           ..                        Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska, 514 p.
        Geological Survey in Alaska--accomplishments           U.S. Fish and Wildl~leServlce, U.S. Geological Survey,
        during 1986: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 998,            and U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 1986, Arctic
        p. 99-103.                                                    National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, coastal plain
-----1987b,      Thermal maturity and petroleum source               resource        assess~nent--draft           report     and
        potential of t h e Cantwell Formation, & Hamilton,           recommendation t o the Congress of the United
          ..
        T D , and Galloway, J.P., eds., The U.S. Geological          States and legislative environmental impact
        Survey in Alaska--accorn~lishments in Alaska                 statement: Washington, 186 p.
        during 1986: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 998,      U.S. National Park Service, 1985, Guide t o National
        O 104-107.
         .                                                           Park Service regulations governing mining and
 -----1987c,     Petroleum source potential and thermal              n-\ining claims: Denver, Colo., Energy, Mining and
        maturity of Cantwell Forrnation (Paleocene),                 Minerals Division, 30 p.
        Central Alaska Range: .a reconnaissance study                      ..
                                                               Warner, J R , Mardock, C.L., and Dahlln, D.C., 1986, A
        [abs.]:     American Association of Petroleum                columbium-bearing regolith on Upper Idaho Gulch,
        Geologists Bulletin, v. 71, no. 5, p. 617.                   near Tofty, Alaska:               U.S. Bureau of Mines
    Information Circular 9105, 29 p.                                            ..
                                                                     Bader, J W , a n d Bird, K.J., 1986, Geologic map of t h e
Winkler, G.R., and Grybeck, D.J., 1986, The Alaska                        Demarcation Point, Mt. Michelson quadrangles,
    Mineral Resource Assessment Program in 1985,                          northeastern Alaska:             U.S. Geological Survey
    Bartsch-Winkler, Susan, and Reed, K.M., eds.,                         Miscellaneous Investigations Map 1-1791, scale
    Geologic studies in Alaska by t h e U.S. Geological                    1:250,000.
    Survey during 1985:       U.S. Geological Survey                 Barton, C.C., and Light, T.D., 1987, Structural fabric
    Circular 978, p. 3-5.                                                 analysis of t h e Perseverance S l a t e and gold-bearing
World Oil [published monthly by Gulf Publishing Co.,                      q u a r t z veins in t h e south o r e body of t h e Alaska-
    3301 Allen Parkway, Houston, TX 770191.                               Juneau lode system, southeastern Alaska, in
                                                                          Hamilton, T.D., and Galloway, J.P., eds., The U.5
                                                                          Geological Survey in Alaska--accomplishments
                                                                          during 1986: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 998,
 APPENDIX 1.--ALASKA MINERAL REPORTS                                      p. 110-112.
 RELEASED DURING 1986 AND EARLY 1987                                 Berg, K C . ,         1986, Metallogenesis and mineral
                                                                          exploration        In     southeastern Alaska         [abs.]:
                                                                          Geological Society of America Abstracts with
           T h e following selected references contain                    Programs, v. 18, no. 2, p. 84-85.
p e r t i n e n t information about energy resources and o t h e r   Bernstein, L.R., and Cox, D.P., 1986, Geology and
minerals in Alaska published during 1986 o r early 1987.                  sulflde mineralogy of t h e Number One o r e body,
This is only a selection of germane reports from t h e                    Ruby C r e e k copper deposit, Alaska:             Economic
publications of any agency. Reports by Federal o r S t a t e              Geology, v. 81, no. 7, p. 1675-1689.
agencies c a n generally be obtained from t h e agency               Bird, K.J., and Magoon, L.B., eds., 1987, Petroleum
o f f i c e s in Alaska, o r they a r e available in t h e Alaska         geology of t h e northern part of t h e Arctic National
Resources Library, Federal Building, 701 C Street,                        W~ldlife Refuge, northeastern Alaska:                    U.S.
Anchorage, AK 99513.                                                      Geological Survey Bulletin 1778, 71 1 p.
           The USGS publishes a monthly listing of i t s own         Bird, K.J., Magoon, L.B., and Molenaar, C.M., 1986,
releases, "New Publications of t h e U.S. Geological                      Advances in understanding North Slope oil and gas
Survey," available f r e e f r o m t h e U.S. Geological Survey,          accumulations [abs.], i~ C a r t e r , L.M.H., ed., USGS
582 National C e n t e r , Reston, VA 22092. The c o n t e n t s          research on energy resources--1986: Program and
of these listings a r e compiled in a n annual publication,               abstracts: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 974, p.
"Publications of t h e U.S. Geological Survey, 198-," also                6.
free. Information about t h e prices and sources of listed           Bolm, J.G., and McCulloh, T.H., 1986, Sandstone
reports is given in these two publications and is                             diagenesis, h Magoon, L.B., ed., Geologic studies of
available from t h e USGS Public Inquiries Offices.                           t h e lower Cook Inlet COST No. I well, Alaska
           The USBM's c e n t r a l distribution offrce i s t h e            O u t e r Continental Shelf: U.S. Geological Survey
Branch of Production and Distribution, 4800 Forbes                           Bulletin 1596, p. 51-53.
Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15213. Many USBM reports a r e                  Bouma, A.H., and Hampton, M.A., 1986, Environmental
available from t h e U.S. Government Printing Office in                      geology,                    ..
                                                                                               Magoon, L B , ed., Geologic studies of
Washington, D.C., o r from t h e National Technical                          t h e lower Cook Inlet COST No. 1 well, Alaska
Information Service in Springfield, Va. USBM reports                         O u t e r Continental Shelf: U.S. Geological Survey
listed h e r e a r e available from t h e USBM library in                    Bulletin 1596, p. 11-15.
Juneau; f o r further information, c o n t a c t t h e Chief,        Brew, D.A., Himmelberg, G.R., Ford, A.B., and Jachens,
Alaska Field Operations C e n t e r , 201 East 9 t h Ave.,                    R.C., 1987, Ultrarnafic and mafic sills in t h e
Anchorage, AK 99501.                                                          vicinity of t h e Treadwell gold deposits, Douglas
                                                                              IslandI, southeastern Alaska,                      ..
                                                                                                                    Hamilton, T D , and
            DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR                                        Galloway, J.P., eds., The U.S. Geological Survey in
                                                                              Alask a--accompl~shments during 1986:                  U.S.
                    ..
                   U S Geological Survey                                      Geolcrgical Survey Circular 998, p. 119-123.
                                                                                        "
                                                                     oruns. +. & . , von Huene, Roland, Culotta, R.D., Lewis,
                                                                     n         .
                                                                                      I
Publicatjons with one or more USGS authors:                                   i~., Ladd, J.W., 1986, Geology and petroleum
                                                                                         and
                                                                              poten tial of Shumagin continental margin, western
Affolter, R.H., and Stricker, G.D., 1986, Geochemistry                        Gulf of Alaska Labs.]:         American Association of
    of some Tertiary alluvial lowland coals from t h e                        P e t r o leunl Geologists Bulletin, v. 70, no. 7, p. 915.
    Capps and Chuitna coal fields, Cook Inlet region,                C a r t e r , L.M.H., ed., 1986, USGS research o n energy
    Alaska, & Garbini, Susan, and Schweinfurth, S.P.,                         resources--1986: Program and abstracts:                U.S.
    eds., Symposium proceedings: A national agenda for                        Geological Survey Circular 974, 84 p.
    coal-quality research:        U.S. Geological Survey             Church, S.E., Gray, J.E., and Delevaux, 1'4.1-I., 1986, Use
    Circular 979, p. 215.                                                    of Pb-isotopic            signatures for geochemical
Anders, D.E., and Magoon, L.B., 1986, Geochemical                            exploration in t h e Healy quadrangle, eastern Alaska
    study of surface oil shows and potential source                           R a n g1,       Bartsch-Winkler, Susan, and Reed, K.M.,
    rocks in t h e Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (North                    eds., Geologic studies in Alaska by t h e U.S.
    Slope Alaska) [abs.], h C a r t e r , L.M.I+., ed., 1986,                r n - b c
                                                                                                i c a
                                                                             ~ ~ ~ ~ d g Surveyl d u r ~ n g 1985: U.S. Geological
    USGS research on energy resources--1986: Program                         Survey Circular 987, p. 38-41.
    and abstracts:       U.S. G e o l o g ~ c a lSurvey Circular     Claypool, G.E.,              1986, Petroleum geochemistry, J       ~I
    974, p. 1-2.                                                             Magoon, L.B., ed., G e o l o g ~ cstudies of t h e lower
Angeloni, L.M., Wilson, F.H., and Sutley, Stephen, 1986,                     Cook Inlet COST No. 1 well, Alaska O u t e r
    Map and tables showing preliminary rock                                  Continental Shelf: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin
    geochemical d a t a from Port Moller, Stepovak Bay,                       1596, p. 33-39.
    and Simeonof Island quadrangles, Alaska:                U.S.     Collett, T.S., Bird, K.J., Magoon, L.B., Kvenvolden,
    Geological Survey O p e n - F ~ l eReport 85-470, 180 p.,                K.A., and Claypool, G.E., 1986, Gas hydrates, North
    s c a l e 1:250,000.
      Slope Alaska [abs.], 2 Carter, L.M.H., ed., USGS                                                         ..
                                                                      Coldfarb, R.J., Leach, D.L., Miller, M L , and Pickthorn,
      research on energy resources--1986: Program and                      W.J.,   1986, Geology, metamorphic setting, and
      abstracts: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 974, p.                   genetic constraints of epigenetic lode-gold
       11-12.                                                              mineralization within the Cretaceous Valdez Group,
Collett, T.S., Kvenvolden, K.A., Magoon, L.B., and Bird,                   south-central Alaska,       Keppie, J.D., Boyle, R.W.,
      K.J., 1987, Geochemical and geologic controls of                     and Haynes, S.S. eds., Turbidite-hosted gold
      the inferred occurrence of natural gas hydrate in                    deposits: Geological Association of Canada Special
      the Kuparuk 2D-15 well, North Slope, Alaska,                         Paper 32, p. 87-105.
