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Microsoft PowerPoint - 04 graduation revision


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Revision for Graduation Exam – TR04 Destination and Tourism Marketing

 5 Multiple choice questions  5 short answer questions  1 case study with 1 – 2 long answer question (s)

Chapters to review
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The nature of tourism destinations (Ch. 3 – DM) Resorts and protected areas (Ch. 8 and 10 – DM) Marketing places (Ch. 4 – DM) Promotions (Supplementary reading) Branding (Ch4 – DM and supplementary reading) Managing capacity and demand (Ch. 11 – Services Marketing)

1. The Nature of Tourism Destinations
 What is a tourism destination?  Places of interest to tourists or being able to attract the attention of potential tourists  Simply encouraging people to visit is not enough but an appropriate tourist-oriented development:
 Converting resources into attractions  Appropriate accommodation, transport and services  Long-term, sustainable

1. The Nature of Tourism Destinations
 A working definition: “ A local tourism destination is a physical space in which a tourist spends at least one overnight. It includes tourism products such as support services and attractions and tourist resources within one day’s return travel time. It has physical and administrative boundaries defining its management, and images and perceptions defining its market competitiveness. Local destinations incorporate various stakeholders often including a host community, and can nest and network to form larger destinations.” (UNWTO)

What is a tourist destination?


1. The Nature of Tourism Destinations
Destination zones:  Not uniformly developed  No definite boundaries between zones  May not be permanent (as through changes in international currency rates, political change, changing tastes and fashions…)

1. The Nature of Tourism Destinations
 Attractions vs. resources  Four categories of attractions:
 Features in the natural environment  Man-made buildings, structures and sights designed for a purpose other than attracting tourists  Man-made buildings, structures and sights designed to attract tourists  Special events

1. The Nature of Tourism Destinations
 What is destination image?  Image types: organic vs. induced images  Process of destination image formation

2. Resorts and protected areas
3 types of resorts:  Resorts at a destination: A commercial establishment such as a recreational area, a scenic or historic site, a theme park, a gaming facility or other tourist attraction competes with other businesses at that destination. Destination resorts: contain, in and of itself, the necessary guest attraction capabilities. All-inclusive resorts: provide all of the common amenities of a resort; charge a fixed price that includes most or all items.

Attitudes, beliefs towards an activity or a specific destination Environmental stimuli from participation in activities/ experience of the destination Test of congruency of actual experience with original attitude towards it


2. Resorts and protected areas
Definition of Resorts (the Vietnam tourism law):  An area which has attractive tourism resources, with natural tourism as its advantages.  Has been properly planned and invested for development.  With the aims of meeting various demands of tourists and bringing about socio-economic and environmental benefits.

2. Resorts and protected areas
Conditions for recognition as national resorts:  Having particular attractive tourism resources, capable to attract a large number of tourists.  At least an area of 1000 ha, including land for construction.  Having comprehensive infrastructure and tourist physical – technical facilities (including accommodation), capable to serve at least 1 million tourists a year.


2. Resorts and protected areas
 Protected areas:
 Tourist activities  Managing capacity and demand

3 . Marketing places
 The place as product: a complex of both tangible and intangible elements  Marketing strategies:
 Undifferentiated marketing  Differentiated marketing  Concentrated marketing


3 . Marketing places
 4 traditional Ps and 3 additional Ps  Product: a complex  Price: difficult to control; higher in capital, city center and high season  Place: Where the decision to purchase/ book is made.  Promotions: communications  People: All the tourism staffs. The moments of trust.  Physical Evidence: The environments in which the service is delivered.  Process: Corporate policies or procedures of organizations.

4. Promotions
 Brochures
 Handy  Both promotional and informational  Targeted at specific market segments

 Advertisements
 Build up long-term image  Mass media  High wastage  One-way communication  Costly  Mostly print media rather than television  When potential visitors making their holiday decisions  To combat tourism crises or To encourage potential consumers to request a copy of brochure or search for the destination Web site

4. Promotions
 The Press and Public Relations
 Familiarization trips, celebrity visits, press releases, television broadcasts  To attract attention and improve their image with the general public  Believable  Low cost

4. Promotions
 Sales Promotions
 Attention grabbing  Offer strong incentives to purchase  Invite and reward quick response  Relatively little due to the lack of control over the destination product and pricing  “Added value” promotional offers

 Personal selling
 Personal interaction  Relationship development  Very little  Effective on promoting to key travel decision makers, convention and meeting planners, tour operators and retail travel agents

 Trade Fairs and Exhibitions
 Bring all parts of the industry together


4. Promotions
Advertising Media
M ed ium
Ne w spa p ers:

4. Promotions
Advertising Media
Ad vantages
F lex ib ility; tim elin ess; lo cal ma rk et c ov erage ; b ro ad a ccep tan ce ; high b elieva bility.

