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Dave Bing David Baker Lewis Mayor Chairman City of Detroit Detroit

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									Dave Bing                                                               David Baker Lewis
Mayor                                                                            Chairman
City of Detroit                                                          Detroit Workforce
                                                                        Development Board




                                   COMPREHENSIVE
                                FIVE-YEAR LOCAL PLAN
                               JULY 1, 2011 - JUNE 30, 2012
                                         PY 2011




                  DETROIT EMPLOYMENT SOLUTIONS CORPORATION
                           A MICHIGAN WORKS! AGENCY
                              707 West Milwaukee Avenue
                                Detroit, Michigan 48202




                                    Pamela J. Moore
                                  Chief Executive Officer




This plan was posted for public comment between July 1, 2012 through July 31, 2012.



June 28, 2012
DETROIT EMPLOYMENT SOLUTIONS CORPORATION (DESC)
COMPREHENSIVE FIVE-YEAR LOCAL PLAN
                                         Program Year 2011




                           SECTION I
                ADULT AND DISLOCATED WORKERS




June 28, 2012
DETROIT EMPLOYMENT SOLUTIONS CORPORATION (DESC)
COMPREHENSIVE FIVE-YEAR LOCAL PLAN
                                         Program Year 2011


SECTION I: ADULTS AND DISLOCATED WORKERS

A. Labor Market Analysis

The Detroit workforce investment system has been evolving toward fully integrated service
delivery since the inception of its one stop system in 1997. Presently, partner organizations have
collocated at three One-Stop Service Centers and one Satellite Service Center. The Satellite
Center will close on July 31, 2012. The workforce investment needs of businesses, job seekers,
and workers in the Detroit area have guided the development of the local workforce investment
system’s partnerships and service spectrum.

       1.       Workforce Investment Needs of Businesses, Jobs Seekers, and Workers (PY
                2011)

       Businesses in all sectors will require effective and efficient methods of employee
       recruitment. They will expect their workers to have basic skills that can be described
       generally as job readiness and employability skills. They will require that employees
       possess, or are willing and able to learn, job-specific skills. Continuous learning among
       workers will become increasingly expected and needed, particularly in industries reliant
       on fast-changing technology. Training programs to prepare new employees and upgrade
       skills of incumbent workers will be needed. Employers will need assistance in providing
       support for employees when dislocations occur.

       Based upon local labor market statistics and favorable projections for job placement
       opportunities contained in the Michigan Department of Technology, Management &
       Budget (MDTMB) Regional Workforce Planning Information Report (RWPIR) for 2010,
       the occupations and training programs participants will select, in conjunction with their
       case managers, will be listed on the DESC’s list of approved occupations for Individual
       Training Account (ITA) referrals.

       Job seekers will require efficient methods to locate job opportunities that fit their skills
       and interests, and are accessible. They will need to become familiar with employer
       requirements for entry level and more advanced positions. They will need to learn
       employability skills and job specific skills. Many will need assistance in locating and
       financing job training activities or post-secondary education. Support services such as
       transportation, childcare, or the purchase of work clothing may also be needed.

       Individuals who are currently working and are interested in exploring other career options
       will also need efficient methods of conducting job searches. Desires to upgrade skills or
       career changes will require knowledge of training programs and post-secondary
       educational institutions and available financial aid programs. Entry-level workers
       seeking to upgrade skills may require extensive support, such as subsidized training
       programs and assistance with transportation or childcare.

June 28, 2012
DETROIT EMPLOYMENT SOLUTIONS CORPORATION (DESC)
COMPREHENSIVE FIVE-YEAR LOCAL PLAN
                                         Program Year 2011



       Trends Shaping the Economic Environment (2006- 2010)

       The national economic downturn which started in 2008 has constrained regional growth,
       increased unemployment, and accelerated negative structural changes already on the way
       in the manufacturing sector. The numbers used to quantify this section of the plan are
       reported from the “Detroit MWA Regional Workforce Planning Information Report
       (RWPIR) - Program Year (PY) 2010” which is published by the Department of
       Technology, Management and Budget, State of Michigan. The report is attached to the
       plan as Attachment I.

       The decline in Detroit’s population has been underway since the 1950s and has continued
       through 2010. According to the RWPIR (Table 1), the number of people living in Detroit
       dropped by -25 percent to 713,777 persons between 2000 and 2010.

       The Detroit MWAs labor force (RWPIR, Table 4) decreased by -1.3 percent from 2006
       through 2010, whereas the state’s percentage declined by -5.5 percent.

       The city of Detroit MWA jobless rate increased (RWPIR, Table 6) 13.7 in 2006 to 22.7
       percent in 2010 – a 9.1% increase. The statewide unemployment rate increased from 6.9
       percent in 2006 to 12.5 percent in 2010 – a 5.6 percent increase. The DESC’s
       unemployment rate was affected by employment reductions in the automotive industry
       and manufacturing sectors. The number of counted unemployed reached 83,000
       (RWPIR, Table 12) individuals for 2010; this number does not include “hidden”
       unemployed individuals who have given up on seeking work and thus are not counted in
       the original unemployment rate.

       As reported in the PY 2010 RWPIR (Table 7), unemployment in the city
       disproportionately impacted youth, ages 16 - 24, and African-American and Hispanic
       men. Based on YR 2000 census data, among youth, the rate of unemployment ranged
       from 21.1 percent for 20-24 year old females up to 34.1 percent for 16-19 year old males.
       African American males of all ages experienced an unemployment rate of 17.1 percent.
       The rate for Hispanic males was slightly lower, at 13.7 percent. Statistics that include the
       effects of the 2010 recession on youth unemployment are not yet available. It will be a
       major goal of the MWA and its Workforce Development Board to address the needs of
       job seekers in these distressed groups during the next five years.

       The RWPIR PY 2010 (Table 8) reports that between 2007 and 2010, industry sector jobs
       decreased in the Detroit Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) from 1,961,600 to
       1,732,100, 11.7 percent -- a loss of 229,500 jobs. The largest percent change job loss was
       in the Natural Resources which fell by 28.7 percent, a loss of 20,400 jobs. Other sectors
       that showed a decrease included Manufacturing 27.1 percent, a loss of 69,700 jobs;
       Professional and Business Services 14.1 percent, a loss of 50,000 jobs; Financial

June 28, 2012
DETROIT EMPLOYMENT SOLUTIONS CORPORATION (DESC)
COMPREHENSIVE FIVE-YEAR LOCAL PLAN
                                         Program Year 2011



       Activities 14.0 percent, a loss of 15,400 jobs; Trade, Transportation & Utilities 11.4
       percent, a loss of 69,700 jobs; Information 8.4 percent, a loss of 2,500 jobs, Government
       7.9 percent, a loss of 17,700 jobs; leisure and hospitality 7.7 percent, a loss of 14,100
       jobs, Other Services 7.3 percent, a loss of 6,400 jobs. Average employment gains were
       recorded in Educational and Health Services 3.1 percent, a job gain of 8,500 jobs. The
       Great Recession of 2008 is expected to continue to negatively impact all of the economic
       sectors mentioned above.

       Two labor supply indicators, total unemployed and total graduates, suggested that a tight
       labor market will continue for the foreseeable future, even though the number of
       unemployed (RWPIR Table 12) in Detroit has decreased between 2009 and 2010 from
       93,325 to 83,000 a -11.1(10,325) percent change. The labor force is remaining in Detroit
       even if it is no longer considered officially unemployed. The labor force only decreased
       in that period from 369,950 to 365,100, a 1.3% decrease. The number of high school
       graduates in Wayne County remained steady and decreased by only 262 between the
       2007-2008 and 2008-2009 school years in Wayne County (RWPIR Table 13). Also, both
       community colleges and universities in the area graduated more students in that period.

       i.       Availability of Current and Projected Employment Opportunities, by Occupation

       The Detroit MWA RWPIR (Table 16) -PY 2010 forecasts a job growth rate of 6.4
       percent for the Detroit area economy between 2006 and 2016. Occupations with the
       fastest growth rate in the Detroit area MWA RWPIR (Table 18), in order of growth rate
       are Network Systems & Data Communication Analysis, Home Health Aides, Computer
       Software Engineers-Applications, Personal Financial Advisors, Medical Assistants,
       Physical Therapist Assistants, Pharmacy Technicians, Personal & Home Health Care
       Aides, Physical Therapist and Customer Service Representatives.

       Occupations with the largest numeric growth (RWPIR Table 19) between 2006 and 2016
       are expected to be Retail Salespersons, Customer Service Representatives, Registered
       Nurses, Home Health Aides, Combined Food Prep/Service Worker including Fast Food,
       Janitor/Cleaner except Maid/Housekeeper Cleaner, Office Clerks, General, Waiters and
       Waitresses, Truck Drivers - Heavy & Tractor-Trailer, Medical Assistants.

       Participants who enter Individual Training Account (ITA) funded training will be trained
       in high demand occupations.




June 28, 2012
DETROIT EMPLOYMENT SOLUTIONS CORPORATION (DESC)
COMPREHENSIVE FIVE-YEAR LOCAL PLAN
                                         Program Year 2011



DESC has identified the following occupations as high demand occupations (RWPIR Table 20):
                                                               Growth Annual      Hourly
Occupations                                                    Rate     Openings Wage
Computer Software Engineers-applications                       31.2% 330          $42.51
Computer Systems Analysts                                      18.4% 551          $42.42
Network Systems and Data Communication Analysis                40.1% 253          $36.04
Computer Software Engineers – Systems                          19.9% 192          $39.55
Registered Nurses                                              16.6% 1,222        $32.21
Dental Hygienists                                              19.9% 153          $29.72
Accountants and Auditors                                       12.0% 499          $33.10
Sales Reps, Wholesale/Manufact., Ex Tech/Scientific Products 11.2% 232            $36.32
Management Analysts                                            9.5%     196       $42.17
Customer Service Representatives                               20.6% 1,475        $17.42

DESC has identified the following high growth demand employers (RWPIR Table 10) for the
period of 2007-2010:

                                                             Numeric Job    Percent Job
Industry                                                     Growth         Growth
Motion Picture and Sound Recording Industries                189            54.3%
Nonstore Retailers                                           127            31.5%
Nursing and Residential Care Facilities                      1,806          10.2%
General Merchandise Stores                                   1,190          8.5%
Ambulatory Health Care Services                              2,417          8.5%
Gasoline Stations                                            122            4.2%
Food Manufacturing                                           84             2.3%

The Green jobs that have been identified as high growth occupations according to the
Department of Technology, Management and Budget (MDTMB), State of Michigan, “Michigan
Green Jobs Report: A Regional Analysis” (Page 27) (Attachment II) include the following:

                                                                  Percent of Employers
                                                                  Reporting Occupations is
Occupation Category                                               Likely to Add Jobs
Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports and Media Occupations         50.0%
Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occupations         50.0%
Sales and Related Occupations                                     47.2%
Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Occupations                 38.0%
Construction and Extraction Occupations                           36.4%
Business and Financial Operations Occupations                     35.7%


June 28, 2012
DETROIT EMPLOYMENT SOLUTIONS CORPORATION (DESC)
COMPREHENSIVE FIVE-YEAR LOCAL PLAN
                                         Program Year 2011


Transportation and Material Moving Occupations                        35.3%
Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations                        33.3%
Architecture and Engineering Occupations                              32.0%
Production Occupations                                                28.6%
Farming, Fishing and Forestry Occupations                             23.1%
Management Occupations                                                18.9%

       Industries with significant decreases expected according to (RWPIR Table 11) 2007-2010
       include the following: Furniture and Related Product Manufacturing; Computer an
       Electronic Product Manufacturing; Nonmetallic Mineral Product Manufacturing;
       Transportation Equipment Manufacturing; Warehousing and Storage; Furniture and
       Home Furnishing Stores, Credit Intermediation and Related Activities; Machinery
       Manufacturing; Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction; Specialty Trade
       Construction.

       ii.      Job Skills Necessary to Obtain Available High Growth Occupations

       Most positions require basic employability skills, such as reliability, team-work, and a
       positive attitude. Most require additional skills, such as good reading comprehension,
       active listening and speaking skills, and the ability to gather information, identify
       problems, and make decisions. High Growth Jobs with at least a Bachelor’s Degree
       (RWPIR Table 21) are: Computer Systems Analysts; Computer Software Engineers-
       applications; Accountants and Auditors; Industrial Engineers; Network Systems and Data
       Communication Analysis; Computer Software Engineers-Systems; Elementary School
       Teachers, except Special Education; Physicians and Surgeons; Mechanical Engineers;
       and Personal Financial Advisors. High Growth Jobs with an Associate’s Degree or Work
       Experience (RWPIR Table 22) 2006-16 are: Registered Nurses; Nursing Aides,
       Orderlies and Attendants; Sales Reps, Wholesale/Manufacturing, except Tech/Scientific
       Products; Executive Secretaries and Administrative Assistants; Automotive Service
       Technicians/Mechanics;            Hairdresser/Hairstylist/Cosmetologists;       First-Line
       Supervisor/Managers, Retail Sales Workers; Dental Hygienists; Sales Reps,
       Wholesale/Mfg, Technical/Scientific Products; and First-Line Supervisors/Managers,
       Food Prep/Service Workers. High Growth Jobs with at least moderate On the Job
       Training (OJT) (RWPIR Table 23) 2006-2016 are: Customer Service Representatives,
       Truck       Drivers,      Heavy      and      Tractor-Trailer;    Medical      Assistants;
       Bookkeeping/Accounting/Auditing Clerks; Cooks, Restaurants; Pharmacy Technicians;
       Social & Human Service Assistants; Team Assemblers; Maintenance and Repair
       Workers, General; and Dental Assistants. Green jobs require some basic employability
       skills along with job retooling, some jobs require additional educational training and on
       the job skill sets. These jobs include: Managers, Technicians, Sales Representatives,




June 28, 2012
DETROIT EMPLOYMENT SOLUTIONS CORPORATION (DESC)
COMPREHENSIVE FIVE-YEAR LOCAL PLAN
                                         Program Year 2011


       Engineers, Installers, Machine Operators, Auditors, Laborers, Carpenters, and
       Electricians, which are associated with Renewable Energy, Transportation, Energy

       Efficiency, Green Construction, Deconstruction, Energy Trading, Energy and Carbon
       Capture and Storage, Research, Design and Consulting, Environmental Protection and
       Agriculture and Forestry.

B. Michigan Works! System

   1. Michigan Works! Service Centers (MWSC)

   At its June 2012 Executive Committee Meeting, the DWDB designated DESC as the One-
   Stop Operator for the City of Detroit starting July 1, 2012. The DESC has contracted with a
   one-stop case management and related services provider for DESC’s three One Stop Service
   Centers and One Satellite Center. The satellite center will cease operations after July 31,
   2012. All mandated programs of the MWSC will be represented at one or more of the three
   Service Centers, or there will be an electronic connection and referral process to their
   delivery site. The emphasis is on program and service integration so that related services are
   coordinated to the greatest extent possible, with little or no duplication.

   The following is a detailed description of each center:

   DESC Michigan Works! Satellite Service Center Southwest, 9301 Michigan Avenue.
   Located in the southwest sector of the city and specializing in service to the Detroit Hispanic
   community, this location provides Self Service, Job Search, Employment Services (ES) and
   access to the Career Resource Room. This satellite center will close on July 31, 2012.

   DESC Michigan Works! Service Center, East, 5555 Conner. Located on Detroit’s east
   side, collocated services at this location include: Holy Cross Children Services; Catholic
   Social Services; Children’s Aid Society; Black Family Development; Employment Services;
   Jackets for Jobs; Mercy Primary Care – American Cancer Society – McAuley Nursing
   Managed Center; Michigan Rehabilitation Services; Northeast Guidance Center; Veterans’
   Services; an adult education provider will provide GED services as well as other services
   available at the center.

   Navigators are on hand to enhance the system capacity for serving persons with disabilities.
   They serve as a resource to the Workforce Investment Community within the Service Centers
   and help facilitate universal access to the One-Stop system for persons with disabilities.

   DESC Michigan Works! Service Center North, 707 W. Milwaukee Avenue. Located in
   central Detroit’s New Center area, this five-story building houses Employment Services,
   providing the full range of ES services, including Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) and
   NAFTA-TAA services, and WIA adult intake and assessment services. DESC staff

June 28, 2012
DETROIT EMPLOYMENT SOLUTIONS CORPORATION (DESC)
COMPREHENSIVE FIVE-YEAR LOCAL PLAN
                                         Program Year 2011



   provides rapid response services. Job Corps and Michigan Rehabilitation Services are located
   at this center. Providence Services provides literacy, academic remediation and GED
   preparation computer labs and classes. Marygrove College provides GED and Work Keyes
   testing and employment screening. Other services for employers include job fairs and the
   availability of free space for employee recruitment, testing, and interviewing. A Career
   Resource Center, operated by a one-stop case management contractor, provides a
   comprehensive array of materials in multi-media format to meet the employment information
   needs of employers and job seekers. Disability Navigators are available to enhance the
   system capacity for serving persons with disabilities. They serve as a resource to the
   workforce development community within the Service Centers and help facilitate universal
   access to the One-Stop system for persons with disabilities. The administrative offices of the
   MWA are also located at this site.

   DESC Michigan Works! Service Center, Downtown, 455 W. Fort Street: Centrally
   located in downtown Detroit, this five-story building offers visitors all ES services, WIA
   adult intake and assessment services, Michigan Rehabilitation Services, and a Career
   Resource Center, similar to that described for the 707 W. Milwaukee site. There is free
   space available to employers for job fairs and employee recruitment, testing, and
   interviewing. Transportation to work coordination and referral services is provided by the
   Office of Mobility Management. Navigators are available to enhance the system capacity for
   serving persons with disabilities. They serve as a resource to the workforce investment
   community within the One-Stop Service Centers and help facilitate universal access to the
   One-Stop system for persons with disabilities.

   In addition to the services directly available at the four centers, participants are able to
   receive information and referrals to parolee and inmate services being provided by DESC’s
   Former Prisoner Services Program, WIA services for Native Americans, provided by the
   North American Indian Association, and other programs. Vocational education, adult
   education services, and services for the disabled will become more fully integrated into the
   Service Center system. DESC has requisitioned a mobile One Stop in order to increase the
   Corporation’s ability to deliver services.

   Continuous Improvement

   The DWDB and its committees will review and approve all recommendations for funding.
   The board closely monitors the performance of all service providers. Objective measures
   such as numbers recruited, trained, and placed in appropriate employment are reviewed.
   MWA Contract Administration Division staff will closely monitor the performance of each
   service provider through the review of records and the use of site visits and customer
   surveys. Business Service staff regularly meets with employers to determine employers’
   need. Customer satisfaction surveys will be conducted with employers to ensure that their
   employment needs are being met. All service providers will be expected to conduct in-

June 28, 2012
DETROIT EMPLOYMENT SOLUTIONS CORPORATION (DESC)
COMPREHENSIVE FIVE-YEAR LOCAL PLAN
                                         Program Year 2011



   service training for their staff to maintain and advance the professional quality of provided
   services.

   Support Services

   The DESC will adhere to the “Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Supportive Services Policy
   and Procedures” developed in accordance with the Workforce Programs Policy Issuance 04-
   04, and changes incorporated into this comprehensive plan by reference.

   2. Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)

   The DESC will execute the required MOUs between the DWDB and each required One-Stop
   partner. MOUs will be provided as required.

C. Local Performance Measures (Adult and Youth)

       Local adult and youth planned performance levels for Program Year 2011 are as follows:

       Entered Employment Rate                                    82.0 percent
       Employment Retention Rate                                  82.0 percent
       Average Earnings                                           $10,400
       Employment Credential Rate                                 84.0 percent
       Dislocated Worker Entered Employment Rate                  94.0 percent
       Dislocated Worker Employment Retention Rate                90.0 percent
       Dislocated Worker Average Earnings                         $11,300
       Dislocated Worker Employment Credential Rate               84.0 percent
       Older Youth Entered Employment Rate                        78.0 percent
       Older Youth Employment Retention Rate                      85.0 percent
       Older Youth Average Earnings Change                        $3,500
       Older Youth Credential Rate                                72.0 percent
       Younger Youth Skill Attainment Rate                        96.0 percent
       Younger Youth Diploma Attainment Rate                      90.0 percent
       Younger Youth Retention Rate                               67.0 percent
       Weeks in Follow-Up Period                                  52
       Customer Satisfaction - Participant                        91.0 percent
       Customer Satisfaction - Employer                           86.0 percent

D. Adult and Dislocated Worker Employment and Training Activities

   1. Through the Service Center system, adult workers, including dislocated workers, will be
   able to access employment and training activities available in the area. DESC will provide
   core, intensive and training services in accordance with the 134(d) of the Workforce

June 28, 2012
DETROIT EMPLOYMENT SOLUTIONS CORPORATION (DESC)
COMPREHENSIVE FIVE-YEAR LOCAL PLAN
                                         Program Year 2011



   Investment Act. All Wagner-Peyser labor exchange, unemployment insurance, and
   reemployment services will be available at the three full One Stop Service Centers. A onse-
   stop case management contractor and an Employment Services contractor will provide rapid
   response services at dislocated workers’ job sites.

   WIA core, intensive, and training services and WIA youth services will be available through
   the three full service sites one satellite service center. Adults and dislocated workers eligible
   for JET or other welfare reform programs will receive referrals by Service Center staff to
   Wayne County Department of Human Services. Qualified individuals will be able to access
   some JET services at the Service Centers.

    Individuals interested in pursuing training opportunities will be able to access them through
   JET, and WIA or other programs, if they meet certain requirements. Because it is expected
   that demand for training by the public will exceed funding levels, the DWDB will comply
   with Section 134 (d)(4)(E) of WIA and give training priority to public assistance recipients
   and other low-income persons.

   The DWDB will seek to expand training opportunities for those not able to access them
   through WIA or JET. Partnerships with area community colleges, universities, and private
   training schools will be expanded and deepened. Information and applications for financial
   aid will be available at all Service Centers. The DWDB will seek to inform the training and
   educational institutions of employer and trainee needs so that training programs can be
   modified as necessary. The DWDB will continue to work closely with employers and
   schools to design and implement customized training programs.

   DESC implemented the No Worker Left Behind (NWLB) program and coordinated all of its
   training efforts through NWLB to improve the quality of service for the program. Individuals
   eligible for training through WIA will receive it through WIA Individual Training Accounts
   (ITAs). The selection of eligible training providers will be completed in a manner that
   maximizes informed consumer choice. Eligible customers meet with WIA Career Coaches
   and together, they select a training provider from among a list of state-eligible training
   providers who have demonstrated the ability to provide quality training and services.
   Selection will generally be based on training objectives, past provider performance,
   scheduling, accessibility, and cost efficiency. ITA cash values will vary according to the
   type of training involved. It is the DWDB’s intention to work with the other MWAs in
   southeast Michigan to have uniform cash values for particular ITAs throughout the region.

   Exceptions to the use of ITAs will be limited to training provided by youth programs,
   customized and on-the-job training arrangements. Also, if the DESC determines that there
   are an insufficient number of eligible providers of training services in the local area to
   accomplish the purposes of a system of individual training accounts; this will also constitute
   an exception to the use of ITAs.

June 28, 2012
DETROIT EMPLOYMENT SOLUTIONS CORPORATION (DESC)
COMPREHENSIVE FIVE-YEAR LOCAL PLAN
                                         Program Year 2011



   Veterans and their eligible spouses will be given priority in the receipt of services in
   accordance with the Jobs for Veterans Act Public Law 107-288 of 2002, Title 38 of the US
   Code and recent DOL guidelines including TEGL 10-09 and TEN No. 15-10. When veterans

   and their eligible spouses visit a Service Center and register for ES services, they will be
   encouraged to identify themselves as such by completing the veteran’s section of the
   Michigan Talent Bank.         If specialized veterans’ services are needed, a veterans’
   representative will be available at all sites. Veterans and their eligible spouses’ resumes will
   appear at the top of employer searches in relevant skill categories. Veterans and their eligible
   spouses will also be advised of all job openings available through the Federal Contract Job
   Listing Employer Program. Similarly, participating employers will be made aware of
   eligible veterans and eligible spouses. Veterans and eligible spouses who receive WIA
   services through a One Stop will be informed of the following: their entitlement to priority
   services, the full array of employment training and placement services available under
   priority of service, and any applicable eligibility requirements for the programs and or
   services.

   Wagner-Peyser Employment Service Agency and Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA)
   Services

   The DWDB will deliver Wagner-Peyser funded services at no cost to employers and job
   seekers through an Employment Services contractor. These services will be provided at all
   three full Service Centers and the Satellite Center, as indicated in Section III of this Plan. As
   described above, veterans and their eligible spouses will receive priority in terms of job
   referrals and will be able to receive specialized services from veterans’ representatives at all
   sites. The city of Detroit will no longer limit administrative costs connected to Wagner-
   Peyser funds. However, the ESA reserves the right to monitor those MWAs with
   administrative costs of 20 percent or more of the total allocation. DESC’s contractor provides
   Employment Services in its One-Stop Career Centers.

   Labor Exchange

   At all Service Centers, basic labor exchange services will be available. Customers will be
   encouraged to independently access resume and job listing components of the Michigan
   Talent Bank. ES staff assigned to assisting customers will routinely perform quick
   assessments to determine if customers need facilitated or more extensive mediated services in
   order to successfully use the Michigan Talent Bank. Mediated services could result in
   referrals for a more extensive assessment by Service Center WIA staff. Expanded
   assessment services may become available through ES, but only if they enhance, not
   duplicate, WIA assessments.




June 28, 2012
DETROIT EMPLOYMENT SOLUTIONS CORPORATION (DESC)
COMPREHENSIVE FIVE-YEAR LOCAL PLAN
                                         Program Year 2011



   Unemployment Insurance (UI) Work Test

   The UI Work Test will be administered at the Detroit Service Center sites. In cooperation
   with the Unemployment Agency (UA), all unemployment insurance claimants will be able to
   complete an ESA registration at each of the four sites. ES staff will be available to offer
   facilitated or mediated services as needed. Staff will also apply to the registration form the
   unique stamp required by UA, initial each claimant’s verification card, and electronically log
   the name and social security number of each claimant following his or her completion of the
   ESA registration process. Certification of completed ESA registrations will be provided to
   the UA within an established time frame. If for any reason any service provider operating
   within the MWA Service Center system determines that UA claimants are unavailable for
   work or are not seeking employment, the provider will complete a designated form and
   forward it to the UA.

   Participate in the National Labor Exchange System

   ES staff working in the Detroit One Stop Service Center system will participate in the
   Michigan component of the national labor exchange system by accepting and processing job
   orders received from out-state areas and from other states.

   Administer TAA

   Through ES, the Detroit MWA will provide all mandated reemployment services to workers
   adversely affected by foreign competition in accordance with the TAA Implementation Act.
   ES staff will follow procedures specified in the OWD Trade Manual.

   Participate in the ES Complaint System

   ES staff located at the Detroit One Stop Service Center sites will operate the local component
   of the ES complaint system, in accordance with the mandate specified in the federal ES
   regulations. Postings describing the formal complaint system will be prominently displayed
   in each Service Center ES area. Attempts to resolve complaints on-site as soon as they arise
   will always occur. However, customers preferring to lodge a formal complaint will be
   directed to the complaint system informational literature.

   Operate the Fidelity Bonding Program

   Through ES, the MWA will assist job seekers when employers require job seekers to
   maintain a fidelity bond and job seekers need assistance in obtaining a bond.




June 28, 2012
DETROIT EMPLOYMENT SOLUTIONS CORPORATION (DESC)
COMPREHENSIVE FIVE-YEAR LOCAL PLAN
                                         Program Year 2011



   2. The steps in determining eligibility for Adults and Dislocated Workers are as follows:

       DESC’s One Stop Service Centers requests the eligibility documentation that allows a
       determination for citizenship, income eligibility, selective service, and reason for
       dislocation/termination as a means to determine eligibility. Customers must provide the
       required documentation as listed on the Adult/Dislocated Adult Eligibility Check List

       (Attachment III). Participants may register once the acceptable documentation has been
       received.

       Migrant Services and Equal Opportunity Eligibility

       DESC in compliance with WDASOM recognizes that it is against the law for recipients
       of Federal financial assistance to discriminate on the following basis:

               Against any individual in the United States, on the basis of race, color, religion,
                sexual orientation, national origin, age, disability, political affiliation or belief;
                and

               Against any beneficiary of programs financially assisted under Title I of the
                Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA), on the basis of the beneficiary's
                citizenship/ status as a lawfully admitted immigrant authorized to work in the
                United States, or his or her participation in any WIA Title I-financially assisted
                program or activity.

               Deciding who will be admitted, or have access, to any WIA Title I-financially
                assisted program or activity;

               Providing opportunities in, or treating any person with regard to, such a program
                or activity; or

               Making employment decisions in the administration of, or in connection with,
                such a program or activity.

       The One Stop Service Centers will provide services to participants who are eligible as
       Adult and DW but are unable to produce required documentation. In lieu of the full array
       of WIA services, beyond non-assisted core services, i.e. staff-assisted core services and
       intensive services will be provided to participants that are able to produce Employment
       Authorization Documents (EADs) issued by the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration
       Services (USCIS), commonly form -485, an Application for Employment Authorization,
       and form I-94.


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         DESC will submit a separate Authorization to Work Policy, approved by the DWDB, and
         a copy of the policy will be forwarded to the WDASOM.

     3. In accordance with Bureau of Workforce Programs (BWP) PI 04-04, issued September 7,
        2004, a copy of DESC’s local Adult and DW Supportive Services Plan is attached.
        (Attachment IV)

E.       Rapid Response Activities

Description of Activities

Upon DESC’s notification by the Rapid Response Section Workforce Consultant (WC) located
with the WDASOM, the Detroit MWA will alert ES and WIA staff of the need to initiate rapid
response activities on behalf of the affected workforce. ES and WIA staff will jointly meet with
the employer’s CEO or his/her representative to outline all reemployment and retraining services
available. The employer will then schedule a meeting involving the affected workers. At that
time, ES and WIA staff will present all Detroit One-Stop Service Center opportunities for
reemployment, training, support services, and unemployment insurance as follows:

        DESC will initiate a Rapid Response meeting with the company and union officers (if
         applicable).

        DESC will schedule a worker’s orientation meeting for employees. These meetings will
         include presentations by DESC’s service providers that will provide information on
         employment services; WIA-funded core, intensive, and training services; special
         population services (Michigan Rehabilitation services, Veterans’ services); and
         local/community services (United Way, local community colleges, credit union
         counseling, etc.). Collaboration with other state agencies (e.g., Office of Retirement
         Services, Friend of the Court), will be planned as needed. Michigan Unemployment
         Insurance Agency (UIA) representatives will also participate in worker orientation
         meetings and provide information on how to file/claim unemployment insurance benefits.

        DESC will establish and organize a Joint Adjustment Committee (JAC). DESC’s JAC
         will consist of an ad hoc group of workers and managers who organize to provide
         adjustment services on behalf of the employees who are about to lose their jobs due to a
         plant closure or a mass layoff. The purpose of DESC’s JAC will be to help displaced
         workers make a successful transition to a satisfactory job or training in the shortest
         possible time keeping in compliance with the Bureau of Workforce Programs Policy
         Issuance 06-12, “Establishment of Labor Management Committees also known as Joint
         Adjustment Committees (JACs) at Sites of Facility Closures and Mass Layoffs,” issued
         September 26, 2006).


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      DESC will use State Adjustment Grants (SAGs) as additional increments to a local area’s
       DW formula funding award to meet documented funding deficits as needed. DESC will
       request additional funding for a single or multiple dislocation events via a SAG,
       following the application process outlined in Bureau of Workforce Transformation
       (BWT) Policy Issuance 08-01, change I, “Revised Rapid Response State Adjustment
       Grant (SAG) Application Instructions,” issued September 29, 2010. The process will
       include review of the application and supporting documents (obligation and wait list

       reports) by both the WIA Section and the RRS, and negotiation with the DESC to finalize
       the award. The WDASOM reserves the right to award SAGs with specific terms and
       conditions, including an obligation to spend all or part of the SAG by the end of the
       Program Year in which it was granted.

      DESC will use National Emergency Grants (NEGs) as another form of assistance
       provided through the RRS. DESC will use NEGs, a discretionary grant awarded by the
       Secretary of Labor to provide employment-related services for DW in specific
       circumstances. The RRS and DESC will work together to develop the application and
       project design for a NEG in response to a dislocation event.

       JAC’s, SAG and NEGs Contact Person

       Pamela J. Moore, Director
       Detroit Employment Solutions Corporation
       A Michigan Works! Agency
       707 West Milwaukee Avenue, 5th Floor
       Detroit, MI 48202
       Phone: (313) 876-0674
       Fax: (313) 664-5505
       Email: MoorePa@detroitmi.gov

       Description of Layoff aversion with Incumbent Worker Training

       As defined in US Department of Labor TEGL 30-09, layoff aversions is defined as when:
       “a worker’s job is saved with an existing employer that is at risk of downsizing or
       closing; or a worker at risk of dislocation transitions to a different job with the same
       employer or a new job with a different employer and experiences no or a minimal spell of
       unemployment.”

       DESC has identified several key strategies that are being utilized in its overall layoff
       aversion approach. The Incumbent Worker Training Program serves as a strong layoff
       aversion tool utilized by Business Solution Professionals that allows companies to apply
       and receive training funds that allow for the education and upgrading of a company’s

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       existing workforce. As the skill set of the existing workforce is upgraded and enhanced,
       this increases company efficiency and cost-effectiveness. The Incumbent Worker training
       is designed to avert layoffs, provide specific retraining related to layoff aversion and to
       develop new organizational strategies that will promote company expansion, growth,
       and/or prevent closings of Michigan businesses. (The IW Training Funds in many
       instances decrease internal expenditures and allow company funds to be directed into
       other areas such as capital expenditures, equipment purchases and other essential
       activities critical to business survival.)

       DESC has implemented the following strategy for situations when working with
       businesses where there is a possibility for layoff aversion.

       1.       Identify employers who may layoff staff:

                a.     Employers identified through business contacts,
                b.     Employers identified through WARN notices,
                c.     Employers identified by the Detroit Economic Growth Corporation and
                       other city departments and partners.

       2.       Meet Employers (Include One-Stop Business Services Unit in the process if
                possible).

       3.       Assess needs.

       4.       Develop plan for action:

                a.     Establish goals for intervention;
                b.     Select interventions from the following strategies if appropriate;
                        i. Refer employer to other available resources in the city or state,
                       ii. Provide resources through Michigan Works! System including
                           training, dislocated worker services, employment services and other
                           services funded by the state and local workforce system,
                      iii. Provide Incumbent Worker Training,
                      iv. Develop additional strategies identified in cooperation with the
                           affected business.

       5.       Implement Plan

       6.       Assess Results and refine plan as needed

       7.       Conclude plan when goals are achieved.


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        DESC’s Role in the function of JACs

        DESC will meet with representatives of the City of Detroit and unions that are or may be
        affected by actual or anticipated layoffs meets weekly. The JAC works to develop, in
        detail, the employment and training alternatives available to dislocated workers and to
        arrange for the services necessary to assist them in reaching their goals. This may
        include, but is not limited to, job clubs, opportunity fairs, and workshops designed for the
        specific needs of the affected workers.

                 The JAC is comprised of equal numbers of management and labor
        representatives, chaired by a neutral third party. However, decisions are still made on a
        consensus basis, which requires unanimity of purpose, so that the interests of all are
        represented. Committee members are usually chosen by their respective management
        and labor representatives; the committee as a whole selects the Neutral Chair and a
        Workforce Consultant from the Rapid Response Section of WDASOM serves as ex
        officio.

        Request for local SAGs

        DESC may request a SAG for Rapid Response activities to provide additional assistance
        to the local area that may experience mass layoffs, plant closings, or other events that
        precipitate increases in the number of unemployed individuals seeking dislocated worker
        services. Activities funded by these grants will be consistent with WIA Dislocated
        Worker guidelines.

F.      Funding

     1. Criteria to Determine Priority Of Service

     The DWDB fully expects to experience excess demand for WIA training and may also find
     that it cannot meet all demands for WIA intensive services. This expectation is based upon
     its historical experience, under which limited funding prevented the provision of training
     services to applicants each year. It is also guided by the continuing high unemployment rate
     in the city, suggesting that a large number of potential workforce participants need intensive
     services or training in order to become successfully employed. Because of this expected
     limitation in WIA funds, priority for training and, if necessary, intensive and training services
     will be given to public assistance recipients, low-income individuals and other individuals
     eligible for intensive and training services in occupations that are considered high in demand.
     DESC’s priority also includes individuals eligible for services under the Jobs for Veterans
     Act of 2002 a priority of service for Veterans and eligible spouses sufficient to meet the
     requirements of USDOL TEGL 10-09 dated November 10, 2009 and changes and all relevant
     regulations. Veterans and eligible

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   spouses who receive services will be informed of the following: their entitlement to priority
   services, the full array of employment training and placement services available under
   priority of service, and any applicable eligibility requirements for the programs and or
   services.

   In addition to the aforementioned individuals, the DESC has also identified additional groups
   of individuals to receive services when funds are limited: unemployed individuals who are
   not dislocated worker eligible and underemployed individuals. Underemployed individuals
   are defined as employed individuals with family income below $40,000 a year.

   The DWDB will seek to use non-WIA funds in the provision of WIA core services in order
   to maximize the availability of WIA intensive and training services. It will apply Wagner-
   Peyser funds to core services, with the understanding that Wagner-Peyser funds can match
   but not replace WIA funds for the provision of core services.

   The ES will allocate a portion of its annual Wagner-Peyser ES appropriation to DWDBs
   according to the following allocation formula:

                Fifty percent based on a DWDB area’s share of the state’s average civilian
                 labor force during the previous year; and,

                Fifty percent based on a DWDB area’s share of the state’s average number of
                 unemployed persons during the previous year.

   Workforce Investment Act

   In the event that constraints develop in Workforce Investment Act funding, the DESC will
   focus its resources on disabled veterans, veterans, dislocated workers, welfare recipients,
   low-income adults, low-income youth, individuals with disabilities and other eligible
   individuals. Low Income is defined as 100% of the Poverty Guidelines published annually
   by the United States Department of Health and Human Services.

   Due to the protracted decline in the local economy and concomitant long-term reduction in
   state and local revenues and due to the imminent prospect of hundreds of city of Detroit
   employees being laid off, and a similar impending reduction in force being announced by the
   Detroit Public Schools, the DWDB has decided that a state of economic emergency currently
   exists in the city and passed a motion at its January 21, 2005, Executive Committee meeting
   to amend the current priority of service plan, which focuses the Corporation’s limited WIA
   resources on very low income adults and dislocated workers, to allow the Corporation to
   serve employees of the city of Detroit, the Detroit Public Schools, and the local affected
   manufacturing and other industries who have been laid-off or who have received a notice of


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   being laid-off, without income being one of the eligibility criteria, and to review this policy
   annually.

   Employment Service

   In the event that constraints develop in Wagner-Peyser funding, the Detroit Employment
   Solutions Corporation will focus its resources on Disabled Veterans, Veterans, and other
   adults for whom the “Employment Service’s Work Test” is required in order to qualify for
   Unemployment Insurance benefits. Veterans and eligible spouses who receive ES services
   will be informed of the following: their entitlement to priority services, the full array of
   employment training and placement services available under priority of service, and any
   applicable eligibility requirements for the programs and or services.

   2. Competitive Procurement Process

   All WIA procurement activities by the Detroit MWA and DWDB, except those partnerships
   pre-approved by the U.S. DOL, or other DOL-funded initiatives that require partnership
   arrangements, will follow the guidelines presented in the Michigan Department of Labor and
   Economic Growth Office of Workforce Development Policy Issuance 04-03, “Procurement
   Policy,” issued February 27, 2004, and all revisions. Formal competitive procurements are
   conducted for all procurements in excess of $25,000. Competitive proposals are conducted
   with more than one source submitting an offer and either a fixed-price or cost reimbursement
   type award is made. DESC implements documented procedures for the methodology used
   for technical evaluations. The DWDB reviews the RFP/Q prior to issuance. The award is
   made to the responsible offeror whose proposal is most advantageous to the program with
   respect to price, technical, and other factors considered.            Requests for Proposal
   (RFP)/Request for Quotation (RFQ) documents will be published and advertised for all
   formal competitive procurements. Notices of RFPs and RFQs are published in the Detroit
   Legal News, posted on the city of Detroit’s webpage, and emailed to DESC’s bidders’ list.
   All proposals are objectively evaluated and rated according to rating guidelines published in
   the RFP/RFQ. All proposals selected for funding are reviewed and approved by the DWDB
   prior to completing contract negotiations. It will be the objective of the DWDB to obtain
   solicitations and award contracts to the most qualified service providers in the area.

   Informal procurement procedures are conducted for small purchase procurement of property
   or services under $25,000 in aggregate. DESC does not break down one purchase into
   several purchases merely to be able to use small purchase procedures. Documentation of
   price rates or quotes shall be maintained from an adequate number of qualified sources.

   Non-Competitive (Sole Source) Procurement is conducted through a proposal from only one
   source or after a determination that competition is inadequate. This type of procurement
   shall be minimized, justified, and documented. This procedure may be used only when the


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      award is not feasible under competitive procedures due to one of the following
      circumstances: The item or service is only available from a single source; or When there is a
      public emergency need for the item or service which does not permit a delay resulting from
      using competitive procurement; or after solicitation of a number of sources, or if only one bid
      is received and/or competition is determined inadequate.

      Funding for Wagner-Peyser ES, and TAA, Service Providers

      Wagner-Peyser Employment Service Section 7(a) Funds

      The Detroit MWA Wagner-Peyser Employment Service will be supported with funds
      allocated by the ESA from its annual Wagner-Peyser Employment Service Section 7(a)
      appropriation to DWDBs. The DESC provides direct services for ES through the three One
      Stop Service Centers and one Satellite Service Center.

      TAA

      In response to dislocation events that meet TAA requirements, the DWDB will apply to
      WDASOM for training funds to help dislocated workers gain new or upgraded vocational
      skills. A 10 percent administrative cost reimbursement will be provided to DWDBs to assist
      with the implementation of these training activities. Service providers for these training
      activities, selected competitively, will demonstrate experience in providing services to
      dislocated workers.

      3. The CEO and Fiscal Agent designated as the Grant Recipient for the DESC, in
         accordance with WIA Section 117(d)(3)(B) and Section 118(b)(8):

         Pamela J. Moore
         Detroit Employment Solutions Corporation,
         A Michigan Works! Agency
         707 W. Milwaukee, 5th Floor
         Detroit, MI 48202
         Telephone number: (313) 876-0674
         Email: MoorePa@detroitmi.gov

VII       Review, Comment, and Publication Documentation

The DWDB will publish the Detroit Five Year Comprehensive Local Plan in accordance with
Section 118(c) of the WIA Act. In lieu of submitting documentation, DESC will maintain
documentation on file for monitoring by the WDASOM.




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   1.         The Plan will be published and

        i.       DESC Five Year Comprehensive Local Plan will be made available for review
                 and comment to:

                    Members of DWDB and members of the public, including representatives of
                     business and labor organizations.

                    The public will be notified of the Plan and have the opportunity for review
                     and comment through the publication of an official notices in a local
                     newspaper.

        ii.      The DWDB will forward comments that express disagreement with the Plan to
                 WDASOM along with the plan.

                 The Comprehensive Plan and progress on its implementation will be discussed as
                 needed at open meetings of the DWDB. Complete copies of the Plans will be
                 available from the Detroit MWA, the Detroit Employment Solutions Corporation,
                 in its Planning Unit, located on the second floor of 707 W. Milwaukee Avenue in
                 Detroit, Michigan 48202. Requests for copies may be made in writing to the
                 above address or by phone at 313/664-5627, Michigan Relay Center 1-800-649-
                 3777, Voice and TDD.

                 In accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the final Detroit
                 Five-Year Comprehensive Plan for Adults, Dislocated Workers and Youth will be
                 made available in alternative formats, such as large print, audio tape or other
                 format if a request is submitted to the Planning Unit at the above address or phone
                 numbers.




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                        SECTION II
                          YOUTH




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SECTION II: YOUTH

A.       Local Vision and Goals

         1.         Broad Strategic, Economic, and Workforce Development Youth Goals

         The seven long-term youth goals developed by the Detroit Workforce Development
         Board (DWDB) have been reformulated and condensed into one goal. The goal
         addresses the educational and workforce development needs of in-school and out-of-
         school youth and coincides with the youth mission developed by the DWDB and its
         Youth Council. The DWDB mission is to “bring together all youth programs under one
         comprehensive service umbrella, including year-round, in-school, and summer youth
         initiatives, to assist youth and young adults with the skills, training, and opportunities
         necessary to gain success in post-secondary education and in the workforce.”

         The youth-related goal:

         GOAL: SUPPORT EFFORTS TO IMPROVE THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

         Targets:

                   Increase attainment of GED credentials by six percent by 2014.
                   Increase the number of participants in academic and remedial programs by six
                    percent by 2014.
                   Increase high school graduation rate by 6.3 percent by 2014.
                   Improve average MEAP scores by six percent by 2014.
                   Increase scholarship award rates by six percent by 2014.

         The local strategic planning process is continuing for the Detroit MWA. The goals will
         be updated when DESC’s new strategic plan is completed by the Board. The
         environmental scan identified numerous internal and external youth resources in the local
         community. It highlighted areas of strength and those needing improvement. The
         DWDB will seek to support successful services and encourage improvements in other
         areas.

         Central to the strategic planning process is the dedication of resources to achieve the
         above youth-related goal. Development or enhancement of relationships with other
         resources offering youth services in the community, including the Detroit Public Schools,
         will be a critical element of the strategic plan.




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         2.     Local Youth Vision and Workforce Investment System Goal Attainment
                Methods

         In January 2009, the DWDB made the decision to combine the Youth Council and the
         Educational Advisory Committee into one single entity. Together their vision is “to
         provide a seamless program offering skills training and employment services to in-school
         and out-of-school youth, including youth at risk, youth with disabilities, and youth
         offenders, that prepares youth for post-secondary educational opportunities, provides
         strong linkages between academic and occupational learning, provides unsubsidized
         employment opportunities, and establishes effective communications to intermediaries
         with strong links to the job market and local and regional employers.”

         The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (“the Recovery Act”) along with
         other activities under the WIA allowed additional resources to service in-school and out
         of school youth with the flexibility of providing summer employment and work
         experiences throughout the year. Per “the Recovery Act” the funding for such programs
         was available during the same period of time as standard PY 2008 Youth formula funds,
         or until June 30, 2011.

         DESC received approximately $11 million through the Recovery Act to provide summer
         employment and other youth services. The Recovery Act Youth funds enabled the DESC
         to expand the number and scope of summer employment opportunities offered to youth.
         PY 2008 WIA funds served approximately 2,700 participants. The Recovery Act Youth
         funds increased the number of participants served. Approximately 7,000 youth were
         served through the Recovery Act and WIA Youth funds.

         The DESC together with the DWDB is responsible for administering all youth service
         programs. DESC contracts with specialized youth service providers to assure
         comprehensive service delivery which includes individual assessment, individual service
         strategies, and the ten required youth program elements under the WIA. The role of
         youth service providers will be consistent with the activities that determine the “right of
         directions and control.” DWDB and DESC ensure effective outcomes consistent with
         statewide goals and objectives, which meet and exceed standards approved by the
         Workforce Development Agency, State of Michigan.

         DESC in cooperation with the Detroit Workforce Development Board (DWDB) has
         selected The Youth Development Commission (YDC) as the Youth Employment
         Coordinator (YEC) that has developed, managed and coordinated year round and summer
         youth employment activities for DESC’s youth participants. The YEC is responsible for
         developing quality and meaningful year round and summer employment opportunities for
         youth that will increase their ability to develop the knowledge, employability skills, and
         attitude necessary to obtain a job and advance in employment. The YEC enabled the
         Corporation to create partnerships with local area foundations, businesses and community
         groups in order to enhance the quantity and quality of services provided to youth

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         participants.

         The Summer Youth Program of 2009 operated at an increased capacity in order to
         implement Recovery Act performance mandates. Program participants were recruited
         through DESC’s one-stop system. Current year-round-youth participants either work at
         summer employment sites operated by their year-round-youth program or were referred
         to the summer youth coordinator for placement into summer youth employment. New
         participants fill out applications for summer youth employment provided at DESC’s one-
         stops. Applications are screened by the one-stops for eligibility. Screened applicants
         then participate in the WIA certification process. If certified the participants are then
         placed at work sites by the summer youth employment coordinator. During the upcoming
         year, the YEC will screen applicants for WIA eligibility.

         DESC makes all 10 youth elements available for WIA year-round-youth participants.
         Youth participants who were funded by Recovery Act funds may have participated in
         work experience and supportive services only. Any additional allowable youth activity
         beyond work experience and supportive services would result in the participant being
         entered in to the regular year-round-youth program.

         DESC is the One-Stop operator for the City of Detroit. As of 2009, DESC contracted
         with a one-stop case management contractor to provide case management and related
         services. Four contractors also provide year round youth services. The YEC certifies
         youth participants. DESC has appointed a manager to serve as a “youth czar” who is
         responsible for coordinating DESC’s efforts with the YRY Program.

         DESC has coordinated its year round youth and summer youth employment efforts with
         local institutions of higher education. The local community college sits on DESC’s
         Executive Committee which approves the procurement of the year round youth and YEC
         and receives regular updates on program implementation.

         The number, location and supervision of worksites are conducted by the YEC in
         coordination with DESC.

         3.     Youth Customers in the Local Workforce Investment System

         According to the Detroit 2010 MWA Regional Workforce Planning Information Report
         (RWPIR), City of Detroit’s year 2009 youth population, ages 15 through 21, was 109,048
         (RWPIR Table 2). Approximately 18,169 (RWPIR Table 7) youth are economically
         disadvantaged and according to the 2000 Census 51,271 (RWPIR Table 7) youth ages 16-
         24 are employed. According to Detroit Public School (DPS) the DPS district-wide
         poverty rate among all students is 70 percent. The district’s four-year graduation rate, as
         of June 2010, is 62.27 percent (DPS Website). Services will be available to all young
         people, but the local system will emphasize service delivery to economically


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         disadvantaged and unemployed youth. The city of Detroit will provide a minimum of 30
         percent of youth funds for “out-of-school” youth.

         4.     Competitive and Non-Competitive Procurement Processes

         All services and contracts awarded for youth services will be procured competitively in
         accordance with published guidelines on file at the and in accordance with Michigan
         Department of Labor and Economic Growth Policy Issuance 04-03, “Procurement
         Policy,” February 27, 2004.

         Formal competitive procurements are conducted for all funds awarded in excess of
         $25,000. Competitive proposals are conducted with more than one source submitting an
         offer and either a fixed-price or cost reimbursement type award is made. DESC
         implements documented procedures for the methodology used for technical evaluations.
         The award is made to the responsible offer whose proposal is most advantageous to the
         program with respect to price, technical, and other factors considered. Requests for
         Proposal (RFP)/Request for Quotation (RFQ) documents will be published and advertised
         for all formal competitive procurements. Notices of RFPs and RFQs are published in the
         Detroit Legal News, posted on the city of Detroit’s webpage, and emailed to DESC’s
         bidders’ list. All proposals are objectively evaluated and rated according to rating
         guidelines published in the RFP/RFQ. All proposals selected for funding are reviewed
         and approved by the DWDB prior to completing contract negotiations. It will be the
         objective of the DWDB to obtain solicitations and award contracts to the most qualified
         service providers in the area.

         Informal procurement procedures are conducted for small purchase procurement of
         property or services under $25,000 in aggregate. DESC does not break down one
         purchase into several purchases merely to be able to use small purchase procedures.
         Documentation of price rates or quotes shall be maintained from an adequate number of
         qualified sources.
         Non-Competitive (Sole Source) Procurement is conducted through a proposal from only
         one source or after a determination that competition is inadequate. This type of
         procurement shall be minimized, justified, and documented. This procedure may be used
         only when the award is not feasible under competitive procedures due to one of the
         following circumstances: The item or service is only available from a single source; or
         When there is a public emergency need for the item or service which does not permit a
         delay resulting from using competitive procurement; or after solicitation of a number of
         sources, or if only one bid is received and/or competition is determined inadequate.

         Local Board Definition of Additional Youth Eligibility Criterion

         The DWDB has defined “youth residing in high poverty neighborhoods” as its locally
         developed sixth criterion for eligibility. A high-poverty neighborhood is one in which
         15% or more of all households have an income that is beneath the poverty line in the area

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         defined by the Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA). The PUMA is a standard used by
         the U.S. Department of Labor in some of its grant applications.

         5.     Current Status of One-Stop Service Centers and Integration of Youth Services

         The DWDB oversees three full one stop service centers and one satellite service center
         that contains numerous services available to youth seeking employment and training.
         DESC provides oversight and coordination of WIA Youth Programs and sub-contractors.
         Intake for younger youth is conducted by the YEC. Youth activities include classroom
         training, occupational skills, work readiness skills, employment services and
         opportunities in “green” educational and career pathways. All ten WIA youth elements
         are available to the participants.     Older youth receive core and intensive services
         including assessment, registration, and program referral at the one-stop centers. Summer
         youth programming is implemented by the YEC. In the upcoming year, the YEC will
         screen all youth applicants for WIA eligibility.

B.       Strategies for Improvement

         1.     Development and Management of Effective Youth Programs

         The DWDB’s vision for its Youth Council is based on the guidelines offered in the Sar
         Levitan Center’s monograph on WIA Youth Policy Councils. The Detroit Youth Council
         is composed of DWDB members that include all the required sectorial representatives
         specified in Advisory Administration Unit Policy 07.00.

         The Council is assisted by an Advisory Group, composed of youth and youth-related
         agencies and a cross section of employers that are not represented on the DWDB. All
         major non-profit, governmental, and educational organizations that serve Detroit youth
         are represented directly or indirectly on the Advisory Group.

         Youth Council and Advisory Group members work to maximize existing resources and
         stretch program dollars to reach as many at-risk youth as possible. The Council is
         developing a comprehensive youth action plan that will identify: a) youth customers; b)
         existing services and their effectiveness; c) gaps in service; d) employer needs; e)
         innovative new services; and f) funding opportunities.

         2.     Comprehensive Service Strategy

         Through a combination of the Youth Council, the Advisory Group, and the One-Stop
         Service Centers, the DWDB has assembled a comprehensive array of services that are
         available to eligible youth. Agencies represented in one or more of the above initiatives
         include: Wayne County Department of Human Services; the United Way of Southeastern
         Michigan; Youth Development Commission; Wayne County Friend of the Court; Detroit
         Youth Foundation; New Detroit, Inc.; Detroit Public Schools; Detroit Area Pre-College

June 28, 2012
DETROIT EMPLOYMENT SOLUTIONS CORPORATION (DESC)
COMPREHENSIVE FIVE-YEAR LOCAL PLAN
                                         Program Year 2011



         Engineering Program; Wayne County Community College District; Wayne State
         University; Detroit Housing Commission; Boys and Girls Clubs of Southeastern

         Michigan; Job Corps, Wayne County Department of Community Justice; Detroit Fire
         Department; and the Detroit Police Department.

         Numerous employers committed to youth development are involved, including CVS,
         Penske Corp, Ford Motor Company, The Henry Ford, and The Youth Consortium –
         through the Skillman Foundation, DTE Energy, St. John Health System, Detroit Medical
         Center, The National African American Insurance Association and Detroit Diesel
         Corporation.

         Michigan Rehabilitation Services and Michigan Commission for the Blind, with staff at
         the One-Stop Service Centers, assist youth with disabilities. They also train other
         providers on appropriate service models for youth with disabilities. Parenting youth are
         assisted with referrals to the Flint Job Corps, a member of the Advisory Group, is
         currently represented at two Service Centers. Job Corps is the sole residential youth
         program in the city. It also provides non-residential services.

         Meeting WIA Provisions on Youth Program Design

         The DWDB has identified numerous resources and services that will be capable of
         meeting all of the ten youth program elements specified in WIA Section 129(C)(2). The
         DWDB and Youth Council will pursue other partnerships and seek to establish or expand
         other services throughout the period of the Plan. The DWDB has established a priority to
         raise youth participant’s literacy levels to the ninth grade level. Specifically, the DWDB
         and Youth Council will meet WIA provisions as follows:

         i.     Tutoring, study skills training, and instruction leading to secondary school
                completion, including drop out prevention strategies. DESC is making this
                element available through its year-round youth providers. Additional partners
                include Focus Hope, Dominican Literacy, Detroit Learning Labs, Mercy
                Education Project, Detroit Literacy Coalition, and Detroit Public Schools.

                Preparation for postsecondary educational opportunities. Youth will be offered
                basic skills enhancement, remediation, counseling, assistance in applying for
                financial aid, tutoring, and training in study skills. Partners will include Focus:
                HOPE, Detroit Learning Lab, Detroit Hispanic Development Corporation,
                Dominican Literacy, Mercy Education Project, Detroit Literacy Coalition, and
                Detroit Public Schools Adult Education.

                Strong linkages between academic and occupational learning. The DWDB and
                Youth Council will work closely with the Detroit Public Schools, its career


June 28, 2012
DETROIT EMPLOYMENT SOLUTIONS CORPORATION (DESC)
COMPREHENSIVE FIVE-YEAR LOCAL PLAN
                                         Program Year 2011



                preparation system, and its school to work effort to ensure those academic
                curricula reflects the labor market needs of local employers. Similar partnerships

                with charter schools, faith-based learning institutions, educational enterprises and
                youth apprenticeship programs will be pursued.

                Preparation for unsubsidized employment opportunities. Efforts will include
                participation in work experience activities, summer employment, trade
                apprenticeships, student co-ops, internships, and attainment of work readiness
                credentials.

                Effective linkages with intermediaries with strong employer connections. The
                Detroit Regional Chamber, an active member of the DWDB, sponsors youth
                programs. They include Detroit Compact, a school to post-secondary education
                or training program; CVS, hospitality/retail management apprenticeship program.
                Collaborations also exist with the Warren/Conner Development Coalition -
                Eastside Industrial Council, representing 70 businesses, and the Southwest Detroit
                Business Association, with over 100 members.

         ii.    Alternative secondary school services. Charter schools will be available to
                eligible youth. Out of school youth will be assisted in the pursuit of high school
                diplomas or their equivalent, and will be provided with basic skills training, work
                experience, test preparation, and case management. DESC will develop adult
                education centers will be available to out of school youth. The Office of Adult
                Education at the Detroit Public Schools will play a critical role in this element.
                Additional support services, such as childcare, transportation, and referrals will
                also be available.

         iii.   Summer employment opportunities directly linked to academic and occupational
                learning. Summer employment opportunities will be identified that encompass
                academic enrichment and provide career outlooks and guidance. Progressive
                placements each summer and follow-up will culminate in unsubsidized
                employment or post-secondary enrollment.

         iv.    Paid and unpaid work experiences, including internships and job shadowing.
                Work experience opportunities will be developed for in school and out of school
                youth that require work experience to prepare for unsubsidized employment.
                incentives such as the Work Opportunity Tax Credit will be promoted to
                employers. DESC makes this element available by referring through its year-
                round youth providers and directly through its youth employment coordinator.

         v.     Occupational skill training. High demand occupations will be identified. Youth
                will be encouraged to pursue occupational skill training through enrollment in


June 28, 2012
DETROIT EMPLOYMENT SOLUTIONS CORPORATION (DESC)
COMPREHENSIVE FIVE-YEAR LOCAL PLAN
                                         Program Year 2011



                 WIA Title I youth activities. Information on other training opportunities,
                 including youth entrepreneurship, will also be widely disseminated.

         vi.     Leadership development opportunities, which include community service and
                 peer-centered activities encouraging responsibility and other positive social
                 behaviors. Faith-based organizations, mentoring programs, youth volunteer
                 organizations, community based organizations, and others will be involved in
                 providing leadership development activities for youth. WIA program operators
                 will be directed to provide leadership and community service learning
                 opportunities for youth.

         vii.    Support services. Supportive services are to be provided on an “as needed” basis
                 in order to remove barriers to employment and training ultimately leading to
                 economic self-sufficiency. Referrals for child care assistance, transportation,
                 work clothing, and health issues will be provided as needed.

         viii.   Adult mentoring for the duration of at least 12 months that may occur both during
                 and after program participation. Adult mentoring is provided for at least 12
                 months. Mentoring may occur both during and after program participation. It is
                 provided through the Detroit Youth Council’s – Youth Advisory Committee’s
                 sponsored partnership with Lear Corporation.

         ix.     Follow-up services. Services will be available for up to twelve months and will
                 include adult mentoring, job ladder opportunities, vocational training, counseling,
                 and job placement.

         x.      Comprehensive guidance and counseling, including drug and alcohol abuse
                 counseling, as well as referrals to counseling, as appropriate to the needs of the
                 individual youth. Youth will be provided case management services, tutoring,
                 study skills training, instruction leading to secondary school completion,
                 including dropout prevention strategies, and career and academic guidance
                 counseling. As needed, counseling and service referrals will also be available for
                 alcohol and drug abuse, domestic violence, gang prevention, pregnancy
                 prevention, health education, homelessness, and any other issues that could
                 potentially interfere with successful transitions to employment or post-secondary
                 education or training.

         3.      Summer Youth and Year Round Youth Transition

         DESC coordinates services to youth enrolled in the Year Round Youth and Summer
         Programs by interlocking components as outlined in Section 664.600 of the WIA Final
         Rules and Regulations, Section 664.405 of the WIA Final Rules and Regulations and the
         10 youth program elements.


June 28, 2012
DETROIT EMPLOYMENT SOLUTIONS CORPORATION (DESC)
COMPREHENSIVE FIVE-YEAR LOCAL PLAN
                                         Program Year 2011



         The process to transition from the Summer Youth Employment Program to Regular
         Youth Program will include the following:

                   Notification of successful completion of the summer employment activity will be
                    provided to the year round youth provider by the Youth Employment Coordinator
                    (YEC);
                   Documentation will be submitted to MIS to close the activity and a referral will
                    be sent to the year round youth provider to re-engage the participant into activities
                    (incorporating the ten (10) program elements) relevant to meeting goals set as part
                    of the participant’s Individual Service Strategy (ISS).

         In reverse, the process to transition from Regular Youth Program to Summer Youth
         Employment Program will include the following:

                   Year-round youth providers will determine those participants prepared to
                    successfully engage in paid work experiences, and send referrals to the YEC for
                    enrollment;

                   The YEC opens summer employment activities on MIS for those referred as they
                    begin employment and monitors progress throughout the activity;

                   Upon completion, the process stated above will be initiated.

         4.         Youth Eligibility Process Steps

         The eligibility process for year round activities including summer employment will be
         determined by the YEC. The process is as follows:

                   Interested youth are referred to the YEC for WIA registration;
                   The YEC contacts youth to schedule certification appointment. This contact
                    includes an overview of the documentation required to determine eligibility.
                    Documents include: Birth certificate; social security card; proof of residency;
                    proof of family income; selective service registration (if applicable); and proof of
                    employment barrier.
                   At the certification appointment, the YEC reviews all documents submitted by the
                    youth, and makes a pre-eligibility determination pending TABE test results;


                   TABE assessments are scheduled as part of the certification process, and may be
                    taken before or after the initial certification appointment based on availability;
                   Once all documentation to determine eligibility has been received, a decision is
                    made, and the YEC sends a status update to the referring agency;


June 28, 2012
DETROIT EMPLOYMENT SOLUTIONS CORPORATION (DESC)
COMPREHENSIVE FIVE-YEAR LOCAL PLAN
                                         Program Year 2011



                   Youth are notified of their status by the YEC, and referral packages for eligible
                    youth are prepared and submitted to the referring agency to begin the program
                    enrollment process;
                   Non-WIA eligible youth (including those unable to substantiate citizenship) are
                    referred to community partners for work related services.

C.        Review, Comment and Publication Documentation

The DESC will publish the Detroit Comprehensive Five-Year Local Plan in coordination with
the submission of the Plans to the DELEG for approval.

     1.         The Plan will be made available for review and comment to members of the DWDB
                and members of the public, including representatives of business and labor
                organizations.

     2.         The public will be notified of the Plan and have the opportunity for review and
                comment through the publication of an official notice in a local newspaper.

                The DWDB will forward comments that express disagreement with the Plan to
                WDASOM upon receipt of the comments.

                The Comprehensive Plan and progress on its implementation will be discussed as
                needed at open public meetings of the DWDB. Complete copies of the Plans will be
                available from the Detroit MWA, the Detroit Employment Solutions Corporation, in
                its Planning Unit, located on the second floor of 707 W. Milwaukee Avenue in
                Detroit, Michigan 48202. Requests for copies may be made in writing to the above
                address or by phone at 313-664-5636, Michigan Relay Center 1-800-649-3777, Voice
                and TDD.

                In accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the final Detroit
                Five-Year Comprehensive Plan for Youths will be made available in alternative
                formats, such as large print, audio tape or other format if a request is submitted to the
                Planning Unit at the above address or phone numbers.




June 28, 2012
       Detroit Workforce Development, A Michigan Works! Agency

Table 1 - Population Trends – 1990 – 2000 - City of Detroit MWA
                                                                              2000 - 2009   2000 - 2009
                       Area                      2000             2009         Numeric        Percent
                                                                                Change        Change

 City of Detroit MWA                              951,270           910,920       -40,350      -4.2%
 Michigan                                       9,938,444         9,969,727        31,283       0.3%
 United States                                281,421,906     307,006,550      25,584,644       9.1%
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census



Table 2 - Population Change by Demographic Group – 1990 - 2000 - City of Detroit MWA
                                                                              1990 - 2000   1990 - 2000
              Demographic Group                  1990             2000         Numeric        Percent
                                                                                Change        Change

 Total Population                             1,027,974           951,270       -76,704        -7.5%
    Age
      14-18                                      83,395            70,081       -13,314       -16.0%
      19-21                                      50,533            39,949       -10,584       -20.9%
      22-54                                     451,565           436,066       -15,499        -3.4%
      55-64                                      81,280            67,389       -13,891       -17.1%
      65 Plus                                   124,933            99,056       -25,877       -20.7%
    Sex
      Male                                      476,814           448,319       -28,495        -6.0%
      Female                                    551,160           502,951       -48,209        -8.7%
    Race/Ethnic
      White                                     222,316           116,599      -105,717       -47.6%
      Black/African American                    777,916           775,772        -2,144        -0.3%
      Native American                             3,655             3,140          -515       -14.1%
      Asian/Pacific Islander                      8,461             9,519         1,058        12.5%
      Some Other Race                            15,626            24,199         8,573        54.9%
      Two or More Races                            N.A.            22,041          N.A.          N.A.
          Hispanic                               28,473            47,167        18,694        65.7%
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census
Table 3 - Population by Demographic Group - 2000 - City of Detroit MWA

              Demographic Group                          2000                      Percent Distribution

 Total Population                                       951,270                          100.0%
    Age
      14-18                                              70,081                           7.4%
      19-21                                              39,949                           4.2%
      22-54                                             436,066                           45.8%
      55-64                                              67,389                           7.1%
      65 Plus                                            99,056                           10.4%
    Sex
      Male                                              448,319                           47.1%
      Female                                            502,951                           52.9%
    Race/Ethnic
      White                                             116,599                           12.3%
      Black/African American                            775,772                           81.6%
      Native American                                       3,140                         0.3%
      Asian/Pacific Islander                                9,519                         1.0%
      Some Other Race                                    24,199                           2.5%
      Two or More Races                                  22,041                           2.3%
          Hispanic                                       47,167                           5.0%
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census



Table 4 - Labor Force Trends – 2006 – 2010 - City of Detroit MWA
                                                                                              2006 - 2010
                                                 May                May           May
                       Area                                                                     Percent
                                                 2006               2008          2010
                                                                                                Change

 City of Detroit MWA                              363,150            361,000       371,425          2.3%
 Michigan                                       5,052,000           4,997,000     4,864,000        -3.7%
 United States                                150,696,000       154,003,000     153,866,000         2.1%
Source: DELEG, Bureau of Labor Market Information and Strategic Initiatives



Table 5 - Employment Trends – 2006 – 2010 - City of Detroit MWA
                                                                                              2006 - 2010
                                                 May                May           May
                       Area                                                                     Percent
                                                 2006               2008          2010
                                                                                                Change

 City of Detroit MWA                              318,925            306,200       286,550        -10.2%
 Michigan                                       4,735,000           4,607,000     4,241,000       -10.4%
 United States                                144,041,000       145,927,000     139,497,000        -3.2%
Source: DELEG, Bureau of Labor Market Information and Strategic Initiatives
Table 6 - Unemployment Rates (Percent) – 2006 – 2010 - City of Detroit MWA
                                                                                            2006 - 2010
                                                 May             May               May
                       Area                                                                    Rate
                                                 2006            2008              2010
                                                                                              Change

 City of Detroit MWA                             12.2            15.2              22.9        10.7
 Michigan                                         6.3             7.8              12.8         6.5
 United States                                    4.4             5.2              9.3          4.9
Source: DELEG, Bureau of Labor Market Information and Strategic Initiatives



Table 7 - Civilian Labor Force by Demographic Group – 2000 - City of Detroit MWA
                                             Civilian Labor     Total             Total    Unemployment
              Demographic Group
                                                  Force       Employment      Unemployment     Rate
 Total                                          384,951         331,441            53,510      13.9%
    Male 16+                                    183,520         154,993            28,527      15.5%
      16-19                                      11,782           7,769             4,013      34.1%
      20-24                                      22,653          17,300             5,353      23.6%
      25-54                                     130,888         113,118            17,770      13.6%
      55-64                                      13,449          12,433             1,016       7.6%
      65 Plus                                     4,748           4,373              375        7.9%
    Female 16+                                  201,431         176,448            24,983      12.4%
      16-19                                      11,924           7,981             3,943      33.1%
      20-24                                      23,081          18,221             4,860      21.1%
      25-54                                     145,602         130,731            14,871      10.2%
      55-64                                      15,429          14,622              807        5.2%
      65 Plus                                     5,395           4,893              502        9.3%
    Race/Sex
      White Male                                 29,651          26,639             3,012      10.2%
      White Female                               21,311          19,432             1,879       8.8%
      Black Male                                139,762         115,902            23,860      17.1%
      Black Female                              171,420         149,383            22,037      12.9%
      Asian Male                                  2,425           2,281              144        5.9%
      Asian Female                                1,637           1,491              146        8.9%
      Other Male                                  6,621           5,787              834       12.6%
      Other Female                                3,234           2,780              454       14.0%
      Hispanic Male                              12,270          10,591             1,679      13.7%
      Hispanic Female                             6,246           5,472              774       12.4%
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census
Table 8 - Industry Employment Trends - 2007 - 2010 - Detroit MSA

                                                      May           May        2007 - 2010   2007 - 2010
                     Industry                        2007          2010         Numeric        Percent
                                                   Employment    Employment      Change        Change

 Total Employment                                    1,992,900     1,715,400    -277,500        -13.9%
    Natural Resources & Construction                   72,700        48,100      -24,600        -33.8%
    Manufacturing                                     263,400       177,900      -85,500        -32.5%
    Trade, Transportation & Utilities                 366,600       316,800      -49,800        -13.6%
    Information                                        33,700        25,800       -7,900        -23.4%
    Financial Activities                              112,900        92,900      -20,000        -17.7%
    Professional & Business Services                  353,000       293,800      -59,200        -16.8%
    Educational & Health Services                     277,500       286,400        8,900         3.2%
    Leisure & Hospitality                             189,300       171,400      -17,900         -9.5%
    Other Services                                     88,400        84,200       -4,200         -4.8%
    Government                                        235,400       218,400      -17,000         -7.2%
Source: DELEG, Bureau of Labor Market Information and Strategic Initiatives
        Current Employment Statistics (CES)



Table 9 - Top Ten Private Industries – Third Quarter 2009 - Wayne County
                                                                                               Percent
                                        Industry                                  Jobs
                                                                                               of Total
 Food Services and Drinking Places                                                52,565         9.5%
 Hospitals                                                                        45,868         8.3%
 Professional and Technical Services                                              45,586         8.2%
 Ambulatory Health Care Services                                                  31,638         5.7%
 Administrative and Support Services                                              29,307         5.3%
 Transportation Equipment Manufacturing                                           28,325         5.1%
 Management of Companies and Enterprises                                          19,564         3.5%
 Nursing and Residential Care Facilities                                          19,240         3.5%
 General Merchandise Stores                                                       14,125         2.6%
 Merchant Wholesalers, Durable Goods                                              13,473         2.4%
Source: DELEG, Bureau of Labor Market Information and Strategic Initiatives
Table 10 - Top Private Industries by Percent Job Growth – 3rd. Qtr. 2006 - 2009 - Wayne County
                                                                              Numeric Job    Percent Job
                                       Industry
                                                                                Growth         Growth
 Motion Picture and Sound Recording Industry                                       372           161.0%
 Nonstore Retailers                                                                149           34.7%
 Ambulatory Health Care Services                                                  3,083          10.8%
 Nursing and Residential Care Facilities                                          1,840          10.6%
 Amusement, Gambling and Recreation                                                416            3.3%
 Gasoline Stations                                                                  91            3.2%
 Furniture and Related Product Manufacturing                                        27            3.0%
 General Merchandise Stores                                                        270            1.9%
 Food Manufacturing                                                                 67            1.8%
Source: DELEG, Bureau of Labor Market Information and Strategic Initiatives


Table 11 - Declining Industries - Third Quarter 2006 - 2009 - Wayne County

                                                     Third         Third
                                                                              2006 - 2009    2006 - 2009
                                                    Quarter       Quarter
                     Industry                                                  Numeric         Percent
                                                     2006          2009
                                                                                Change         Change
                                                  Employment    Employment

 Publishing Industries, Except Internet               7,557         3,336        -4,221          -55.9%
 Plastics and Rubber Products Manufacturing           2,423         1,297        -1,126          -46.5%
 Warehousing and Storage                              4,281         2,457        -1,824          -42.6%
 Furniture and Home Furnishings Stores                2,349         1,486          -863          -36.7%
 Primary Metal Manufacturing                          5,417         3,435        -1,982          -36.6%
 Administrative and Support Services                 46,206        29,307       -16,899          -36.6%
 Nonmetallic Mineral Product Manufacturing            2,379         1,556          -823          -34.6%
 Transportation Equipment Manufacturing              43,028        28,325       -14,703          -34.2%
 Machinery Manufacturing                              8,970         6,044        -2,926          -32.6%
 Fabricated Metal Product Manufacturing              10,550         7,161        -3,389          -32.1%
Source: DELEG, Bureau of Labor Market Information and Strategic Initiatives


Table 12 - Number of Unemployed - 2009 - 2010 - City of Detroit MWA
                                                                              2009 - 2010    2009 - 2010
                                                    May           May
                       Area                                                    Numeric         Percent
                                                    2009          2010
                                                                                Change         Change

 City of Detroit MWA                                   93,375        84,875        -8,500         -9.1%
 Michigan                                             663,000       623,000       -40,000         -6.0%
 United States                                     13,973,000    14,369,000       396,000         2.8%
Source: DELEG, Bureau of Labor Market Information and Strategic Initiatives
Table 13 - High School Graduates in Michigan by County - 2007 - 2008 & 2008 - 2009 School Years
                                                                              Numeric         Percent
                  County                     2007 - 2008    2008 - 2009
                                                                              Change          Change
 Alcona                                             72              56            -16             -22.2%
 Alger                                              90              86             -4             -4.4%
 Allegan                                         1,334           1,337              3              0.2%
 Alpena                                            337             291            -46             -13.6%
 Antrim                                            295             256            -39             -13.2%
 Arenac                                            205             212              7              3.4%
 Baraga                                            104              99             -5             -4.8%
 Barry                                             579             561            -18             -3.1%
 Bay                                             1,182           1,043           -139             -11.8%
 Benzie                                            168             162             -6             -3.6%
 Berrien                                         1,860           1,793            -67             -3.6%
 Branch                                            438             429             -9             -2.1%
 Calhoun                                         1,492           1,482            -10             -0.7%
 Cass                                              440             450             10              2.3%
 Charlevoix                                        335             336              1              0.3%
 Cheboygan                                         285             292              7              2.5%
 Chippewa                                          388             343            -45             -11.6%
 Clare                                             348             357              9              2.6%
 Clinton                                           843             859             16              1.9%
 Crawford                                          153             123            -30             -19.6%
 Delta                                             485             461            -24             -4.9%
 Dickinson                                         372             382             10              2.7%
 Eaton                                           1,186           1,119            -67             -5.6%
 Emmet                                             413             384            -29             -7.0%
 Genesse                                         4,739           4,620           -119             -2.5%
 Gladwin                                           259             234            -25             -9.7%
 Gogebic                                           160             159             -1             -0.6%
 Grand Traverse                                  1,002             979            -23             -2.3%
 Gratiot                                           587             548            -39             -6.6%
 Hillsdale                                         460             453             -7             -1.5%
 Houghton                                          414             354            -60             -14.5%
 Huron                                             447             439             -8             -1.8%
 Ingham                                          2,904           2,827            -77             -2.7%
 Ionia                                             782             780              -2            -0.3%
 Iosco                                             400             382            -18             -4.5%
 Iron                                              141             120            -21             -14.9%
 Isabella                                          543             464            -79             -14.5%
 Jackson                                         1,700           1,666            -34             -2.0%
 Kalamazoo                                       2,137           2,136             -1              0.0%
Table 13 - High School Graduates in Michigan by County - 2007 - 2008 & 2008 - 2009 School Years
                                                                              Numeric         Percent
                  County                     2007 - 2008    2008 - 2009
                                                                              Change          Change
 Kalkaska                                          163             161              -2             -1.2%
 Kent                                            6,209           6,458            249              4.0%
 Keweenaw                                            0               0              0              0.0%
 Lake                                               38              26            -12             -31.6%
 Lapeer                                          1,115           1,135             20              1.8%
 Leelanau                                          183             198             15              8.2%
 Lenawee                                         1,213           1,268             55              4.5%
 Livingston                                      2,145           2,170             25              1.2%
 Luce                                               81              72              -9            -11.1%
 Mackinaw                                          106             107              1              0.9%
 Macomb                                          9,576           9,233           -343             -3.6%
 Manistee                                          192             264             72             37.5%
 Marquette                                         697             604            -93             -13.3%
 Mason                                             369             372              3              0.8%
 Mecosta                                           486             421            -65             -13.4%
 Menominee                                         245             243             -2             -0.8%
 Midland                                         1,044             999            -45             -4.3%
 Missaukee                                         148             158             10              6.8%
 Monroe                                          1,695           1,694              -1            -0.1%
 Montcalm                                          855             899             44              5.1%
 Montmorency                                        71              62             -9             -12.7%
 Muskegon                                        1,902           1,914             12              0.6%
 Newaygo                                           610             593            -17             -2.8%
 Oakland                                        14,417          13,940           -477             -3.3%
 Oceana                                            228             257             29             12.7%
 Ogemaw                                            184             182             -2             -1.1%
 Ontonagon                                          81              68            -13             -16.0%
 Osceola                                           357             374             17              4.8%
 Oscoda                                             68              66             -2             -2.9%
 Otsego                                            296             277            -19             -6.4%
 Ottawa                                          2,820           2,737            -83             -2.9%
 Presque Isle                                      151             115            -36             -23.8%
 Roscommon                                         227             237             10              4.4%
 Saginaw                                         2,022           2,019             -3             -0.1%
 St. Clair                                       1,863           1,818            -45             -2.4%
 St. Joseph                                        749             717            -32             -4.3%
 Sanilac                                           601             623             22              3.7%
 Schoolcraft                                        83              73            -10             -12.0%
 Shiawassee                                        989             985             -4             -0.4%
 Tuscola                                           741             779             38              5.1%
Table 13 - High School Graduates in Michigan by County - 2007 - 2008 & 2008 - 2009 School Years
                                                                              Numeric         Percent
                  County                      2007 - 2008      2008 - 2009
                                                                              Change          Change
  Van Buren                                        1,175           1,063         -112             -9.5%
  Washtenaw                                        3,221           3,183          -38             -1.2%
  Wayne                                           19,264          19,002         -262             -1.4%
  Wexford                                           379             330           -49             -12.9%
  Michigan                                       109,542         107,074        -2,468            -2.3%
Source: Michigan Department of Education
Note: The sum of the areas do not add to the statewide total
Table 14 - Community College Graduates in Michigan by County - 2007 - 2008 & 2008 - 2009 School Years
                                                                             Numeric         Percent
                  County                    2007 - 2008     2008 - 2009
                                                                             Change          Change
 Alcona                                             0               0              0           0.0%
 Alger                                              0               0              0           0.0%
 Allegan                                            0               0              0           0.0%
 Alpena                                           412             404             -8           -1.9%
 Antrim                                             0               0              0           0.0%
 Arenac                                             0               0              0           0.0%
 Baraga                                             0               0              0           0.0%
 Barry                                              0               0              0           0.0%
 Bay                                                0               0              0           0.0%
 Benzie                                             0               0              0           0.0%
 Berrien                                          330             329             -1           -0.3%
 Branch                                             0               0              0           0.0%
 Calhoun                                          910             952             42           4.6%
 Cass                                             298             240            -58          -19.5%
 Charlevoix                                         0               0              0           0.0%
 Cheboygan                                          0               0              0           0.0%
 Chippewa                                           0               0              0           0.0%
 Clare                                            416             420              4           1.0%
 Clinton                                            0               0              0           0.0%
 Crawford                                           0               0              0           0.0%
 Delta                                            392             422             30           7.7%
 Dickinson                                          0               0              0           0.0%
 Eaton                                              0               0              0           0.0%
 Emmet                                            282             284              2           0.7%
 Genesse                                         1,323          1,557            234          17.7%
 Gladwin                                            0               0              0           0.0%
 Gogebic                                          237             293             56          23.6%
 Grand Traverse                                   561             475            -86          -15.3%
 Gratiot                                            0               0              0           0.0%
 Hillsdale                                          0               0              0           0.0%
 Houghton                                           0               0              0           0.0%
 Huron                                              0               0              0           0.0%
 Ingham                                          2,742          2,720            -22           -0.8%
 Ionia                                              0               0              0           0.0%
 Iosco                                              0               0              0           0.0%
 Iron                                               0               0              0           0.0%
 Isabella                                           0               0              0           0.0%
 Jackson                                          914             868            -46           -5.0%
 Kalamazoo                                       1,280          1,275             -5           -0.4%
Table 14 - Community College Graduates in Michigan by County - 2007 - 2008 & 2008 - 2009 School Years
                                                                             Numeric         Percent
                 County                     2007 - 2008     2008 - 2009
                                                                             Change          Change
 Kalkaska                                           0               0              0           0.0%
 Kent                                            1,695          1,603            -92           -5.4%
 Keweenaw                                           0               0              0           0.0%
 Lake                                               0               0              0           0.0%
 Lapeer                                             0               0              0           0.0%
 Leelanau                                           0               0              0           0.0%
 Lenawee                                            0               0              0           0.0%
 Livingston                                         0               0              0           0.0%
 Luce                                               0               0              0           0.0%
 Mackinaw                                           0               0              0           0.0%
 Macomb                                          3,009          3,202            193           6.4%
 Manistee                                           0               0              0           0.0%
 Marquette                                          0               0              0           0.0%
 Mason                                            201             194             -7           -3.5%
 Mecosta                                            0               0              0           0.0%
 Menominee                                          0               0              0           0.0%
 Midland                                            0               0              0           0.0%
 Missaukee                                          0               0              0           0.0%
 Monroe                                           511             532             21           4.1%
 Montcalm                                         469             389            -80          -17.1%
 Montmorency                                        0               0              0           0.0%
 Muskegon                                         524             494            -30           -5.7%
 Newaygo                                            0               0              0           0.0%
 Oakland                                         2,159          2,030           -129           -6.0%
 Oceana                                             0               0              0           0.0%
 Ogemaw                                             0               0              0           0.0%
 Ontonagon                                          0               0              0           0.0%
 Osceola                                            0               0              0           0.0%
 Oscoda                                             0               0              0           0.0%
 Otsego                                             0               0              0           0.0%
 Ottawa                                             0               0              0           0.0%
 Presque Isle                                       0               0              0           0.0%
 Roscommon                                        311             343             32          10.3%
 Saginaw                                         2,071          2,473            402          19.4%
 St. Clair                                       1,461          1,722            261          17.9%
 St. Joseph                                       221             268             47          21.3%
 Sanilac                                            0               0              0           0.0%
 Schoolcraft                                        0               0              0           0.0%
 Shiawassee                                         0               0              0           0.0%
 Tuscola                                            0               0              0           0.0%
Table 14 - Community College Graduates in Michigan by County - 2007 - 2008 & 2008 - 2009 School Years
                                                                             Numeric         Percent
                 County                     2007 - 2008     2008 - 2009
                                                                             Change          Change
 Van Buren                                          0               0              0           0.0%
 Washtenaw                                       2,258          2,417            159           7.0%
 Wayne                                           3,181          3,441            260           8.2%
 Wexford                                            0               0              0           0.0%
 Michigan                                       28,168         29,347          1,179           4.2%
Source: Michigan Department of Education
Table 15 - Talent Bank Applicants - First Quarter 2010 - City of Detroit MWA
            Occupational Group                           Applicants              Percent Distribution
  Total, All Occupations                                     79,956                       100.0%
    Management                                                5,088                        6.4%
    Business and Financial Operations                         1,920                        2.4%
    Computer and Mathematical                                  522                         0.7%
    Architecture and Engineering                               976                         1.2%
    Life, Physical and Social Science                          231                         0.3%
    Community and Social Services                             1,226                        1.5%
    Legal                                                      273                         0.3%
    Education, Training and Library                           1,204                        1.5%
    Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, Media                 759                         0.9%
    Healthcare Practitioners and Technical                    1,639                        2.0%
    Healthcare Support                                        7,566                        9.5%
    Protective Service                                        3,502                        4.4%
    Food Preparation and Serving Related                      6,501                        8.1%
    Building and Grounds Cleaning, Maintenance                8,757                       11.0%
    Personal Care and Service                                 2,120                        2.7%
    Sales and Related                                         7,322                        9.2%
    Office and Administrative Support                        12,462                       15.6%
    Farming, Fishing and Forestry                               12                         0.0%
    Construction and Extraction                               3,068                        3.8%
    Installation, Maintenance and Repair                      1,254                        1.6%
    Production                                                7,921                        9.9%
    Transportation and Material Moving                        5,633                        7.0%
Source: DELEG, Bureau of Labor Market Information and Strategic Initiatives


Table 16 - Employment Forecast by Major Occupational Category - 2006 - 2016 - Detroit MSA
                                                                                Employment Growth
           Occupational Category               2006             2016
                                                                              Number        Percent
  Total, All Occupations                         2,104,850        2,239,150     134,300            6.4%
    Management                                    102,970             106,770     3,800            3.7%
    Professional                                  465,420             508,930    43,510            9.3%
    Health Care                                   165,560             191,600    26,040            15.7%
    Service                                       337,880             372,000    34,120            10.1%
    Sales                                         216,880             230,620    13,740            6.3%
    Administrative Support                        321,900             331,580     9,680            3.0%
    Farming, Forestry and Fishing                   4,720               5,120      400             8.5%
    Construction and Repair                       153,620             160,870     7,250            4.7%
    Production                                    194,300             185,420    -8,880            -4.6%
    Transportation                                141,610             146,260     4,650            3.3%
Source: DELEG, Bureau of Labor Market Information and Strategic Initiatives
Table 17 - Annual Job Openings by Major Occupational Category - 2006 - 2016 - Detroit MSA
                                                               Total
                       Occupational Category                                  Growth        Replacement
                                                              Openings
 Total, All Occupations                                         62,863         16,466          46,397
    Management                                                   2,672            464           2,208
    Professional                                                 13,486          4,506          8,980
    Health Care                                                   5,201          2,620          2,581
    Service                                                      12,949          3,437          9,512
    Sales                                                         8,203          1,636          6,567
    Administrative Support                                        8,725          1,921          6,804
    Farming, Forestry and Fishing                                    155           42            113
    Construction and Repair                                       3,397           792           2,605
    Production                                                    4,089           281           3,808
    Transportation                                                3,984           767           3,217
Source: DELEG, Bureau of Labor Market Information and Strategic Initiatives



Table 18 - Fastest Growing Occupations - 2006 - 2016 - Detroit MSA
                                                                                Employment Change
                                    Occupations
                                                                              Number          Percent
 Network Systems and Data Communication Analysis                                 1,680         40.1%
 Home Health Aides                                                               4,930         32.8%
 Computer Software Engineers - Applications                                      2,250         31.2%
 Personal Financial Advisors                                                      820          29.1%
 Medical Assistants                                                              2,630         29.0%
 Physical Therapist Assistants                                                    310          27.9%
 Pharmacy Technicians                                                            1,260         26.4%
 Personal and Home Care Aides                                                    1,630         21.5%
 Physical Therapists                                                              600          21.1%
 Customer Service Representatives                                                6,280         20.6%
Source: DELEG, Bureau of Labor Market Information and Strategic Initiatives
Table 19 - Occupations with Largest Numeric Growth - 2006 - 2016 - Detroit MSA
                                                                                  Employment Change
                                    Occupations
                                                                                 Number      Percent
 Retail Salespersons                                                               7,490       10.9%
 Customer Service Representatives                                                  6,280       20.6%
 Registered Nurses                                                                 6,130       16.6%
 Home Health Aides                                                                 4,930       32.8%
 Combined Food Prep/Service Worker, Including Fast Food                            4,590       12.0%
 Janitor/Cleaner, Except Maid/Housekeeping Cleaners                                3,540       10.6%
 Office Clerks, General                                                            3,400        6.6%
 Waiters and Waitresses                                                            3,290        9.9%
 Truck Drivers, Heavy and Tractor-Trailer                                          3,160       13.8%
 Medical Assistants                                                                2,630       29.0%
Source: DELEG, Bureau of Labor Market Information and Strategic Initiatives



Table 20 - High Demand - High Wage Occupations - 2006 - 2016 - Detroit MSA
                                                                Growth         Annual         Hourly
                          Occupations
                                                                 Rate         Openings        Wage
 Computer Software Engineers - Applications                      31.2%            330          $42.51
 Computer Systems Analysts                                       18.4%            551          $42.42
 Network Systems and Data Communication Analysis                 40.1%            253          $36.04
 Computer Software Engineers - Systems                           19.9%            192          $39.55
 Registered Nurses                                               16.6%           1,222         $32.21
 Dental Hygienists                                               19.9%            153          $29.72
 Accountants and Auditors                                        12.0%            499          $33.10
 Sales Reps, Wholesale/Manufact., Ex Tech/Scientific Products    11.2%            232          $36.32
 Management Analysts                                              9.5%            196          $42.17
 Customer Service Representatives                                20.6%           1,475         $17.42
Source: DELEG, Bureau of Labor Market Information and Strategic Initiatives
Table 21 - High Growth Jobs with at Least a Bachelor's Degree - 2006 - 2016 - Detroit MSA
                                                                Numeric Job   Percent Job      Hourly
                           Occupations
                                                                  Growth        Growth         Wage
  Computer Systems Analysts                                         2,260        18.4%          $42.42
 Computer Software Engineers - Applications                         2,250        31.2%          $42.51
 Accountants and Auditors                                           2,020        12.0%          $33.10
 Industrial Engineers                                               1,800        13.3%          $38.27
 Network Systems and Data Communication Analysis                    1,680        40.1%          $36.04
 Computer Software Engineers - Systems                              1,110        19.9%          $37.09
 Elementary School Teachers, Except Special Education               1,090         5.9%            N.A.
 Physicians and Surgeons                                            1,020         8.2%            N.A.
 Mechanical Engineers                                                890          5.3%          $38.13
  Personal Financial Advisors                                        820         29.1%          $39.20
Source: DELEG, Bureau of Labor Market Information and Strategic Initiatives



Table 22 - High Growth Jobs with an Associate's Degree or Work Experience - 2006 - 2016 - Detroit MSA
                                                                Numeric Job   Percent Job      Hourly
                           Occupations
                                                                  Growth        Growth         Wage
  Registered Nurses                                                 6,130        16.6%          $32.21
 Nursing Aides, Orderlies and Attendants                            2,550        12.9%          $13.50
 Sales Reps, Wholesale/Manufact., Ex Tech/Scientific Products       2,160         8.9%          $28.62
 Executive Secretaries and Administrative Assistants                1,850         8.8%          $21.16
 Automotive Service Technicians/Mechanics                           1,230        11.3%          $21.60
 Hairdressers/Hairstylists/Cosmetologists                            960          9.5%          $12.15
 First-Line Sup/Mgrs: Retail Sales Workers                           930          4.9%          $19.66
 Dental Hygienists                                                   780         19.9%          $29.72
 Sales Reps, Wholesale/Mfg, Technical/Scientific Products            780         11.2%          $36.32
  First-Line Sup/Mgrs: Food Prep/Service Workers                     720          6.6%          $15.26
Source: DELEG, Bureau of Labor Market Information and Strategic Initiatives
Table 23 - High Growth Jobs with at Least Moderate OJT Training - 2006 - 2016 - Detroit MSA
                                                             Numeric Job      Percent Job     Hourly
                           Occupations
                                                               Growth           Growth        Wage
 Customer Service Representatives                                 6,280            20.6%       $17.42
 Truck Drivers, Heavy and Tractor-Trailer                         3,160            13.8%       $20.32
 Medical Assistants                                               2,630            29.0%       $13.10
 Bookkeeping/Accounting/Auditing Clerks                           2,040            8.5%        $16.96
 Cooks, Restaurants                                               1,430            12.3%       $11.43
 Pharmacy Technicians                                             1,260            26.4%       $14.46
 Social & Human Service Assistants                                1,170            20.1%       $15.32
 Team Assemblers                                                   980             5.6%        $15.05
 Maintenance and Repair Workers, General                           960             5.1%        $20.52
 Dental Assistants                                                 860             19.3%       $15.51
Source: DELEG, Bureau of Labor Market Information and Strategic Initiatives



Table 24 - Disabled Population by Demographic Group - 2000 - City of Detroit MWA
                                                      Persons With a Disability               Disabled
              Demographic Group                                                            Persons Below
                                                 Total        Employed        Not Employed Poverty Level

 Total, 16+                                     229,694          78,251          99,735        63,739
    Sex
      Male                                      104,325          38,029          46,981        26,001
      Female                                    125,369          40,222          52,754        37,738
    Age
      16-20                                      14,164           4,918            9,246        4,748
      21-64                                     163,822          73,333          90,489        48,066
      65+                                        51,708            N.A.             N.A.       10,925
    Race
      White                                      32,789           9,713          12,687          N.A.
      Black                                     184,167          63,523          80,921          N.A.
      Native American                             1,052            295               562         N.A.
      Asian/Pacific Islander                      1,805            817               728         N.A.
      Some Other Race                             5,105           2,142            2,591         N.A.
      Two or More Races                           2,792           1,761            2,246         N.A.
          Hispanic                               10,570           4,566            4,950         N.A.
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census
Table 25 - Welfare Registrants - May 2010 - Wayne County
            Demographic Group                    Welfare Registrants            Percent of Total
 Total                                                201,435                          100.0%
   Sex
     Male                                              84,702                           42.0%
     Female                                           116,733                           58.0%
   Age
     14-15                                               5,474                           2.7%
     16-19                                             27,068                           13.4%
     20-21                                             16,037                            8.0%
     22-44                                            111,058                           55.1%
     45-54                                             33,138                           16.5%
     55-64                                               8,648                           4.3%
     65+                                                   12                            0.0%
   Race
     White                                             51,543                           25.6%
     Black                                            140,677                           69.8%
     Native American                                      277                            0.1%
     Other                                               4,335                           2.2%
     Hispanic                                            4,603                           2.3%
Source: Michigan Family Independence Agency, All Assistance Recipients with a Work Requirement
Table 26 - Limited English Proficiency by Michigan Works! Agency - 2000
                            Area                                          Total
 ACSET                                                                     15,690
 Barry - Branch – Calhoun                                                   1,878
 Berrien - Cass - Van Buren                                                 3,470
 Capital Area                                                               5,009
 Career Alliance                                                            2,335
 Central Area                                                               1,189
 Central Upper Peninsula                                                      540
 City of Detroit                                                           19,904
 Eastern Upper Peninsula                                                      226
 Kalamazoo - St. Joseph                                                     3,066
 Livingston County                                                            577
 Macomb - St. Clair                                                        14,598
 Muskegon - Oceana                                                          2,222
 Northeast Michigan                                                           531
 Northwest Michigan                                                         1,493
 Oakland County                                                            20,264
 Ottawa County                                                              3,619
 Region 7B                                                                    529
 Saginaw - Midland - Bay                                                    2,394
 SEMCA                                                                     21,413
 South Central Michigan                                                     1,803
 Thumb Area                                                                 1,241
 Washtenaw County                                                           4,803
 West Central Michigan                                                        769
 West Upper Peninsula                                                         395
 State of Michigan                                                        129,958
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census
Table 27 - Private Industry Employment Analysis - Third Quarter 2009 - Wayne County
                                                                                           Percent of
                                NAICS - Industry Title                         Jobs
                                                                                             Total
 000 - Total, All Industries                                                  553,581       100.0%
 111 - Crop Production                                                            235         0.0%
 112 - Animal Production                                                              P           P
 113 - Forestry and Logging                                                           P           P
 114 - Fishing, Hunting and Trapping                                                  P           P
 115 - Agriculture and Forestry Support Activities                                    P           P
 211 - Oil and Gas Extraction                                                         P           P
 212 - Mining, Except Oil and Gas                                                 440         0.1%
 213 - Support Activities for Mining                                                  P           P
 221 - Utilities                                                                3,538         0.6%
 236 - Construction of Buildings                                                2,882         0.5%
 237 - Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction                                 1,237         0.2%
 238 - Specialty Trade Contractors                                             12,993         2.3%
 311 - Food Manufacturing                                                       3,780         0.7%
 312 - Beverage and Tobacco Product Manufacturing                               1,554         0.3%
 313 - Textile Mills                                                                  37      0.0%
 314 - Textile Product Mills                                                      182         0.0%
 315 - Apparel Manufacturing                                                          P           P
 321 - Wood Product Manufacturing                                                 139         0.0%
 322 - Paper Manufacturing                                                      1,166         0.2%
 323 - Printing and Related Support Activities                                  1,223         0.2%
 324 - Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing                                  791         0.1%
 325 - Chemical Manufacturing                                                   2,205         0.4%
 326 - Plastics and Rubber Products Manufacturing                               1,297         0.2%
 327 - Nonmetallic Mineral Product Manufacturing                                1,556         0.3%
 331 - Primary Metal Manufacturing                                              3,435         0.6%
 332 - Fabricated Metal Product Manufacturing                                   7,161         1.3%
 333 - Machinery Manufacturing                                                  6,044         1.1%
 334 - Computer and Electronic Product Manufacturing                            2,617         0.5%
 335 - Electrical Equipment and Appliance Manufacturing                           355         0.1%
 336 - Transportation Equipment Manufacturing                                  28,325         5.1%
 337 - Furniture and Related Product Manufacturing                                922         0.2%
 339 - Miscellaneous Manufacturing                                              1,187         0.2%
 423 - Merchant Wholesalers, Durable Goods                                     13,473         2.4%
 424 - Merchant Wholesalers, Nondurable Goods                                   9,157         1.7%
 425 - Electronic Markets and Agents and Brokers                                3,469         0.6%
 441 - Motor Vehicle and Parts Dealers                                          6,843         1.2%
 442 - Furniture and Home Furnishings Stores                                    1,486         0.3%
 443 - Electronics and Appliance Stores                                         1,318         0.2%
Table 27 - Private Industry Employment Analysis - Third Quarter 2009 - Wayne County
                                                                                           Percent of
                              NAICS - Industry Title                           Jobs
                                                                                             Total

 444 - Building Material and Garden Supply Stores                               5,077         0.9%
 445 - Food and Beverage Stores                                                12,961         2.3%
 446 - Health and Personal Care Stores                                          6,056         1.1%
 447 - Gasoline Stations                                                        2,965         0.5%
 448 - Clothing and Clothing Accessories Stores                                 6,250         1.1%
 451 - Sporting Goods, Hobby, Book and Music Stores                             2,866         0.5%
 452 - General Merchandise Stores                                              14,125         2.6%
 453 - Miscellaneous Store Retailers                                            3,588         0.6%
 454 - Nonstore Retailers                                                         578         0.1%
 481 - Air Transportation                                                       9,840         1.8%
 482 - Rail Transportation                                                            P           P
 483 - Water Transportation                                                           P           P
 484 - Truck Transportation                                                     8,007         1.4%
 485 - Transit and Ground Passenger Transportation                              1,355             P
 486 - Pipeline Transportation                                                    228         0.0%
 487 - Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation                                          P           P
 488 - Support Activities for Transportation                                    4,843         0.9%
 491 - Postal Service                                                             122         0.0%
 492 - Couriers and Messengers                                                  2,649         0.5%
 493 - Warehousing and Storage                                                  2,457         0.4%
 511 - Publishing Industries, Except Internet                                   3,336         0.6%
 512 - Motion Picture and Sound Recording Industries                              603         0.1%
 515 - Broadcasting, Except Internet                                              996         0.2%
 516 - Internet Publishing and Broadcasting                                           P           P
 517 - Telecommunications                                                       2,996         0.5%
 518 - ISP’s, Search Portals and Data Processing                                  346         0.1%
 519 - Other Information Services                                                 171         0.0%
 521 - Monetary Authorities - Central Bank                                            P           P
 522 - Credit Intermediation and Related Activities                            12,603         2.3%
 523 - Securities, Commodity Contracts, Investments                             1,400         0.3%
 524 - Insurance Carriers and Related Activities                                6,049         1.1%
 525 - Funds, Trusts and Other Financial Vehicles                                 154         0.0%
 531 - Real Estate                                                              4,358         0.8%
 532 - Rental and Leasing Services                                              2,915         0.5%
 533 - Lessors of Nonfinancial Intangible Assets                                      44      0.0%
 541 - Professional and Technical Services                                     45,586         8.2%
 551 - Management of Companies and Enterprises                                 19,564         3.5%
 561 - Administrative and Support Services                                     29,307         5.3%
 562 - Waste Management and Remediation Services                                2,627         0.5%
 611 - Educational Services                                                     9,938         1.8%
Table 27 - Private Industry Employment Analysis - Third Quarter 2009 - Wayne County
                                                                                        Percent of
                              NAICS - Industry Title                           Jobs
                                                                                          Total
 621 - Ambulatory Health Care Services                                         31,638      5.7%
 622 - Hospitals                                                               45,868      8.3%
 623 - Nursing and Residential Care Facilities                                 19,240      3.5%
 624 - Social Assistance                                                       12,375      2.2%
 711 - Performing Arts and Spectator Sports                                     3,312      0.6%
 712 - Museums, Historical Sites, Zoos and Parks                                2,020      0.4%
 713 - Amusements, Gambling and Recreation                                     12,906      2.3%
 721 - Accommodation                                                            3,984      0.7%
 722 - Food Services and Drinking Places                                       52,565      9.5%
 811 - Repair and Maintenance                                                   4,920      0.9%
 812 - Personal and Laundry Services                                            6,698      1.2%
 813 - Membership Associations and Organizations                                8,790      1.6%
 814 - Private Households                                                         679      0.1%
Source: DELEG, Bureau of Labor Market Information and Strategic Initiatives
Table 28 - Per Capita Personal Income by County - 1998 - 2008
                                                                         Numeric   Percent
                  County                        1998            2008
                                                                         Change    Change
 Alcona                                         19,426          25,293     5,867    30.2%
 Alger                                          17,668          23,728     6,060    34.3%
 Allegan                                        24,027          31,837     7,810    32.5%
 Alpena                                         21,658          31,340     9,682    44.7%
 Antrim                                         23,536          30,727     7,191    30.6%
 Arenac                                         19,024          27,273     8,249    43.4%
 Baraga                                         18,243          25,767     7,524    41.2%
 Barry                                          25,715          32,743     7,028    27.3%
 Bay                                            23,659          30,971     7,312    30.9%
 Benzie                                         22,572          29,763     7,191    31.9%
 Berrien                                        24,019          33,669     9,650    40.2%
 Branch                                         18,630          25,901     7,271    39.0%
 Calhoun                                        23,812          31,652     7,840    32.9%
 Cass                                           22,788          32,983    10,195    44.7%
 Charlevoix                                     24,073          36,120    12,047    50.0%
 Cheboygan                                      20,949          28,018     7,069    33.7%
 Chippewa                                       17,138          24,586     7,448    43.5%
 Clare                                          17,910          26,392     8,482    47.4%
 Clinton                                        25,766          35,913    10,147    39.4%
 Crawford                                       17,636          24,743     7,107    40.3%
 Delta                                          22,296          29,760     7,464    33.5%
 Dickinson                                      23,098          34,209    11,111    48.1%
 Eaton                                          24,803          32,906     8,103    32.7%
 Emmet                                          25,558          37,935    12,377    48.4%
 Genesse                                        24,879          29,488     4,609    18.5%
 Gladwin                                        18,591          24,643     6,052    32.6%
 Gogebic                                        18,572          27,717     9,145    49.2%
 Grand Traverse                                 26,834          36,129     9,295    34.6%
 Gratiot                                        19,886          27,047     7,161    36.0%
 Hillsdale                                      21,148          26,923     5,775    27.3%
 Houghton                                       17,923          26,107     8,184    45.7%
 Huron                                          23,264          36,024    12,760    54.8%
 Ingham                                         24,036          33,685     9,649    40.1%
 Ionia                                          18,982          25,371     6,389    33.7%
 Iosco                                          18,796          26,005     7,209    38.4%
 Iron                                           19,322          30,277    10,955    56.7%
 Isabella                                       18,554          27,639     9,085    49.0%
 Jackson                                        22,713          29,610     6,897    30.4%
 Kalamazoo                                      26,655          35,190     8,535    32.0%
Table 28 - Per Capita Personal Income by County - 1998 - 2008
                                                                         Numeric   Percent
                  County                        1998            2008
                                                                         Change    Change
 Kalkaska                                       17,947          24,632     6,685    37.2%
 Kent                                           27,139          35,099     7,960    29.3%
 Keweenaw                                       19,388          30,048    10,660    55.0%
 Lake                                           17,369          24,926     7,557    43.5%
 Lapeer                                         24,964          30,829     5,865    23.5%
 Leelanau                                       27,187          40,656    13,469    49.5%
 Lenawee                                        23,710          30,594     6,884    29.0%
 Livingston                                     32,561          39,039     6,478    19.9%
 Luce                                           16,967          22,158     5,191    30.6%
 Mackinaw                                       23,686          32,957     9,271    39.1%
 Macomb                                         29,251          36,462     7,211    24.7%
 Manistee                                       19,576          28,079     8,503    43.4%
 Marquette                                      20,653          30,838    10,185    49.3%
 Mason                                          21,086          29,515     8,429    40.0%
 Mecosta                                        17,795          24,747     6,952    39.1%
 Menominee                                      20,953          28,736     7,783    37.1%
 Midland                                        30,295          41,990    11,695    38.6%
 Missaukee                                      17,865          24,541     6,676    37.4%
 Monroe                                         26,469          33,397     6,928    26.2%
 Montcalm                                       17,597          22,755     5,158    29.3%
 Montmorency                                    17,549          24,481     6,932    39.5%
 Muskegon                                       21,201          28,062     6,861    32.4%
 Newaygo                                        19,706          26,577     6,871    34.9%
 Oakland                                        42,336          53,650    11,314    26.7%
 Oceana                                         18,121          26,585     8,464    46.7%
 Ogemaw                                         17,169          25,314     8,145    47.4%
 Ontonagon                                      19,380          29,592    10,212    52.7%
 Osceola                                        18,168          25,218     7,050    38.8%
 Oscoda                                         14,281          24,064     9,783    68.5%
 Otsego                                         22,370          29,152     6,782    30.3%
 Ottawa                                         26,712          33,009     6,297    23.6%
 Presque Isle                                   18,347          26,657     8,310    45.3%
 Roscommon                                      19,056          26,768     7,712    40.5%
 Saginaw                                        23,176          30,143     6,967    30.1%
 St. Clair                                      25,530          31,956     6,426    25.2%
 St. Joseph                                     21,201          28,058     6,857    32.3%
 Sanilac                                        21,624          30,143     8,519    39.4%
 Schoolcraft                                    18,918          29,571    10,653    56.3%
 Shiawassee                                     21,059          27,163     6,104    29.0%
 Tuscola                                        19,828          25,818     5,990    30.2%
Table 28 - Per Capita Personal Income by County - 1998 - 2008
                                                                         Numeric   Percent
                  County                        1998            2008
                                                                         Change    Change
 Van Buren                                      20,211          28,934     8,723    43.2%
 Washtenaw                                      31,877          39,107     7,230    22.7%
 Wayne                                          24,702          32,094     7,392    29.9%
 Wexford                                        19,862          27,010     7,148    36.0%
 Michigan                                       26,903          34,953     8,050    29.9%
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis
Table 29 - Population Living Below the Poverty Level - 1999 - City of Detroit MWA
                                                                                               Native
            Demographic Group                     Total          White              Black
                                                                                              American
 Total                                            163,750         19,668            124,734     715
    15                                              4,637           373               3,858       9
    16-17                                           8,516           668               6,765      20
    18-24                                          27,182          2,902             19,592      95
    25-34                                          35,400          3,670             27,100     108
    35-44                                          33,171          3,943             25,317     195
    45-54                                          22,889          2,848             17,983     118
    55-64                                          13,715          2,179             10,229     105
    65+                                            18,240          3,085             13,890      65
 Male                                              68,304          9,139             49,046     265
    15                                              2,219           189               1,829       0
    16-17                                           4,268           350               3,278      10
    18-24                                          12,418          1,468              8,325      19
    25-34                                          13,534          1,637              9,561      28
    35-44                                          13,627          1,790              9,731      64
    45-54                                          10,682          1,566              8,111      50
    55-64                                           5,955          1,082              4,199      50
    65+                                             5,601          1,057              4,012      44
  Female                                           95,446         10,529             75,688     450
    15                                              2,418           184               2,029       9
    16-17                                           4,248           318               3,487      10
    18-24                                          14,764          1,434             11,267      76
    25-34                                          21,866          2,033             17,539      80
    35-44                                          19,544          2,153             15,586     131
    45-54                                          12,207          1,282              9,872      68
    55-64                                           7,760          1,097              6,030      55
    65+                                            12,639          2,028              9,878      21
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census - Census 2000
Table 29 - Population Living Below the Poverty Level - 1999 - City of Detroit MWA - (Continued)
                                              Asian Pacific   Some Other      Two or More
            Demographic Group                                                                     Hispanic
                                                Islander         Race           Races
  Total                                            1,671           4,635           3,997            8,330
    15                                                40              78             105              174
    16-17                                             86             288             215              474
    18-24                                           419            1,297             744            2,133
    25-34                                           420            1,172             765            2,165
    35-44                                           311              931             826            1,648
    45-54                                           215              393             565              767
    55-64                                             57             281             373              491
    65+                                             123              195             404              478
  Male                                              812            2,644           1,927            4,471
    15                                                10              43              52               96
    16-17                                             32             187             126              285
    18-24                                           258              755             343            1,250
    25-34                                           225              627             367            1,089
    35-44                                           111              623             423              885
    45-54                                           125              175             259              396
    55-64                                              8             152             189              275
    65+                                               43              82             168              195
  Female                                            859            1,991           2,070            3,859
    15                                                30              35              53               78
    16-17                                             54             101              89              189
    18-24                                           161              542             401              883
    25-34                                           195              545             398            1,076
    35-44                                           200              308             403              763
    45-54                                             90             218             306              371
    55-64                                             49             129             184              216
    65+                                               80             113             236              283
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census - Census 2000
Michigan Green Jobs Report
Occupations & Employment in the New Green Economy
         Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009
           Occupations & Employment in the New Green Economy




                Michigan Department of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth
                          Bureau Of Labor Market Information & Strategic Initiatives
                                                            MAY 2009

                                                            Prepared By:

                      Bureau Of Labor Market Information And Strategic Initiatives

                                                         Richard Waclawek
                                                             Director

                                                           Bruce Weaver
                                                         Project Manager

                                                             Rhea Acuna
                                                         Jeffery Anderson
                                                           James Astalos
                                                             Jacob Bisel
                                                       Leonidas Murembya
                                                            Jason Palmer
                                                             Mark Reffitt
                                                          Stephen Woods



                                                For Further Information, Please Contact:

                                      Bureau of labor Market Information & Strategic Initiatives
                                                   Labor Market Analysis Section
                                                3032 W. Grand Boulevard, Suite 9-100
                                                         Detroit, MI 48202
                                                            (313) 456-3100




   Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009
Contents

Executive Summary ..........................................................4               Michigan’s Competitive Employment
                                                                                            Performance in Green-related Industries ...............6
    Employer Survey Results ...........................................4
                                                                                            Wages in Green-related Industry Clusters ..............8
    Green Related Industry Trend Analysis ....................6
                                                                                            Wages in Detailed Green and Green-related
    Green Related Firm Trends ........................................6
                                                                                            Industries .................................................................9
    Occupational Trends ..................................................6
                                                                                        Chapter III: Tracking Job Trends among
Letter from Governor .......................................................8           Green-Related Firms .......................................................4
Introduction .....................................................................9         Understanding the Data ..........................................4
    The Potential of Michigan’s Green Economy ...........9                                  Job Trends among Green-Related Firms ................4
    Defining Green Jobs ................................................. 10                Comparison to Michigan Broad
                                                                                            Industry Sectors ......................................................45
    Michigan’s Research Approach ................................11
                                                                                            Green-related Firm Sample by Industry .................45
    Quantitative Approach–
    Michigan Green Jobs Survey ....................................11                   Chapter IV: Michigan Green-Related Occupations .........47
    Analytical Approach–Examination of                                                      Characteristics of Occupations ...............................47
    Industries and Occupations .....................................11
                                                                                            Identifying Green Related Occupations ..................47
    Qualitative Approach–Michigan Focus Groups .......11
                                                                                            Forecasts for Green-Related Occupations ..............48
    Existing Research Studies on
    Michigan Green Jobs ................................................ 1                 Green Occupations: Educational & Training
                                                                                            Requirements ...........................................................49
Chapter I: Michigan Green Jobs
                                                                                            Green Occupations: Career Progressions ............... 51
Survey Results ............................................................... 1
                                                                                            Green Occupations: Wages .....................................54
    Green Jobs Core Areas Definitions .......................... 14
                                                                                            Green Occupations: Critical Skills
    Survey Results: Direct Green Jobs
                                                                                            and Knowledge Sets ................................................55
    by Detailed Industry ................................................ 16
    Survey Results: Green Jobs by                                                       Conclusion ..................................................................... 61
    Detailed Occupation ................................................ 19                 Public Policy and Green Jobs .................................. 61
    Survey Results: Employer Expectations .................4                               What the Future Holds: .......................................... 61
    Hiring ........................................................................4       Renewable Energy Area ...........................................6
    Filling Vacancies ......................................................5              Energy Efficiency .....................................................6
    Unique Skills ............................................................5            Batteries ...................................................................6
    Training.....................................................................7
                                                                                        Appendix 1 - Survey.......................................................6
Chapter II: Green-Related Industries
                                                                                        Appendix  - Survey Methodology ................................65
in the Michigan Economy ..............................................8
                                                                                        Appendix  - Definition of Green Jobs
    Green-related Industry Analysis–
                                                                                        and Core Areas Sent to Employers ................................66
    Understanding the Data ..........................................8
                                                                                        Appendix 4 - List of Green Related Industries
    Employment in Michigan’s Green Clusters .............9
                                                                                        Reflected in Chapter II ...................................................68
    Broad Cluster Analysis–Location Quotients ...........
                                                                                        Appendix 5 - List of Green Related
    Job Change in Green-Related Industries ...............4                            Occupations Reflected in Chapter IV ............................. 71




                                                                                                                                 Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009              
      Executive Summary
                    The new green economy provides Michigan a dynamic opportunity to rebuild
                    the state’s job base, attract new investment, and diversify the state’s economy.
                    We may be at a tipping point of awareness, understanding, and opportunities
                    that a green economy can provide for Michigan’s workforce, businesses, and
                    communities.

      But what exactly is the green economy, and what                 These three research methods were integrated into
      is a green job? How many presently exist, and what              the findings and conclusions contained in this report.
      are the prospects for growth? This report represents                We plan to produce a series of reports over time
      Michigan’s first attempt to provide rigorous, empirical         to track developments in Michigan’s green economy.
      answers to these questions so important to our
      economic future.                                                What we found:
          Michigan defines green jobs as jobs directly                Michigan boasts 109,067 total green jobs—both
      involved in generating or supporting a firm’s green-            direct and support positions—among private sector
      related products or services. The state’s green                 employers. There are 96,767 direct green jobs
      economy is defined as being comprised of industries             and 12,300 support green jobs. This is big news,
      that provide products or services in five areas:                but it also shows the potential for growth of the
         1. Agriculture and natural resource conservation;            green economy. Michigan’s overall private sector
                                                                      employment is . million; green jobs are currently 
         2. