Expansion by pengxuezhuyes


									Republican Imperatives
 and Imperial Wards:

 U.S. Expansion Overseas in the
       Late 19th Century
The White Man’s Burden?
            n   1899 cartoon. Uncle
                Sam balances his
                new possessions,
                which are depicted as
                savage children
            n   The figures are
                identified as Puerto
                Rico, Hawaii, Cuba,
                Philippines, and
                "Ladrones" (the
                Mariana Islands)
                 The Question
“It would be better to abandon this combined garden and
Gibraltar of the Pacific [I.e., the Philippines]… than to apply
any academic arrangement of self-government to these
children. They are not capable of self-government. How
could they be? They are not a self-governing race… What
alchemy will change the oriental quality of their blood and
set the self-governing currents of the American pouring
through their Malay veins? How shall they in the twinkling of
an eye, be exalted to the heights of self-governing people
which required a thousand years for us to reach, Anglo-
Saxons though we are?”
                                   --Albert Beveridge to the
                                   U.S. Senate, January
    n   Had its economic
        n   Quest for:
             n   New markets
             n   Coaling stations
             n   Naval bases
    n   In the late-19th Century
        the U.S. had its close
        encounters with:
        n   Hawaii, Samoa, the
            Philippines, Puerto Rico,
            Guam, and Cuba
    n   But…
n   What would be the political relationship
    between Americans and the peoples of
    potential colonies?
n   Was citizenship thinkable?
n   If not, could America hold an array of
    islands in despotic dependency and still
    remain a free republic?
     n   Where there as Mark
         Twain asked in 1901,
         “two kinds of civilization--
         one for home
         consumption and one for
         the heathen market?”
     n   The issues that these
         questions raised were at
         once evident among most
         Americans living at the
         end of the 19th century.
  “Fitness” for Government

“Many of [the Philippine] people are utterly unfit for self-
government, and show no signs of becoming fit. Others
may in time become fit, but at present can only take part
in self-government under a wise supervision, at once
firm and beneficent. We have driven Spanish tyranny
from the islands. If we now let it be replaced by savage
anarchy, our work has been for harm and not for good.”
                             -- Theodore Roosevelt, 1899
Discussions of Expansion
   and National Policy
            n   Were
                n   “tensely strung
                    between the poles of
                    duty and distrust, of
                    missionary zeal and
                    the missionary’s
                    skepticism toward the
                    prospect of the
     The tension was not new:
n   Expansionism was not new:
    n Trans-Atlantic migration, settlement, conquest
    n Trans-Appalachian migration

    n The Louisiana purchase and Indian Removal

    n Manifest Destiny

    n The Mexican War
        n Andthe annexation of Texas, California, the
         Southwestern territories, and Alaska
     The tension was not new:
n   By the end of the 1890s, the decade that
    saw the superintendent of the census
    declare the frontier “closed,” Americans
    began to look overseas.
n   Expansion overseas came into especially
    sharp focus when the U.S. went to war
    with Spain in 1898
    n   The U.S. had already established its first
        governing presence (along with Germany and
        Great Britain) in 1890
n   By 1898, Spain had retreated from its colonies
    and U.S. naval and ground forces spread from
    the Caribbean to the Far East.
n   U.S. pondered questions of the status and
    government of:
    n   Hawaii
         n   Whose white elites had been seeking annexation since their
             coup against Queen Liliuokalani (1893)
    n   Cuba, Puerto Rico, Philippines
         n   Whose liberation from Spain left many questions open
    Arguments Against Imperialism
n   There were arguments being made against
    imperialism at the end of the century
    n   American Anti-Imperialist League
n   But they came from such a broad cross section
    of Americans that it was difficult to build any type
    of coherent opposition:
    n   One anti-imperialist issued a call for all of those
        opposed to imperialism to “stand shoulder to
         n   Republican, Democrat, Socialist, Populist, Gold-man, Silver-
             man, and Mugwump
         n   Not to mention women reformers and African Americans
n   From the debate on the annexation of
    Hawaii in 1898 to the conclusion of the
    war against Philippine independence in
    n   A double edged disdain for the “children of
         n That such “backward” people were fit for nothing
           but domination by the U.S. who was divinely
           ordained to carry out its mission
         n That such “backward” people should be left to their
           own “savage” ways
                   The Result
n   Each region (Hawaii, Cuba, Puerto Rico,
    and the Philippines) found itself gripped in
    U.S. possession “only at arms length.”
    n The U.S. held them
    n But at a safe distance from anything
        n Full