L im itation s
S ho rt-life ; po or repro du ctio n qu ality; sm all pass-alon g au dien ce.

M ed ium
M ag azin es:

Ad vantages
H ig h d emo g ra ph ic an d g eog raph ic se lectiv ity; cred ib ility and p restig e; h ig h q ua lity repro du ction ; lon g sh elf-life; go od pass alon g read ership.

L im itation s
L o ng ad p urch ase le ad tim e; so m e wa ste circu lation ; n o g uaran te e o f po sitio n.


C o m bines sigh t, sou nd an d m otio n; high atten tion ; h ig h reach .

H ig h ab solute co st; h ig h clutter; flee tin g ex po su re ; less au dien ce sele ctivity .

O utd oo r M ed ia :

F lex ib ility; h ig h rep eat ex po su re; lo w co st; lo w c om p etitio n .

N o au dien ce selectiv ity ; creativ e lim itation s.

Ra d io

M a ss u se; h ig h d emo g ra ph ic an d g eog raph ic se lectiv ity; lo w c ost.

A ud io on ly ; lo we r atten tion th an T V ; flee tin g e xp osu re .

5. Destination Branding
Branding is concerned with what a product offers to potential customers:  Tangible and intangible elements.  Creating an image from these.  Product identity or “personality”.

5. Destination Branding
 5 Key Phases of building the destination brand
 Market Investigation, analysis and strategic recommendations  Brand identity development  Brand launch and introduction – communicating the vision  Brand implementation  Monitoring, evaluation and review

5. Destination Branding
 Brand identity:
 Brand name – using written or spoken words.  Brand mark – symbol or design.  Trademark – legal designation

5. Destination Branding
 3 principles of designing a good brand:
   Simple. Meaningful. Memorable

 4 tools used to design a logo:
 Stories: uniqueness, images.  Texts  Graphics  Colors  Or the combination of these.


5. Destination Branding
 Promoting Brand:
 Line extension  Co-branding  Using media

5. Destination Branding
 2 ways to measure brand effectiveness:
 Unaided recall of a brand: Brands come into the interviewee’s mind when they are asked to select a destination for their future holiday  Aided recall of a brand: Brands which the interviewee recognized when they are asked to select within a set of brands.

6. Managing Capacity and Demand
 Demand conditions:
 Demand exceeds maximum available capacity so that potential business may be lost  Demand exceeds the optimum capacity level, no one is turned away but there is a reduction in perceived service quality  Demand and supply are balanced at the level of optimum capacity  Demand is below optimum capacity and productive resources are underused posing a risk of customer disappoint or doubt about viability

6. Managing Capacity and Demand
 Productive capacity:
 Physical facilities  Service provision equipment  Labor: number of staff, experience and expertise 

6. Managing Capacity and Demand
 Tactics for adjusting supply to meet demand

6. Managing Capacity and Demand
 Tactics for service provision equipment


6. Managing Capacity and Demand
 Tactics for labor

6. Managing Capacity and Demand
 Tactics for time
 Tactics for high demand:
 Extending operating hours, seasonality  Increase customer participation  Develop a peak hour operating schedule

 Tactics for low demand:
 Reducing operating hours  Schedule for downtime maintenance, training

6. Managing Capacity and Demand
 Main approaches to managing demand:
 Take no action and leave demand to find its own level through experience and WOM  Reduce demand in peak periods through pricing, incentives and marketing communications  Increase demand through pricing incentives, special offers and the creation of additional service offerings  Control inventory demand through creating queuing systems and offering access to capacity at different times

6. Managing Capacity and Demand
 Using marketing mix to shape demand patterns – Product
 Product variations: modifications according to the season  Modifying the timing and location of delivery

6. Managing Capacity and Demand
 Using marketing mix to shape demand patterns – Price

6. Managing Capacity and Demand
 Using marketing mix to shape demand patterns – Promotions


6. Managing Capacity and Demand
 Inventorying demand


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