      Hamilton, T.D., and Galloway, J.P., eds., 1987, The                                                              ..
                                                                      Goldfarb, R.J., Light, T.D., and Leach, D L , 1986,
      U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska--accomplishments                    Nature of the ore fluids a t the Alaska-Juneau gold
      during 1986: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 998,                    deposit, 3 Bartsch-Winkler, Susan, and Reed, K.M.,
      p. 24-26.                                                            eds., Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S.
Cooper, A.K., Marlow, M.S., and Scholl, D.W., 1986,                        Geological Survey during 1985: U.S. Geological
      Future hydrocarbon studies in the Bering Sea Labs,],                 Survey Circular 978, p. 92-95.
      - Carter, L,M.H., ed., USGS research on energy
      in                                                              Gray, J.E., Church, S.E., and Delevaux, M.H., 1986,
      resources--1 986: Program and abstracts:                U.S.         Lead-isotope results from gold-bearing quartz veins
      Geological Survey Circular 974, p. 12.                               from the Valdez and Orca Groups, Chugach
Cruz, E.L. and Cobb, E.H., compilers, 1986, Map                            National Forest,         Bartsch-Winkler, Susan, and
      showing occurrences of antimony minerals in                          Reed, K.M., eds., Geologic studies in Alaska by the
      Alaska:        U.S.   Geological Survey Mineral                      U.S. Geological Survey during 1985:                 ..
                                                                                                                              US
      Investigations Resources Map MR-0093, 5 p., scale                    Geological Survey Circular 978, p. 45-50.
       1:2,500,000.                                                   Gryc, George, ed., 1987, National Petroleum Reserve in
Csejtey, BPla, Jr., Mullen, M.W., Cox, D.P., Gilbert,                      Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper
      W.G., Yeend, WE., Smith T.E., Wahrhaftig, Clyde,                      1399, 38 p. (in press).
      Craddock, Campbell, Brewer, W.M., Sherwood,                     Hamilton, T.D., and Galloway, 3.P., eds., 1987, The U.S.
      K.W., Hlckman, R.G., Stricker, G.D., St. Aubin,                      Geological Survey in Alaska--accomplishments
      D.R., and Goertz, D.J., 111, 1986, Geology and                       during 1986: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 998,
      geochronology of the Healy quadrangle, Alaska:-                       199 p.
      U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 86-396, 96              Harris, A.G., Tailleur, I.L., and Lane, H R , 1986,
                                                                                                                       ..
      P.                                                                   Conodont thermal maturation patterns in Paleozoic
Dillon, 3.T., BrosgC, W.P., and Dutro, J.T., 1986,                         and Triassic rocks, northern Alaska - geologic and
      Generalized geologic map of the Wiseman                              exploration implications Labs.], & Carter, L.M.H.,
      quadrangle, Alaska: U.S. Geolog~cal      Survey Open-                ed., 1986, USGS research on energy resources--
      File Report 86-2 19, scale 1:250,000.                                1986: Program and abstracts:           U.S. Geological
Duttwe~ler, K.A., 1986, Sulfide occurrences In the                         Survey Circular 974, p. 21.
      Itkillik River region, southeast Chandler Lake                  I-i~ttman,M.W., Proffett, J.M., Jr., Schmidt, J.M., and
      quadrangle, Brooks Range, & Bartsch-Winkler,                         Smith, T.E., 1986, Geology and mineralization of
      Susan, and Reed, K,M., eds., Geologic studies in                     the Ambler district, northwestern Alaska:
      Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1985:                    Economic Geology, v. 81, no. 7, p. 1592-1618.
      U.S. Geological Survey Circular 978, p. 10-13.                  Jenson, S.K. and Trautwein, C.M., 1986, Definition of
-----1987, Use of factor analysis In locating base metal                   multivariate      geochemical      associations   with
      mineralization in the Killik River quadrangle,                       polymetallic mineral occurrences using a spatially
      Alaska,     Hamilton, T.D., and Galloway, J.P., eds.,                dependent clustering technique and rasterized
      The U.S.        Geological Survey in Alaska--                        stream sediment data; an Alaskan example labs.]:
      accomplishments dur~ng 1986: U,S. Geological                         Journal of Geochemical Exploration, & Nichols,
      Survey Circular 998, p. 27-30.                                       C.E., ed., Exploration for ore deposits of the North
Egbert, R.M.,       1986, Petrography, provenance, and                     American Cordillera, v. 25, no. 1-2, p. 242.
      tectonic significance of Middle and Upper J u r a s s ~ c       Keith, T.E.C., Page, N.J., Oscarson, R.L., and Foster,
      sandstone from Tuxedni Bay, m Magoon, L.B., ed.,                     H.L. 1987, Platinum-group element concentrations
      Geologic studies of the lower Cook Inlet COST No.                    in a biotite-rich clinopyroxenite suite, Eagle C-3
      1 well, Alaska Outer Continental Shelf:                U.S.          quadrangle, Alaska, in Hamilton, T.D., and
      Geological Survey Bulletin 1596, p. 61-63.                           Galloway, J.P., eds., ~ h 7 u . S .Geological Survey in
Ellersleck, Inyo, and Tallleur, I.L., 1986, The strategic                  Alaska--accomplishments        during 1986:        U.S.
      and critical mineral resources of the southern part                  Geological Survey Circular 998, p. 62-66.
      of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska: U.S.               Koch, R.D., Brew, LA., and Ford, A.B., 1987, Newly
      Geological Survey Open-File Report 86-0158, I2 p.                    discovered molybdenite occurrence near Boundary
Fisher, M.A., von Huene, Roland, and Hampton, M.A.,                        Creek, Coast Mountain, southeastern Alaska, 5
      1986, Summary geolog~c    report for petroleum lease                 Hamilton, T.D., and Galloway, J.P., eds., 1987, The
      sale 8100, Kodiak shelf, Alaska: U.S. Geological                     U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska--accomplishments
      Survey Open-File Report 84-24, 51 p.                                 during 1986: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 998,
Folger, P.F., Goldfarb, R.J., and Schmidt, J.M., 1987,                     p. 124-125.
      Geochemical evaluation of the Baird Mountains                   Leach, D.B., Goldfarb, R.3., and Light, T.D., 1986, Fluid
      quadrangle, Alaska, in Hamilton, J D , and     ..                    inclusion constraints on the genesis of the Alaska-
      Galloway, J.P., eds,, ThTu.5. Geological Survey in                   Juneau gold deposit [abs.]:            Association of
      Alaska--accomplishments       during      1986:        U.S.          Exploration       Geochemists      Annual     Meeting,
      Geological Survey C~rcular998, p. 31-34.                             Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 1986,
Folger, P.F., and Schmidt, J.M., 1986, Geology of the                      Proceedings, p. 53-54.
      carbonate-hosted Omar copper prospect, Baird                    Leonard, K.R., and Huber, D.F., 1987, Status of Alaska
      Mountains, Alaska: ~ c o n o m i c ~ ~ e o l o ~ ~ , 'no.. 7,
                                                      81, v                Mineral Resources Data System, in Hamilton, T.D.,
      p. 1690-1695.                                                        and Galloway, J.P., eds., The7u.s. Geological
      Survey in Alaslta--accon~plishments during 1986:                                 U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1637, 9 p.
      U.S. Geological Survey Circular 998, p. 15-18.                            O'Leary, R.M., Hoffman, J.D., Risoli, D.A., and Tripp,
Light, T.D., Cady, J.W., Weber, F.R., McCammon, R.B.,                                  R.B., 1986, Analytical results and sample locality
      and Rinehart, C.D., 1987, Sources of placer gold in                              map of stream-sediment and heavy-mineral
      t h e southern p a r t of t h e White Mountains National                         c o n c e n t r a t e s a r ~ i p l e sfrom the Circle quadrangle,
      Recreation Area, east-central Alaska,                       Hamilton,            Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report
      T.D., and Galloway, J.P., eds., The U.S. Geological                              86-204, 126 p.
      Survey in Alaska--accomplishments during 1986:                            Page, R.A., Plafker, George, Fuis, G.S., Nokleberg,
      U.S. Geological Survey Circular 998, p. 67-69.                                   W.3.) Ambos, E.L., Mooney, W.D., and Campbell,
Loney, R.A., Hirnmelberg, C.R., and Shew, Nora, 1987,                                    ..
                                                                                       D L , 1986, Accretion and subduction tectonics in
      Salt Chuck palladium-bearing ultrarnafic body, &                                 t h e Chugach Mountains and Copper River Basin,
      Hamilton, T.D., and Galloway, J.P., eds., The U.S.                               Alaska: Initial results of t h e Trans-Alaskan Crustal
      Geological Survey in Alaska--accomplishments                                     Transect: Geology, v. 14, p. 501-505.
      during 1986: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 998,                         Parrish, J.T., 1986, The Shublik Formation--a model for
      p. 126-127.                                                                      deposition in a n ancient marine upwelling zone
Magoon, L.B., ed., 1986, Geologic studies of t h e lower                               [abs.],             C a r t e r , L.M.H., ed., USGS research on
      Cook Inlet COST No. I well, Alaska O u t e r                                     energy resources--1986: Program and abstracts:
      Continental Shelf: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin                               U.S. Ccological Survey Circular 974, p. 54.
       1596, 99 p.                                                              Prensky, S.E., 1986, List of released wells and
Menzie, W.D., Reed, B.L., and Keith, T.E.C., 1986, Lime                                availability of digital well-log d a t a for Atlantic,
       Peak--an              evolved granite with tin-enriched                         Pacific and Alaskan OCS regions through December
       alteration,               Bartsch-Winkler, Susan, and Reed,                     31, 1985: U,S. Geological Survey Open-File Report
       K.M., eds., Geologic studies in Alaska by t h e United                          86-48, 40 p.
       S t a t e s Geological Survey during 1985:                       U.S.    Rosenblum, Sam, Carlson, R.R., Nishi, 3.M.,                                and
       Geological Survey Circular 978, p. 25-27.                                       Overstreet, W.C., 1986, Platinunl-group elements in
Molenaar, C.M., Bird, K.7., and Collett, T.S., 1986,                                    magnetic c o n c e n t r a t e from t h e Goodnews Bay
       Regional correlation sections across t h e North                                district, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin
       Slope of Alaska [abs.],              C a r t e r , L.M.H., ed., USGS             1660, 38 p.
       research on energy resources--1986: Program and                          Sable, E.G., Stricker, G.D., and Affolter, R.H., 1986,
       abstracts: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 974, p.                               Nanushuk Group coal investigations--North Slope of
       43.                                                                              Alaska [abs.],                C a r t e r , L.M.H., ed., USGS research
-----1986,          Regional correlation sections across t h e                          on         energy            resources--1986:           Program    and
       North Slope of Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey                                    abstracts: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 974, p.
       Miscellaneous Field Investigations Map MF-1907.                                  59-60.
Mosier, E.L., and Lewis, J.S., 1986, Analytical results,                        Schmidt, J.M.,                     1986, Stratigraphic setting and
        geocherrlical signatures, and sample locality map o f                           mineralogy of t h e A r c t i c volcanogenic massive
        lode gold, placer gold, and heavy-mineral                                       sulfide prospect,                        Ambler district,       Alaska:
        c o n c e n t r a t e s from t h e Koyukuk-Chandalar mining                     Economic Geology, v. 81, no. 7, p. 1619-1643.
                                     ..
        district, Alaska: U S Geological Survey Open-File                        Schmidt, J.M., and Folger, P.F., 1986, Pb-Zn-Ag
        Report 86-345, 174 p.                                                            mineralization in Paleozoic dolostones, Powdermilk
 Nelson, S.W., Dumoulin, J.A., and Miller, M.L., 1986,                                  prospect, Baird Mountains 0-4 quadrangle, in
        Geologic m a p of t h e Chugach National Forest,                                Bartsch-Winkler, Susan, and Reed, K,M., eds;
        Alaska:              U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous                       Geologic studies in Alaska by t h e U.S. Geological
        Studies Map MF-1645-U, s c a l e 1:250,000.                                     Survey during 1985:                           U.S. Geological Survey
 Nelson, S.W., and Koski, Randy, 1986, The Midas Mine--                                 Circular 978,. p. 19-21.
        a s t r a t i f o r m Fe-Cu-Zn-Pb sulfide deposit in L a t e             -----1987,          O r g a n ~ c c o n t e n t and rockeval pyrolysis o f
        C r e t a c e o u s turbidite near Valdez, Alaska Cabs.]:                       c a r b o n a t e rocks f r o m t h e O m a r copper project,
        Geological Society of America Abstracts with                                    Baird Mountains, Alaska,                           Hamilton, T.D., and
        Programs, v. 19, no. 6, p. 436.                                                          )way, J.P., eds., The U.S. Geological Survey in
 Newberry, R.J., and Brew, D.A., 1987, The Alaska-                                               (a--accomplishments                    during 1986:       U.S.
        Juneau gold deposit; remobilized syngenetic versus                                       ogical Survey Circular 998, p. 43-46.
        e x o t i c epigenetic origin,      ~         I-lamilton, T.D., a n d
        Galloway, J.P., eds., The U.S. Geological Survey in
                                                                                                    R.G., 1987, E f f e c t s of weathering on
                                                                                        peiroleum-source evaluation of coals from t h e
        Alaska--accomplishments                 during 1986:             U.S.           Suntrana Formation near Healy, Alaska, in
        Geological Survey Circular 998, p. 128- 131.                                    Hamilton, T.D., and Galloway, J.P., eds., The u.X
 Nokleberg, W.J., Bundtzen, T.K., Berg, H.C., Brew,                                      G e o l o ~ i c a l Survev in Alaska--accomolishments
         D.A., Grybeck, Donald, Smith, T.E., and Yeend,                                                                                    Survey
                                                                                         d u r i n i 1986: ~ . ~ . ' ~ e o l o ~ i c a l ~ i i c u l a r   998,
         Warren (plus 55 contributors), 1987, Significant                                p. 99-103.
         metalliferous lode deposits and placer districts of                     -----1987,           Thermal maturity and petroleum source
         Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1786, 200                               potential of t h e Cantwell Formation,                      Hamilton,
         p., s c a l e 1:5,000,000, 2 sheets.                                            T.D., and Galloway, J.P., eds., T h e U.S. Geological
 Nokleberg, W.J., Bundtzen, T.K., Berg, H.C., Brew,                                      Survey in Alaska--accomplishments in Alaska
        LA., Grybeck, Donald, and Yeend, W.E., 1987,                                    during 1986: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 998,
        Metallogeny and major mineral deposits of Alaska:                               p. 104-107.
        Alaskan Decade of North American Geology,                                Stevenson, A.J., and Vallier, T.L., 1986, Evolution,
        Geological Society of America, 154 p.                                           s t r u c t u r e , and petroleum potential of Aleutian
 Odum, J.K., Cardner, C.A., Schrnoll, H.R., Yehle, L.A.,                                subduction complex [abs.]: American Association
        and Dearborn, L.L., 1986, Lithologic, geotechnical,                             of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 70, no. 7, p.
        and geophysical d a t a for drill hole CE-82-1,                                 935.
        Chuitna East c o a l field, Cook Inlet region, Alaska:                  Stricker, G.D., Affolter, R.H., and Brownfield, M.E.,
      1986, Geochemical characterization of selected                              U.S. Bureau of Mines
     coals from the Beluga energy resource area, south-
     central Alaska: s l t e of a proposed coal mine labs.],   Barker, LC., 1986, Platinum-group metals, gold and
     in
     - Carter, L.M.H., ed., 1986, USGS research on                   chromiunl resource potential offshore of Platinum,
     energy resources--1986: Program and abstracts:                  Alaska [abs.]:           presented a t 16th Annual
      U.S. Geological Survey Circular 974, p. 65-66.                 Underwater Mining Conference, November 1986,
Sutley, S,3., O'Leary, R.M., and Goldfarb, R.J., 1986,               Biloxi, MISS. [Available a t U.S. Bureau of Mines
     Analytical results and sample locality map of                   Library, Juneau, Alaska].
      moraine-sediment, stream-sediment, and heavy             Barker, J.C., and Foley, J.Y., 1986, Ttn reconnaissance
      mineral Concentrate sanlples from t h e Cordova and            o f t h e Kanutt and Hodzana rlvers uplands, central
      Middleton Island lo by 3' quadrangles, Alaska: U.S.            Alaska: U.S. Bureau of Mlnes Information Circular
      Geological Survey Open-File Report 86-381, 117 p.,             9104, 27 p.
      scale 1:250,000.                                         Barker, J.C. and Swainbank, R.C., 1986, A tungsten-rich
Tailleur, I.L., and Weimer, Paul, eds., 1987, Alaskan                porphyry        molybdenum      occurrence at Bear
      North Slope geology: Pacific Section, Society of               Mountaln, northeast Alaska: Economic Geology, v.
      Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, v. 50,             81, no. 7, p. 171-177.
      2 v., 800 p.                                             Oottge, R.G., 1986, Company towns versus con~pany
Till, A.G., Dumoulin, 3.A., Garnble, B.M., and Kaufman,              canlps in developing Alaska's mineral resources:
      D.S., 1956, Preliminary geologic map and fossil                U.S. Bureau of Mines Information C ~ r c u l a r9107, 19
      data, Solomon, Bendeleben, and southern Kotzebue               P.
      quadrangles, Seward Peninsula, Alaska:            US.    -----1986, Ava~labilityof land for mineral exploration
      Geological Survey Open-File Report 86-276, 69 p.,              and development in Alaska: presented a t Alaska
      scale 1:250,000, 3 sheets.                                     Miners Association Convention, October 1986,
Updike, K.C., and Carpenter, B.A., 1986, Engineering                 Anchorage, Alaska, 7 p. [Available a t U.S. Bureau
      geology of t h e Governmen1 Hill area, Anchorage,              of Mlnes Library, Juneau, Alaska].
      Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1588, 32 p,      ----- 1986, Maps surnniarizing land availability for
von Huene, Roland, 1986, Potential gas generation in                 mineral        exploration    and     development      in
      subducted sediments of the eastern Aleutian Trench             northcentral Alaska: U.S. Bureau of Mines Open-
      a r e a labs.],  Carter, L.M.H., ed., 1986, USGS               File Report 70-86, 1 4 quadrangle overlays, scale
      research on energy resources--1986: Program and                 1:250,000, and U.S. Bureau of Mines Special Report,
      abstracts: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 974, p.             scale 1:500,000.
     69.                                                       -----1986,      Maps sumrnarizlng land availability for
White, E.R., Galloway, J.P., and Booth, S.E., compilers,             mineral        exploration    and     development      in
      1986, Reports about Alaska in USGS publications                southccntral Alaska: U.S. Bureau of Mines Open-
      released in 1985,         Oartsch-Winkler, Susan, and          File Report 71-86, 21 quadrangle overlays, scale
      Reed, K.M., eds., Geologic studies in Alaska by the            1:250,000, and U.S. Bureau of Mines Special Report,
      U.S. Geological Survey during 1985:               U.S.         scale 1:500,000.
      Geological Survey Circular 978, p. 146-159.              Daellcnbach,         C.B.,   compiler,     1986, Chromium-
-----1986,     Reports about Alaska in non-USGS                      chromite:         Bureau of M ~ n e s assessment and
      publications in 1985 t h a t include USGS authors,             research; proceedings of Bureau of Mines briefing
      Bartsch-Winkler, Susan, and Reed, K.M., eds.,                  held a t Oregon S t a t e University, Corvallis, Oregon,
      Geologic studies in Alaska by t h e U.S. Geological            June 4-5, 19115: U.S. Bureau of Mines Information
      Survey during 1985: U.S. Geological Circular 978,              C~rcular    9087, 141 p.
      p. 160-168.                                              Fechner, S.A., 1986, 1984 sample results for Bureau of
Wiley, T.3., 1986, Tectonics--first order control of                 Mines s i t e specific mineral investigations wlthin
      sediment distribution and hydrocarbon potential:               the Yentna mining district, Alaska: U.S. Bureau of
      examples from t h e western margin of North                    Mines Open-File Report 28-86, 53 p.
      America Labs.], 5 Carter, L.M.H., ed., USGS              Fechner, S.A. and tloekzema, R.B., 1986, Distribution,
      research on energy resources--1986: Program and                 analysis, and recovery of gold from Kantishna
      abstracts: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 974, p,              placers, Alaska: U.S. Bureau of Mines Open-File
      74-75.                                                          Report 1-86, 54 p.
Winkler, G.K., 1986, Data releases and folio reports           Foley, J.Y. and Barker, LC., 1986, Uranium occurrences
      prepared for t h e Alaska Mineral Resource                     on the northern Darby Mountains, Seward
      Assessment Program and the Regional Alaska                      Peninsula,      Alaska: U.S.      Bureau of Mines
      Mineral Resource Assessment Program listed                     Information Circular 9103, 27 p.
      alphabetically by quadrangle, & Bartsch-Winkler,         Foley, J.Y., Barker, J.C., and Brown, L.L., 1986,
      Susan, and Reed, K.M., eds., Geologic studies in               Chromite           resources      in      Alaska,      in
      Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1985:              Chromiumlchroniite:          Assessment and resear&
      U.S. Geological Survey Circular 978, p. 110-145.               U.S. Bureau of Mines Information Circular 9087, p.
Winkler, G.R. and Grybeck, D.J., 1986, The Alaska                    23-29.
      Mineral Resource Assessrrtent Program in 1985,           ~ o e k z c m a ,R.B. and Fechner, S.A., 1986, Placer gold
      Rartsch-Winkler, Susan and Reed, K.M., eds.,                   sampling in and near the Chugach National Forest,
      Geologic s t u d ~ e sin Alaska by the U.S. Geological         Alaska: U,S. Bureau of Mines Inforn~ation        Circular
      Survey during 1985:           U.S. Geological Survey           9091, 42 p.
      Circular 978, p. 3-5.                                    Hoekzema, R.B., Fechner, S.A., and Bundtzen, T.K.,
Yeend, Warren, 1987, Placer gold related t o tnafic                   1986, Distribution, analysis, and recovery of placer
      schist? Circle District,          Hamilton, T.R., and          gold from the Porcupine mining area, southeast
      Galloway, J.P., eds., The U.S. Geological Survey in            Alaska: U.S. Bureau of Mines Open-File Report 86-
      Alaska--accomplishments         during 1986:      U.S.         86, 49 p.
      Geological Survey Circular 998, p. 74-76.                Hoekzema, R.B., Fechner, S.A., and Kurtak, J.M., 1987,
        Evaluation of selected lode gold deposits in t h e                      Wildlife Refuge, d r a f t comprehensive conservation
        Chugach National Forest, Alaska: U.S. Bureau of                         plan, environmental impact statement: Anchorage,
        Mines Information Circular 91 13, 6 2 p.                                Alaska, 265 p.
Kurtak, J.M., 1986, Results of 1984 Bureau of Mines s i t e
                                                                          ----- 1986, Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge, d r a f t
        specific field s t u d ~ e s within t h e Willow Creek                  comprehensive conservation plan, wilderness review
        mining d i s t r ~ c t , Alaska:         U.S. Bureau o f Mines          and environmental impact statement: Anchorage,
        Open-File Report 17-86, 17 p.                                           Alaska, 287 p.
Kurtak, J.M.                and Seske, R.E.,            1986, Mineral     ----1986,          Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, d r a f t
        investigations in t h e Chugach National Forest,                        comprehensive conservation plan, wilderness
        Alaska (islands area): U.S. Bureau of Mines Open-                       review, wild river plan, and environmental impact
        File Report 54-86, 302 p.                                               s t a t e m e n t : Anchorage, Alaska, 278 p.
Maas, K.M., 1987, Maps sumnlarizing land availability                     -----1986,         Togiak Nationai Wildlife Refuge, final
        for mineral exploration and development in                              comprehensive conservation plan, wilderness review
        northern Alaska: U.S. Bureau of Mines Open-File                         and environmental impact statement: Anchorage,
        R e p o r t 10-87, 33 quadrangle overlays, s c a l e                    Alaska, 5 14 p.
        1:250,000.                                                          ..
                                                                          U S Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey,
Meyer, M.P., 1986, Results of 1984 Bureau of Mines s i t e                      and U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 1986, Arctic
        specific mineral investigations in t h e Valdez Creek                   National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, coastal plain
        Mining District, Alaska:                 U.S. Bureau of Mines           resource             assessment--draft      report  and
        Open-File Report 50-86, 24 p.                                           recommendation t o t h e Congress of t h e United
                                                                                S t a t e s and legislative environmental impact
                  ..
P i t t m a n , T L , 1986, The mineral industry of Alaska,
                                                                                s t a t e m e n t : Washington, 172 p.
         U.S. Bureau of Mines Minerals Yearbook, 1985, v.                 West, R.L.,              1986, Baseline histopathological and
        11, A r e a Reports, Domestic: U.S. Bureau o f Mines,                   contaminant studies of four a r c t i c fish species in
         (in press).                                                            Beaufort Lagoon, A r c t i c National Wildlife Refuge,
-----1986, T h e mineral industry of Alaska in 1986: U.S.                       Alaska: Fairbanks, Alaska, U.S. Fish and Wildlife
         Bureau of Mines Mineral Industry Surveys, 2 p.                         Service, Fishery Resources Progress Report No. FY
Redrnan, E.C., 1986, History of t h e Juneau Gold Belt                          86-4.
         1869-1965:              Developnlent of t h e mines and
        prospects f r o m Windham Ray t o Berners Bay: U.S.                                   National P a r k Service
         Bureau of Mines Open-File Report 91-86, 78 p.
Redman, E.C., Roberts, W.S., Clough, A.H., and Kurtak,
                                                                          Deschu, Nancy, 1986, Turbidity and s e t t l e a b l e solids in
         S.M., 1986, Preliminary mine, prospect, and sample
                                                                                mined and unmined s t r e a m s in t h e K a n t ~ s h n a
                                                                                                                                         Hills,
         location maps and descriptions, Juneau Gold Belt                       Denali National Park and Preserve: U.S. National
         Area: U.S. Bureau of Mines Open-File Report 85-                        Park           Service,    Alaska     Regional         Office,
         86, 68 p., 4 sheets, varying scales.                                   ResearchIResources Management Report AR-7.
Southworth, D.D. and Foley, J.Y., 1986, Lode platinum-                    U.S. National Park Servlce, 1986, Environmental
         group m e t a l s potential of t h e Goodnews Bay                      assessment and analysis, proposed plan o f
         ultramafic complex, Alaska: U.S. Bureau of Mlnes                       operations, Trinity Mining, Humbalt Creek, B e r ~ n g
         Open-File Report 51-86,82 p.                                           Land Bridge National Preserve: Alaska Regional
Warner, J.D., Mardock, C.L,, and Dahlin, LC., 1986, A                           O f f i c e , 49 p.
                                         ng
         c o l u n ~ b ~ u m - b e a r ~ regolith on Uppcr Idaho Gulch,   ----- 1986, Environmental assessment and Regional
         near Tofty, Alaska:                    U.S. Bureau of Mines
         Information Circular 9105, 29 p.                                       Director's a n a l y s ~ s , 1986 Plan of Operations for
                                                                                Edison Association placer claim, Wrangell-St. Elias
                    Fish a n d Wildlife Service                                 National Park and Preserve, Alaska:                     Alaska
                                                                                Regional Office, 54 p.
Clough, N.K., Patton, P.C., and Christiansen, A.C., eds.,                 -----1986,          Environmental assessment and R e g ~ o n a l
     1987, A r c t i c National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska,                        Director's analysis, 1986 Plan of Operations f o r
     coastal plain resource assessment--report and                              Sunshine Lode patented claim (Nabesna Mine),
     recomnlendation t o t h e Congress of t h e United                         Wrangell-St. Ellas N a t ~ o n a l Park and Preserve,
     S t a t e s and final legislative environment impact                       Alaska: Alaska Regional Office, 51 p.
     statement:           Washington, U.S. Fish and Wildlife              -----1986, Environmental handbook for cyanide leaching
     Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and U.S. Bureau o f                       projects: Intermountain Soils, Inc., Denver, Colo.,
     Land Management, 2 v.                                                      57 P.
Elison, G.W., Rappoport, A.G., and Reid, C.M., 1986,
                                                                          ----- 1966, Reclamation research plans for Alaska
     Report of t h e caribou impact analysis workshop,                          National Park System units: Environmental Sclence
     A r c t i c National Wildlife Refuge, November 19-20,                      and Engineering, Inc., and Beck Consultants, Inc.,
     1985: Fairbanks, Alaska. U.S. Fish and Wildlife                             104 p.
     Service, 39 p.
Garner, G.W., and Reynolds, P.E., eds., 1986, Final                                           D e p a r t m e n t of Energy
     report, baseline study of t h e fish, wildlife, and their
     habitats, Section 1002(c) of t h e Alaska National                   List includes publications resulting from DOE-sponsored
     Interest Lands Conservation Act:              Anchorage,             research:
     Alaska, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 7, 2
     v.                                                                   Feyk, C., and Sackinger, W,M., 1986, Formation of
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1986, Kanuti National                         surface films ax a s e a icelstecl i n t e r f a c e under
     Wildlife Refuge, d r a f t comprehensive conservation                    impressed c u r r e n t conditions:      International
     plan, wilderness review and environrnental impact                        Sy~nposiumon A r c t i c Corrosion, Ist, Corrosion/86,
     s t a t e m e n t : Anchorage, Alaska, 219 p.                            National Association of Corrosion Engineers
----- 1986, Koyukult and northern unit of Innoko National                     Conference, Houston, Tex., 1986, Proceedings.
                                    ...
Kovacs, Austin, Morey, R.M., Cox, G F N , and Valleau,            Circular 8, 32 p.
      N.C., 1987, Electromagnetic property trends in sea    ----1986, Oil-and-gas resources of Alaska: Information
      ice: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Cold Regions             Circular 31, 9 p.
      Research and Engineering Laboratory, CRREL            -----1986,      Resource information--Upper Kuskokwirn
      Report 87-6, 45 p.                                          River Basin Land-Use Plan: Public Data File 86-53.
Morgantown      Energy    Technology Center,       1986,    -----1986, Summary of existing data and potential for
      Proceedings of the Gas Hydrates, Arctic/Offshore            commercial hydrocarbon accumulations, Bristol
      Research, and Deep Source Gas Contractors                   Bay, Alaska: Publlc Data File 86-13, 20 p.
      Review Meeting: reports DOE/METC-8616037 and          -----1987,      Map of Division of Geological and
      NTIS/l)E86006404.                                           Geophys~calSurveys publications with author and
-----1987, Arctic and Offshore Research Technology                quadrangle indexes, rev~sed January 15, 1987:
      Status Report: reports DOE/METC-8710247 and                 Information Circular 23, 5 p., scale 1:3,265,000.
      NTIS/DE8700 1028,32 p.                                Bundtzen, T.K., 1986, Placer geology of the Porcupine
---1987,     Gas Hydrates Technology Status Report:               Mining District, Skagway 8-4 quadrangle, Alaska:
      reoorts DOEIMETC-8716046 and NTISIDE86001027.               Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical
    25 p.                                                         Surveys Public Data File 86-27,26 p.
-----1987, Deep Source Gas Technology Status Report:        ----1986,      Prospect examination of a gold-tungsten
      reports           DOElMETC-867/0250           and           placer deposit a t Alder Creek, Vinasale Mountain
      NTIS/DE87001031, 18 p.                                      area, western Alaska, Alaska Division of Geological
Sackinger, W.M., Feyk, C., and Shoemaker, H.D., 1986,             and Geophysical Surveys Public Data File 86-15, 10
      Spray ice formation characteristics, and adhesion           P.
      t o ship and structure coatings:    Annual Arctic     Bundtzen, T.K., and Clautice, K.H., 1986, Prospect
      Offshore Technology Conference and Exhibition,              examination of the Golden Eagle lode-gold prospect
      3d, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 1986.                         near Porcupine, Skagway t3-4 quadrangle, Alaska:
Sackinger, W.M., Norlund, O.P., and Shoemaker, H D ,..            Alaska Divislon of Geological and Geophysical
      1986, Low adhesion coatings for sea spray ice on            Surveys Public Data File 86-18, 7 p.
      off shore drilling units In northern waters:          Bundtzen, T.K. and Eakins, G.R., Green, C.B., and
      International Offshore and Navigation Conference            Lueck, L.L., 1986, Alaska's Mineral Industry--
      and     Exhibition,    Helsinki,  Ftnland,   1986,          1985:        Alaska Division of Geological and
      Proceedings, p. 5 12-527.                                   Geophysical Surveys Special Report 39,68 p.
Scott, J.H., Petersen, J.K., Osterkarnp, T.E.,       and    Bundtzen, T.K., and Kline, J.T., 1986, Coal, peat, and
      Kawasaki, K., 1986, Inrerpretation of geophysical           geothermal potential of Kuskokwim Area Plan:
      well logs in permafrost: DOE/BC/ 10810-1938 and             Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical
      NTIS/DE86001052, 124 p.                                     Surveys Public Data File 86-88, 13 p.
Shoemaker, H.D., 1986, Arctic and Offshore Research          Bundtzen, T.K., Miller, M.L., and Laird, G.M., 1986,
      Informat~on System (AORIS):         Annual Arctic            Prospect examination of the Wyrick placer/lode
      Offshore Technology Conference Exhibition, 3d,               system, Granite Creek, Iditarod-George mining
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 1986.                              district, Iditarod B-2 quadrangle, Alaska: Alaska
Theuveny, R., and Sack~nger, W.M., 1986, Method of                 Divis~on of Geological and Geophysical Surveys
      calculation of cathodic protection for current               Public Data File 86-29, 10 p.
      distribution for steel offshore structures in the      Eakins, G.R., and Kline, Y.T., 1986, Chicago Creek coal
      Arctic:     International Sympos~um on Arctic                investigation: summary of field trlp, September 8-
      Corrosion, 1st. Corrosion/86, National Association           13, 1980:      Alaska Division of Geological and
      of Corrosion Engineers Conference, Houston, Tex.,            Geophysical Surveys Public Data File 86-30, 7 p.
      1986.                                                                             ..
                                                             Forbes, R.B., Kline, J T , Clough, A.H., 1987, A
Turner, DL., and Wescott, E.M., eds., 1986, Geothermal             preli rninary investigation of alluvial diamond
      energy resource investigations a t Mt. Spurr,                discoveries in placer gravels of Crooked Creek,
      Alaska:      Fairbanks, University of Alaska,
                                                                   Circle District, Alaska:        Alaska Division of
      Geophysical Institute Report UFAG R-308, 11 1 p.             Geological and Geophysical Surveys Report of
                                                                   Investigations 87-2, scale 1:63,360.
             OTHER FEDERAL AGENCIES                          Goff, K.M., 1986, Slide presentation on Alaska coal:
                                                                   Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical
Godfrey, R.N., and Eaton, R.A., 1986, Engineering                  Surveys Public Data File 86-31, 49 p.
   surveys along the Trans-Alaska Pipeline:      U.S.        Hansen, J.J., and Kornbrath, R.W., compilers, 1986,
   Army, Cold Regions Research and Engineering                     Resource appraisal simulation for perroleurn in the
    Laboratory Special Report 86-28, 85 p. [Available              Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska: Alaska
    from CRREL, 72 Lyme Road, Hanover, NH, 037551.                 Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys
                                                                   Professional Report 90, 13 p.
                                                             Hitzman, M.W., 1986, Geology of the Ruby Creek
               NON-FEDERAL REPORTS                                 copper deposit, southwestern Brooks Range,
                                                                   Alaska: Economic Geology, v. 81, no. 7, p. 1644-
 Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys             1674.
                                                             Johnson, Kurt, 1986, DGCS Alaska coal regions data
List includes publications by the ADCCS and outside                base:       Alaska Division of Geological and
publications with ADGGS authors:                                   Geophysical Surveys Public Data File 86-87, 64 p.
Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys,       Mack, S.F., 1986, Using turbidity t o predict total
      1986, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Public Data           suspended solids in mined streams in interior
      File 86-86.                                                  Alaska:      Alaska Division of Geological and
-----1986, Geological and mining consultants available             Geophysical Surveys Public Data File 86-84, 108 p.
      for work in Alaska, revised July, 1986: Information    Mack, S.F., and Moorman, M.A., 1986 Hydrologic and
       water-quality    investigations related to the                Public Data File 86-93, 15 p.
       occurrence of placer mining in interior Alaska,        -----1986, Western arctic coal-study proposal (1986):
       summers 1984-1985: Alaska Division of Geological              Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical
       and Geophysical Surveys Public Data File 86-16,               Surveys Publlc Data File 86-96, 13 p.
       138 p,                                                 Merritt, R.D., Eakins, G.R., and Johnson, K.J., 1986,
Manning, K.H., and Stevens, D.L., 1986, The Chicago                  Proposal for entry of Alaska coal data into the
       Creek and Norton Sound area, coal exploration                 Nat~onal Coal Resource Data System of the U.S.
       programs, 1982: Alaslta Division of Geological and            Geological Survey: Alaska Dlvision of Geological
       Geophysical Surveys Public Data File 86-58, 103 p.
            . -
                                                                     and Geophysical Surveys Public Data File 86-71, 33
Maurer, M.A., 1986,-Chemical and biological water                    P.
       quality of selected streams in the Beluga coal area,   Merritt, R.D., Eakins, G.R,, and Rawlinson, S.E., 1986,
       Alaska:      Alaska Division of Geological and                Coal and peat resource programs for Alaska:
       Geophysical Surveys Public Data File 86-51, 59 p.             Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical
Merritt, K.D., 1986, Alaska coal fields and seams:                   Surveys Public Data File 86-70, 27 p.
       Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical           Merritt, R.D., and Hawley, C.C., 1986, Map of Alaska's
       Surveys Public Data File 86-67, 41 p.                         coal resources: Alaska Division of Geological and
-----1986, Alaska:        Coal fields and scams: Alaska              Geophysical Surveys Special Report 37, scale
       Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys                 1:2,500,000.
       Public Data File 86-90, 55 p.                          Merritt, R.D., and McGee, 13.L., 1986, Depositional
-----1986, Analysis of Beluga lease sale and coal exports            environments and resource potential of Cretaceous
       (1982):     Alaska Division of Geological and                 coal-bearing strata a t Chignik and Herendeen Bay,
        Geophysical Surveys Public Data File 86-93, 15 p.            Alaska Peninsula: Alaska Division of Geological
-----1986, Characterization of Alaska coal overburden:               and Geophysical Surveys Public Data File 86-72, 44
        Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical                P.
        Surveys Public Data File 86-64, 42 p.                 Morehouse, J.A., 1986, Coal bibliography of northwest
        1986, Chronicle of Alaska coal-mining history:               Alaska:          Alaska Division of Geological and
                                                                     Geophysical Surveys Public Data File 86-56, 33 p.
        Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical
        Surveys Public Data File 86-66, 25 p.                 Motyka, R J . , Hawkins, D.B., Poreda, K.J., and Jeffries,
 -----1986, Coal geology and resources of the Matanuska              W.A., 1986, Gcochernistry, isotopic composition,
        Valley, Alaska: Alaska Division of Geological and            and origin of fluids emanating from mud volcanoes
        Geophysical Surveys Public Data File 86-76, 93 p.            in the Copper River Basin, Alaska: Alaska Division
 -----1986, Coal geology and resources of the Nenana                 of Geological and Geophysical Surveys Public Data
        Basin, Alaska: Alaska Division of Geological and             File 86-34, 87 p.
        Geophysical Surveys Public Data Filc 86-74, 70 p.     Motyka, R.J., Queen, L.D., Janik, C.J., Sheppard, D.S.,
 -----1986, Coal geology and resources of the Susitna                Poreda, R.J.,         and Liss, S.A.,    1986, Fluid
        lowland, Alaska: Alaska Division of Geological and           geochemistry and fluid-mineral equilibria in test
        Geophysical Surveys Public Data File 86-75, 98 p.            wells and thermal-gradient holes a t the Makushin
 -----1986, Coal reports of the Alaska Division of                   geothermal area, Unalaska Island, Alaska: Alaska
        Geological and Geophysical Surveys (1984): Alaska            Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys
        Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys               Public Data File 86-59, 155 p.
        Public Data File 86-94. 5 p.                          Newberry, R.J., compiler, 1986, Compendium of data on
 ----- 1986, Coal reports of the State of Alaska                     skarn deposits of Alaska:         Alaska Division of
        Department of Natural Resources Division of                  Geological and Geophysical Surveys Public Data
        Geological and Geophysical Surveys:         Alaska           File 86-17, 851 p.
        Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys        -----1986, Mineral resources of the northcentral
        Public Data File 86-97, 17 p.                                Chugach Mountains, Alaska: Alaska Division of
 ----- 1986, Coal resources of the Miocene Unga                      Geological and Geophysical Surveys Report of
        Conglomerate Member, Beat Lake Formation, Unga                Investigations 86-23, 44 p.
        Island, Alaska Peninsula:      Alaska Division of      Ramsey, J.P., Retherford, R.M., Hickok, B., and
        Geological and Geophysical Surveys Public Data                Williams, J., 1986, Northwest coal investigations:
        File 86-69, 33 p.                                            Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical
  -----1986, Evaluation of Alaska's coal potential (1982):           Surveys Public Data File 86-55, 81 p.
        Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical          Rawlinson, S.E., 1986, Peat-resource and surficial-
        Surveys Public Data File 86-92, 18 p.                        geologic map of the south Kenai Peninsula,
 -----1986, Exploring for coal on the last frontier:                 Alaska:          Alaska Division of Geological and
        Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical                Geophysical Surveys Public Data File 86-15, scale
        Surveys Public Data File 86-89, 23 p.                         1:31,680.
  -----1986, Geology and coal resources of the Wood River     Retherford, R.M., Hinderman, T.K., and Hawley, C.C.,
         Field, Nenana Basin: Alaska Division of Geological           1986, Preliminary feasibility study of a coal mine
        and Geophysical Surveys Public Data File 86-68, 37           a t Chicago Creek, Seward Peninsula, Alaska:
                                                                     Summary report: Alaska Division of Geological and
     .
     P                                                               Geophysical Surveys Report of Investigations 86-13,
 -----1986, PaleoCnvironmental and tectonic controls in
       the major coal basins of Alaska: Alaska Division of            38 D.
       Geological and Geophysical Surveys Public Data          ~ o b i n s d n , M.S., 1986, Basic statistical analysis of
       File 86-73, 74 p.                                             geochemical results for rock, pan-concentrate, and
 -----1986, Petrology of Cretaceous and Tertiary coals of            stream-sediment samples from the Sleetmute A-5,
       southern Alaska: Alaska Division of Geological and             A-6, 8-5, and B-6 quadrangles, southwest Alaska:
       Geophysical Surveys Public Data File 86-65, 49 p.              Alaska Division of Geological and Ceophyslcal
 -----1986, The Seward coal terminal (1985): Alaska                   Surveys Public Data File 86-6, 81 p.
       Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys          -----1986, Tungsten and arsenic concentrations in rock,
      pan concentrate, and stream sediment samples                 Oil and Gas Journal, v. 85, no. 5, p. ,12-15.
      from the Steele Creek area, northeast of               Dunn, Anthony, 1986, ,mineral collect~ng
                                                                                               'I                adventure in
      Fairbanks:     Alaska Division of Geological and              the skarn zone, Wrangell Mountains, Alaska: Rocks
      Geophysical Surveys Public Data File 86-81, 6 p,              and Minerals, v, 61, no. 6, p. 338-344.
Sturmann, A.G., 1986, Mining-claim information for the       Duval, David, 1986, Red Dog, Con mine see Corninco
      Big Delta quadrangle, Alaska (1985), revised May              action: Northern Miner, v. 72, no. 39, p. 1-2.
       1986:      Alaslta Division of Geological and         Einaudi, M.T., and Hitzman, M.W., 1986, Mineral
      Geophysical Surveys Report of Investigations 86-18,           deposits in northern Alaslta:                Introduction:
      4 P.                                                          Economic Geology, v. 81, no. 7, p. 1583-1591.
-----1986, Mining-clairn inforrrlation for the Circle        Folger, P.F., 1986, The geology and geochemistry of the
      quadrangle, Alaska (19851, revised April 1986:                carbonate-hosted Omar copper deposit, Baird
      Alaslta Division of Geological and Geophysical                Mountains, Canada [abs.]: Geological Association
      Surveys Report of Investigations 86-19, 12 p.                 of Canada-Mineralogical Association of Canada-
----- 19X6, Mining-claim information for the Fairbanks              Canadian Geophysical Union Joint Annual Meeting,
      quadrangle, Alaska (19851, revised May 1986:                  Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 1986, Program with
      Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical                 Abstracts, p. 69.
      Surveys Report of Investigations 86-20, 8 p.           Friedrrian, S.A., Jones, R.W., Jackson, M.L., and
-----1986, Mining-claim inforrl~ationfor fhc Livengood              Treworgy, C.C., 1986, Developri~cnts in coal in
      quadrangle, Alaska (1985), revised April 1986:                 1985:              American Association of Petroleum
      Alaslta Division of Geological and Geophysical                Geologists Bulletin, v. 70, no. 10, p. 1643-l6b9.
       Surveys Report of Investigations 86-21, 10 p.         Ceo-Heat Center, 1986, Alaska, feasibility of power
Wiltse, MA,, 1986, Suggested collection methods for                 production a t Unalaska is under evaluation; Mt.
       heavy-mineral samples:        Alaska Division of             Spurr leasc sale completed: Oregon Institute of
       Geological and Geophysical Surveys Public Data               Technology, Geo-Heat Center Quarterly Bulletin, v.
       File 86-54, 11 p.                                            9, no. 4, p. 20.
 Updike, R.G., March, G.D., Allely, R.D., Krause, K.K.,      Hilton, Don, and Mroz, T.H., 1986, Characteristics of
       Jones, Doug, Nye, C.J., Long, W.E., Reeder, 3.W.,            possible reservoir rocks of methane gas hydrates:
       Carrick, S.J., Maurer, M.A., Holmes, C.E., and               National Petroleun~ Reserve of Alaska [abs.]:
       Davics, J.N., 1986, Engineering geology technical            Geological Society of Arrierica Abstracts with
       feasibility study, Makushin geothermal power                 Programs, v. 18, no. 4, p. 292.
       project, Unalaska, Alaska: Division of Geological     ----- Reservoir environment of rnethanc gas hydrate;
       and Geophysical Surveys Public Data File 86-60,              National Petroleurn Reserve in Alaska [abs.],
       273 p.                                                       Geological Association of Canada-Mineralogical
                                                                    Association of Canada-Canadian Geophysical Union
          Additional Non-Federal Publications                       Joint Annual Meeting, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada,
                                                                     1986, Program with Abstracts, p. 81-82.
Alaska Construction and Oil, 1986, Seismic sleuths           I lohler, S.J., and Bishoff, W.E., 1986, Alaska: Potential
     search for new Cook Inlet oil: v. 27, no. 10, p, IS,           for giant fields, & Halbouty, M.T., ed., Future
     20-21.                                                         petroleum provinces of the world:                American
Alaska Report, 1986, State's third diamond found                    Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 40, p.
     northeast of Fairbanks: Petroleum Infornlation, v.              131-142.
     32, no. 39, sec. I, p. 3.                               Lueck, Larry, 1986, Petrologic and geochemical
Alaska Mines and Geology [published quarterly by the                characterization of the Red Dog and other base-
     State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources,               rrlctal sulfide and barite deposits in the DcLong
     P.O. Box 80007, College, AK, 997081.                           Mountains, western              Broolts Range, Alaska:
Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, 1987,                   Fairbanks, Ur~iversity of Alaska, Mineral Industry
      1986 statistical report [available from Alaska Oil            Research Laboratory Publication 7 1, 105 p.
     and Gas Conservation Corrlrrlission, 3001 Porcupine     Mapmakers, 1986, Alaska oil and gas lease maps (revised
     Drive, Anchorage, AK, 995011.                                  ed,): [available from The Maprrlakers, Star Route
Atnerican Gold News, 1986, Alaska's farllous gold dredge            Box 7623, Palmer, AK 996451.
     8 cut & j mile track and scooped up 7 $ rnillion        McNutt, S.K., and Jacob, K.H., 1986, Determination of
     ounces of gold, 1928 to 1959: American Gold News,              large-scale velocity structure of the crust and
     v. 53, no. 7, p. 3.                                            upper mantle in the vicinitv of Pavlof Volcano.     ~    ~,
Babalola, 0,0., 1986, Hydrocarbon exploration targets               Alaska: Journal of ~ e o ~ h ~ s iResearch, v. 91, no.
                                                                                                           cel
     in the Ellesmerian of the National Petroleum                   05, p, 5013-5022.
     Reserve, Alaska, from seismic stratigraphic and         ~ e g i r i s , - F . A . , and Sood, M.K., 1986, Trace element
     structural interpretations labs.]:         Geological          chemistry of Kennecott-type copper sulphides,
     Society o l America Abstracts with Programs, v. 18,            McCar thy quadrangle, Alaslta cabs.]:           Geological
     no. 6 , p. 531.                                                Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 18,
Chugach Gem and Mineral Society, 1986, Guidebook for                no. 4, p. 316.
     rockhounds [available from Chugach Gerri and            Mining Journal, 1986, Alaska Apollo consolidates
     Mineral Society, Box 92027, Anchorage, AK,                     Shurnagin claims: v. 307, no. 7879, p. 131.
     995091.                                                 ----- 1986, Gold: Inspiration in Alaska: v. 307, no. 7885,
 he no with, W.L., 1986, Developn~ents in uranium in                p. 237.
     1985:        American Association of Petroleum          Moore, D.W., Young, L.E., Modene, J.S., and Plahuta,
     Geologists Bulletin, v. 70, no. 10, p. 1632-1637.              J.T., 1986, Geologic setting and genesis of the Red
Crawford, Mark, 1986, Interior sets fight on Alaska oil             Dog zinc-lead-silver deposit, western Brooks
     patch: Science, v. 234, no. 4782, p. 1317.                     Range, Alaska: Econornic Geology, v. 81, no. 7, p.
Crow, Patrick, and Williams, Bob, 1987, Arctic National             1696-1727.
     Wildlife Refuge: Will it be leased or locked up?:       Newkirk, S.R., and Eastoe, C J , 1986, Sulfur isotope
                                                                                                     ..
        signatures of        volcanogenic rnassive sulfide                          Specht, R.N., Brown, A.E., Selman, C.H., and Carlisle,
        mineralization in t h e Delta district, east-central                            3.1{., 1986, Geophysical c a s e history, Prudhoe Bay
        Alaska Range, Alaska [abs.]: Geological Society o f                             field: Geophysics, v. 51, no, 5, p. 1039-1049.
        America Abstracts with Programs, v. 18, no. 2, p.                           Spendlove, Earl, 1986, Field trip: Nenana River jade;
         163.                                                                           near Alaska's Mt. McKinley, t h e r e a r e rocks filled
                                                                                        with jade!: Rock and Gcrri, v. 16, no. 5, p. 49-51,71.
Northern Miner, 1986, Carnindex takes control over                                  Steefel, Carl, 1986, The Johnson River prospect,
        Valdez Creek: v. 72, no. 3, p. 3.                                               Alaska: A gold-rich "black smoker1' analog from
         1986, Qucenstake g e t s interest in an Alaskan                                t h e Jurassic [abs.]: Geological Society of America
        property: v. 72, no, I , p. 12.                                                 Abstracts with Programs, v. 18, no. 6, p. 761.
----- 1986, Silverado halts production a t gold mine in
                                                                                    Steenblock, L.J., 1986, Oil and gas developments in
        Alaska: v. 71, no. 44, p. 6.                                                    Alaska in 1985:              Arnerican Association of
Oil and Gas Journal, 1986, Alaska drops t w o sales f r o m                             Petroleurn Geologists Bulletin, v. 70, no. 10, p.
        leasing schedule: v. 84, no. 29,p. 41.                                          1224-1230.
-----1986, Alaska mulls slower l e a s ~ n gschedule: v. 84,                        Wade, W.W., 1986, Exploration and production in
        no. 39, p. 34-35.                                                               Alaska: A review and forecast: World Oil.. v. 2, D      .
-----1986, Alaskan group backs drilling on Arctic                                       101-106.
                                                                                                                                                                        .   a


        National Wildlife Refuge: v. 84, no. 31, p. 24-25.                          World Oil [published monthly by Gulf Publishing
         1986, Anloco plans ice island wildcat In Alaskan                               C o n ~ p a n y , 3301 Allen Parkway, Houston, TX
        Beaufort: v. 84, no. 2, p. 37.                                                  770191.
----- 1986, Leasing recommended on Alaskan wildlife                                 Young, ~.k., Moore, D.W., Modene, JS, and Plahuta,
                                                                                                                              ..
        area: v. 84, no. 48, p. 32-33.                                                  J.T,, 1986, Geologic setting and genesis of t h e Red
Pacific Oil World [published rr~onthly by Petroleurri                                   Dog zinc, lead, and silver deposit, western Brooks
         Publishers, 222 South Brea Boulevard, Brea, CA                                 Range, Alaska [abs.]:           Geological Society of
         9262 I].                                                                       A n ~ e r i c aAbstracts with Programs, v. 18, no. 6 , p.
Petroleurri Information, Alaska Report [published weekly                                799.
         by Petroleurn Information Corporation, a subsidiary
         of A.C. Nielsen, P.O. Box 102278, Anchorage, AK   -
         9951 01.
 Petroleum Inforn~ation. 1986, Suecial report--1985                                         APPENDIX 2.--ROLES OF FEDERAL
         annual review--hlaska: ~ l a s k a ' ~ e ~ ov: t32, no. 3,
                                                      r ,
         sec. I, p. 5-13.                                                                   AGENCIES IN MINERAL PROGRAMS
 P e t z e t , G.A., 1986, Prudhoe Bay horizontal well yields
         hefty flow: Oil and G a s Journal, v. 84, no. 7, p. 42-                                         13epartrnent OF the Interior
      43.
Puchner, C.C.,             1986, Geology, alteration, and
        rnineralization of t h e Kougarok Sn deposit, Seward                                                 U.S. G
                                                                                                             - -e
                                                                                                               -           owcal Surv2
                                                                                                                             ---
        Peninsula, Alaska: Economic Geology, v. 81, no. 7,
        p. 1775- 1794.                                                                         T h e m i s s i o n o f t h e USGS is to p r o v i d e i n f o r -
Kead, J.J., and Meinert, L D , 1986, Gold-bearing quartz
                                     ..                                             mation a b o u t geology, topography, a n d hydrology
        vein rrlincralization a t t h e Big Hurrah Mine, Scward                     t h a t c o n t r i b u t e s to p r u d e n t m a n a g e m e n t o f t h e
        Peninsula, Alaska: Economic Geology, v. 81, no. 7,                          N a t i o n ' s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . 'The USGS c a r r i e s o u t
        p. 1760-1774.                                                               i t s rnission t h r o u g h r e s e a r c h t h a t p r o d u c e s g e o -
Keeder, J.W., 1986, An analysis of fault and volcanic                               g r a p h i c , c a r t o g r a p h i c , and r e m o t e l y s e n s e d i n f o r -
        dike orientations for t h e Makushin Volcano region                         mation; geologic, geochemical, and geophysical
        of t h e Aleutian Arc,               Rcilly, W.I., and Harford,
                                                                                    m a p s a n d studies; energy-, mineral- a n d w a t e r -
        R.E., eds., R e c e n t c r u s t a l rrlovcnicnts of t h e Pacific
        region: Royal Society of New Zealand Bulletin 24,                           r e s o u r c e assessments; geohaxards research, includ-
        p. 201-212.                                                                 i n g t o x i c - w a s t e s t u d i e s ; a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n in m u l t i -
Reid, J.C., 1986, Roof greisen formation a t t h e                                  disciplinary projects, maintaining d a t a bases, a n d
                                                           prospect, Scward
        Kougarok tin ( t a n t a l i u n l - n i o b i u ~ ~ ~ )                    publishing r e p o r t s a n d maps.
        Peninsula, Alaska Labs.]:                 Geological Society of                         In A l a s k a , U S G S i s a c t i v e in a s s e s s i n g
        America Abstracts with Programs, v. 18, no. 6, p.                           minerals, including metalliferous a n d energy
        727.                                                                        resources.             Field a n d laboratory r e s e a r c h e r s also
Kintoul, Bill, 1987, Alaska drilling/productio~~:Pacific                            g a t h e r information about domestic petroleum,
        Oil World, v. 79, no. I, p. 62-71.
                                                                                    coal, uranium, a n d geothermal resources. A t t h e
Simmons, C.G. and Ferrell, S.E., 1986, TAPS repair
                                                                                    r e q u e s t of l a n d - m a n a g i n g a g e n c i e s , t h e USGS
        shows value of deforrnatiorl monitoring: Oil and
        G a s Journal, v. 84, no. 14, p, 79-83.                                     provides mineral-resource assessments f o r land
Sirns, John, and Green, C.R., 1986, M i n i n ~news--good                           planning, including wilderness studies.
        and bad: Alaslta C o n s t r u c t ~ o nand 011;~. no. I, 27,                          W i t h i n A l a s k a , t h e USGS m a i n t a i n s o f f i c e s
        p. 22-25,                                                                   f o r i t s G e o l o g i c , N a t i o n a l Mapping, a n d W a t e r
s m i t h , S.C., 1986, Rase metals and !mercury in                                 R e s o u r c e s 1)ivisions.                 T h e B r a n c h of A l a s k a n
        bryophytes and strealrl sediments frorri a                                  G e o l o g y w i t h i n t h e G e o l o g i c Division, w h i c h is t h e
        geochemical reconnaissance survey of Chandalar                              p r i m a r y USGS o f f i c e s t u d y i n g m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s in
        quadrangle, Alaslta:                 Journal of G e o c h c r r ~ ~ c a l   A l a s k a , is h e a d q u a r t e r e d in A n c h o r a g e and h a s a
        Exploration, v, 25, no. 3, p. 345-365.
                                                                                    f i e l d o f f i c e in F a i r b a n k s . O t h e r A l a s k a n b r a n c h
Sopuck, L.G., and V u r n a ~ r ~ ,                                     and
                                          D.J., 1986, D ~ s t r ~ b u t ~ o n
        movement of moose (Alces alces) in relalion t o t h e                       g e o l o g i s t s are s t a t i o n e d i n M e n l o P a r k , C a l i f .
        Trans-Alaska oil pipeline: Arctic, v. 39, no. 2, p.                         13uring t h e s u m n i e r f i e l d s e a s o n , m a n y USGS
        138-144.                                                                    s c i e n t i s t s From o t h e r b r a n c h e s w i t h i n t h e G e o l o g i c
Division   conduct    mineral-related   research    in   4.   Mineral land assessment--This is the USBM's
Alaska.                                                       major Alaskan program, conducted in cooper-
                                                              ation with other Federal and State agencies.
                U.S. Bureau of Mines                          Mineral assessments are both area and com-
                                                              modity oriented. In support of the Secretary
      The mission of the USBM is to help assure               of the Interior's commitment to assess the
that the Nation's mineral supplies are adequate to            mineral potential of public lands in Alaska,
maintain national security, economic growth, and              the AFOC has begun a program to evaluate
employment. The USBM's Alaska Field Operations                mineral resources of the mining districts in
Center (AFOC) has headquarters in Anchorage and               the State. The first project, initiated in 1985
offices in Juneau and Fairbanks.         The AFOC             in the Juneau mining district, seeks to
carries out its mission through five programs:                identify the type, amount, and distribution of
                                                              mineral    deposits;   related studies will
1.   Minerals Availability Program--'Phis program             determine ore reserves and beneficiation
     is part of a worldwide USBM program respon-              technologies. Studies of economic feasibility
     sible for developing the Minerals Availability           and     legislative   effects      on   mineral
     System (MAS) computer data base and the                  development will also be addressed. Studies
     Mineral Industry Location System (MILS), a               of other mining districts will follow.
     subset of MAS. M l L S contajns basic infor-
     mation about the identification and location             A statewide program provides an inventory
     of known mineral deposits.      MAS is more              and specific technical evaluations of the
     extensive, containing information about                  State's critical and strategic mineral deposits
     reserve estimates, mineral extraction and                on Federal lands that are closed to mineral
     beneficiation methodologies, environmental               entry and on lands open to entry that are not
     constraints lo mining, and cost analyses for             of current interest to industry. In addition to
     selected major mineral deposits. A computer              locating, mapping, and estimating the size and
     and communications system allows the infor-              grade of deposits, the USRM obtains bulk
     mation to be stored, manipulated, and                    sarnples for nietallurgic research to determine
     retrieved as computer-plotted map overlays               recovery and extraction methods and costs;
     and printouts of MASIMILS data, enabling                 these sludies are undertaken in cooperation
     rapid and uniform development of cost data               with the USBM Research Centers in Albany,
     for M A S mineral-deposit evaluations. MAS               Oreg., and Salt Lake City, Utah.          These
     and MlLS mineral-deposit data are cross-                 investigations provide reserve estimates of
     indexed to several other mir~erals-information           marginal and submarginal deposits in Alaska
     data bases.                                              and its coastal waters.

2.   Minerals Policy and Analysis--This program          5,   Mining research--Mining research a t the
     emphasizes analyses OF newly developed and               AFOC is related to mineral land-assessment
     existing mineral data to interpret their signif-         activities, as well as providing assistance to
     icance relative to local and national mineral            alleviate problems in mining, milling and
     needs. Assessment of technical, institutional,           refining of ore. USBM and university research
     political, social, and economic factors that             centers cooperate with the AFOC to solve
     a f f e c t the supply of and demand for domestic        mineral-utilization problems. Bulk samples of
     and international minerals is the key to iden-           ores from various parts of Alaska have been
     tifying mineral issues.                                  sent to the USBM Hesearch Centers in
                                                              Albany, Oreg., and Salt Lake City, Utah, to
                                                              determine characterization and beneficiation
3.   State mineral activities--This program covers            properties related to recovery of the
     minerals-related activities in Alaska and                minerals. Ueneficiation is the processing of
     assists in developing and releasing nonfuel-             ores for the purposes OF: (1) regulating the
     mineral-industry information. The section of             size of a desired product, (2) removing
     State Mineral Activities i n Alaska provides             unwanted constituents, and (3) improving the
     USBM direct communication with industry,                 quality, purity, or assay grade of a desired
     the Alaska Division of Geological and Geo-               product.
     physical Surveys and the Division of Mining,
     other minerals-oriented agencies, individuals,                 Bureau   of Land Management
     and private firms. The USHM's State Mineral                    --
     Officer collects, analyzes, and reports                   The IILM is responsible for multiple-use
     mineral data and develops information about         management of both the surface and subsurface of
     activities and trends in the mining industry.       23 rnillion acres of the Nation& Petroleum
     This program produces the annual USBM               Reserve in Alaska, plus an additional 76 million
     Minerals Yearbook chapters and Mineral              acres elsewhere in Alaska (see fig. 1). The second
     Industry Surveys.                                   figure changes from day to day because of the
ongoing progl am of land conveyance to State and        recognition of valid existing rights, typically
 Native organizations. In addition, the RLM admin-      mining claims that were incorporated into a par-
 isters mineral resources on approximately 100          ticular park unit when it was established.
 tnillion acres of other Federal lands, including             The NPS manages mining activities through
acquired lands and private lands where the Federal      regulations found a t 'rille 36, Subpart 9A, of the
Government has retained the mineral rights.             Code of Federal Regulations. These regulations
        In 13ecember 1984, the Ul.,M revised its        apply to any mining activities on patented or valid
policy statement on mineral resources to reflect        unpatented mining claims, Any proposed plan of
its continuing comrnitmetlt to encourage private        operations must conform to the regulations as
enterprise to develop domest ic minerals in a           further detailed in a "Guide to National Park
manner consistent with the need Cor these               Service Regulations Governing Mining and Mining
resources. Land-use planning decisions will reflect     Claims" (U.S. National Park Service, 1985).
energy and mineral values addressed by mineral-
resource assessments. Public lands are generally                    Uepartment of Agriculture
to remain open to environmentally sound mineral
                                                                        U.S.. Forest.sgrvLc-e
                                                                         - .- .
exploration and development.                                            ..     .



             Fish and Wildlife_ Service                       The mission of the USFS i s to provide a
                                                        continuing flow of         natural-resource  goods
                                                        (including mineral and energy resources) and
      The FWS provides Federal leadership to            services to help meet national needs and
conserve, protect, and enhance fish and wildlife
                                                        contribute to meeting such needs worldwide. The
and their habitats for the continuing benefit of
                                                        USlrS' responsibility is to encourage and support
people. In Alaska, the FWS seeks to accomplish
                                                        environmentally sound mineral enterprises on
this mission through programs that implement            Federal larids under its jurisdiction, consistent
provisions of the Endangered Species Act, Marine
                                                        with other surface-resource values.         Under
Mammal Protection Act, I'ish and Wildlife Coordi-
nation Act, Kivers and Harbors Act, National            authority of the Yorest Service Organic Act, the
Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act,              USPS administers regulations for the protection of
Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act         surface resources from activities concerned with
(ANILCA), various migratory-bird laws and               locatable minerals, In managing the use of these
treaties, and other statutes.                           resources, the USPS' objective is that unnecessary
      Under ANILCA, 16 refuges in Alaska were           adverse environmental impacts to surFace and
created or enlarged to conserve fish and wildlife       cultural features and values which might result
                                                        from lawful prospecting operations be minimized
populations and their habitats, as well as other
values. Except for valid rights existing a t the        and damages be repaired. This objective is accom-
                                                        plished through the application of reasonable
time of establishment, these refuges are closed to
                                                        conditions that do not interfere with legitimate,
entry and location under mining laws. The refuges
                                                        well-planned mineral operations. l'he USFS also
are open t o entry under leasing laws; however,
                                                        provides research information and technology to
they are closed to mining of Federal coal by the
                                                        help with postmining reclamation.
Federal Coal Leasing Amendments Act of 1975,
and closed to geothermal-resource leasing by the
Geothermal Steam Act of 1970. Although many
traditional    activities   have   been      deemed
appropriate Tor these refuges, othcr uses, irlcluding         The Federal Government's mission is to
oil and gas leasing, will be permitted only when        reduce the Nation's vulnerability to disruptions of
such activities are compatible with the purposes        energy supplies and lo mitigate any adverse
for    which    the refuges were established.           impacts on the Nation, should a shortage occur.
                                                        With regard to Alaska, the energy sources
Compatible uses will be determined through a
                                                        currently being addressed by the DOE are fossil
comprehensive conservation planning process
under way for Alaska11 national wildlife refuges.       fuels (petroleum and coal) and geotherbmal,
                                                              l'he strategy for responding to petroleum-
               National Park Serv3e                     supply interruptions is to rely on the free market,
                                                        supplemented as necessary and appropriate with
      The act establishing the NPS (39 Stat. 535) in    other measures, such as the Strategic Petroleum
1916 directed it to "* * * conserve the scenery         Reserve. 7'he UOE's Fossil Energy Research and
and natural and historical objects and the wildlife     Developnlent Programs are aimed a t careful
* * *I1and to provide For enjoyment of the same in      consideration of the alternatives available and the
such a manner and by such means as will leave           relative charlces for success in fostering an
them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future             adequate supply of energy a t a reasonable cost
generations." Management policies are based on          through long- term, high-risk research and devel-
the concept of preservation and provide for the         opment.     Alternatives For increasing domestic
appropriate recreational use of natural and             petroleum supplies include ( I ) the DOE'S Uncon-
cultural resources within the park system. Regu-        ventional     Gas   Recovery      Program,    which
lation of mineral activities relate to the              emphasizes the developrnen t of advanced technol-
ogies for the extraction of natural gas from         research is aimed toward improving methods used
resources that are classified as unconventional      to locate, extract, and convert geothermal heat to
because of unique geologic settings and production   usable forms of energy. Through IIOE funding in
mechanisms which are not now well understood;        Alaska, Federal and State agencies have
and (2) DOE programs for developing tertiary oil     researched and published several studies of
recovery, tar sand, and heavy-oil deposits of the    specific geothermal systerns.
United Slates.                                             A further purpose of DOE programs is to
     The purpose of t h e DOE'S Geothermal Energy    generate data essential to the private sectorls
Program is to develop the technology needed by       decisionmaking process, leading to the develop-
industry for the use of geothermal resources. DOE    ment of commercial projects.

				
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