        n Equality

        n Sacred workings of self-government
n   Somewhat of an exception
    n Sizable population of European and American
      settlers who after 1893 held political control
      and sought statehood
    n There were Hawaiians, Japanese, Chinese,
      American, European, and “racially mixed”
      people living on the islands but
        n 1894Constitution made it very difficult for non-
         whites to participate in government
          n   The franchise was narrowed from 14k to 2,800 most of
              whom were employees of Dole
n   Before war with Spain in 1898, the U.S.
    government rejected annexation of Hawaii
    in 1893 and 1897 on primarily racial
    n   The islanders were not “fit” to be U.S. citizens
        and the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act forbade
        citizenship to Asians
n   With war however, came a heightened
    sense of Hawaii’s military potential
n   Opposition to annexation cracked in July 1898
n   But
    n   Congress extended Chinese Exclusion to the Territory
        of Hawaii
    n   Limited U.S. citizenship to “all white persons,
        including Portuguese, and persons of African descent,
        and all persons descended from the Hawaiian race…
        who were citizens of the Republic of Hawaii
        immediately prior to transfer [of sovereignty].”
    n   Property qualifications to hold office
    n   Property and literacy qualifications for franchise
n   Petitions for statehood were rejected in
    1903, 1911, 1913, and 1915
n   It seemed, at least during the GAPE, that
    the U.S. was willing to take Hawaii (for
    military and economic reasons), but not
    the Hawaiian people
n   Hawaii would not become a state until
n   U.S. leaders thought that Cubans perhaps even
    more than Hawaiians were incapable of
    n   U.S. set about creating a stable, reliable mechanism
        for Cuba government
         n   Favorable to American interests, not the Cuban
    n   U.S. limited the franchise to about 5% of the
         n   But the independentistas still won key municipal and
             assembly elections in 1900
n   Platt Amendment (1903) incorporated into
    a treaty with Cuba
    n Annexation of Cuba had been proscribed in
      the U.S. Declaration of War with Spain, but
      independence had not
    n The Platt amendment provided provisions for
      a territorial government similar to that of
           seemed the U.S. was willing to take Cuba, not
        n It
n   Platt Amendment (1903)
    n Forbade Cubans to enter into treaties with
      foreign powers on their on behalf
    n Provide for the cession of necessary lands to
      the U.S. for coaling and naval stations
    n Granted the U.S. the right to intervene to
      maintain Cuban “independence,” and the
      maintenance of a Cuban government
      adequate for the protection of life, property,
      and individual liberty
Puerto Rico
               Puerto Rico
n   Spanish rule came to an end on October
    18, 1898 when U.S. Major General John
    Brooke became the island’s military
n   Initially most military and government
    officials thought that Puerto Rico would
    become a territory and then a state and it
    residents U.S. citizens
n   But this did not happen
                     Puerto Rico
n   Ultimately laws stated that Puerto Rican citizens
    were entitled to the “protection” of the U.S.
n   Laws also did away with the U.S. Constitution as
    the legal framework in Puerto Rico and revoked
    its right to send one non-voting member to the
    U.S. House of Representatives
n   U.S. Senate report said the revision of Puerto
    Rican status was made because Puerto Ricans
    n   Illiterate, of a wholly different character, and incapable
        of exercising the rights granted by the U.S.
                    Puerto Rico
n   Congress decided to:
    n   “hold the territory as a mere possession”
    n   And to
    n   “govern the people thereof as their situation and the
        necessities of their case might seem to require.”
n   Jones Act (1917) granted Puerto Ricans U.S.
    citizenship, but it imposed requirements that left
    70% of the pop non-citizens
    n   One historian - U.S. imposed a system of government
        that left Puerto Rico less democratic than it had been
        under autocratic Spain.
The Philippines
             The Philippines
n   Tensions arose soon after Admiral
    Dewey’s victory over the Spanish fleet in
    Manila Bay in May 1898.
n   For the next several months Aquinaldo
    vainly pursued U.S. recognition of the
    Philippine independence movement
             The Philippines
n   Hostilities broke out between Aquinaldo’s
    troops and the U.S. Army on the outskirts
    of Manila on February 4, 1899, and
    organized warfare continued in one form
    or another until the last of the insurgents
    surrendered in May 1902.
                 The Philippines
n   Following a brutal, bloody war, the U.S.
    maintained a tenuous presence in the
    Philippines as it pursued what President
    McKinley had called “benevolent assimilation”
    for the Philippine people.
n   Philippine Autonomy Act (1916)
    n   Placed in the hands of the Philippine people as large
        a share of the control of their domestic affairs as can
        be given them
    n   Set them on the road toward independence

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