Political Cartoons The Whiskey Rebellion - Hamburg School District

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Political Cartoons The Whiskey Rebellion - Hamburg School District Powered By Docstoc
					 The New Republic
Chapter 6, Sections 1 and 2
       pp. 192-203
Building the Federal Government
n Problems for the new government
  n $52 million debt
  n No navy, small army
n Washington elected President in 1789
  n John Adams first Vice President
  n Dozen clerks
  n Very small administration – few federal
    officers, few federal rules
TRANSPARENCY   The First President
Fed Government, cont.
n Congress had to organize federal court system
   n Judiciary Act of 1789 – established court system – 13
     federal district courts, 3 circuit courts for appeals, and a
     6 member Supreme Court
   n Also created office of the Attorney General

n Formation of Washington’s Cabinet
   n Heads of major departments in the Executive Branch
   n Original – State, Treasury, War, Attorney General
Hamilton’s Plans Stir Debate
n Alexander Hamilton – first Secretary of the Treasury
n Strong Federalist – believed strong central government was
    necessary to set economy straight
n   Wanted to develop commercial/industrial economy (instead of
n   Favored high tariffs to fund bonds on national and state debt –
    good news for lenders
n   Pushed for a Bank of the United States
n   Benefits:
     n Increase credit for the new country
     n Political support of wealthy Americans gained
     n Put money into struggling economy
n   Redistribution of wealth to merchants and to the North
CHART   Hamilton’s Plan for Restructuring Debt
Opposing Hamilton
n Agricultural South opposed the plan – didn’t want to
    pay North’s war debt
n   Hamilton used broad interpretation of the Constitution
    – “implied powers” – to justify his actions
n   Strict constructionists opposed as well – Bank, etc,
    was not authorized in the Constitution
n   South supported the plan in exchange for moving the
    capital further south
n   Whiskey Rebellion – uprising over tax on profitable
    n   First test of new national government’s strength
    n   Washington put down the rebellion quickly, showing
        the power of the new federal government
ANALYZE   Political Cartoons: The Whiskey Rebellion
A Two-Party System Emerges
n Debate over the Whiskey Rebellion – some blamed
  political ‘clubs,’
n Constitution avoids creating political parties – they
  formed anyway – fear over factionalizing people
n Two parties formed:
   n   Federalists – led by Hamilton and Adams
   n   Democratic Republicans – led by Jefferson and
n Northerners favored Federalists, Southerners favored
n First administrations were mostly Federalist
n Dem Repubs seen as supporting the masses –
  Federalists seen as elite
INFOGRAPHIC   Political Parties Grow
               Progress Monitoring Transparency
Conflict in the Ohio Valley
n British still in the Ohio valley provided
  weapons to natives to slow American
  settlement west
n Battle of Fallen Timbers stopped most of this
  opposition, however – victory after an
  embarrassing defeat for Americans by Little
n Treaty of Greenville ceded Ohio to the U.S.
  government, opening the NW Territory for
American Relations With Europe
n 1789 – French Revolution – Americans welcomed it –
  divided along party lines as to whether or not to help,
   n   Dem-Repubs wanted to help, Federalists didn’t
n 1793 – Britain and France at war – U.S. was too
  weak and too dependent upon Britain to get involved
  with French – neutrality declared – British challenged
  this by seizing American ships trading with French
n John Jay sent to Britain – John Jay Treaty – British
  gave up forts on U.S. soil, U.S. repaid war debts
n Another treaty signed with Spain to gain access to
  New Orleans
n Washington leaves office in 1792 – precedent –
  warned against political parties in his parting speech
NOTE TAKING   Reading Skill: Identify Supporting Details
The Parties Debate Foreign Policy
n John Adams becomes 2nd President
n Jay Treaty offended the French – broke the alliance between
  the countries – began seizing U.S. merchant ships
n Three French official – X, Y, and Z – negotiated bad terms with
  American representatives, demanded bribes – outraged
n After XYZ Affair, military expanded
n Alien and Sedition Acts passed
   n President could arrest and deport immigrants who criticized
      the federal government
   n Made a longer waiting period to become U.S. citizen
   n Slowed growth of Dem-Repubs this way
   n Also crime to discredit or criticize the government in print by
Alien and Sedition Acts, cont.
n Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions – declared
  Sedition Act unconstitutional
n Nullification issued could have torn the Union
n Election of 1800 – Jefferson becomes
  President – peaceful change of power –
  decided by House after tie in electoral college
ANALYZE   Political Cartoons: Fighting Over the Sedition Act
MAP   Presidential Election of 1800
               Progress Monitoring Transparency

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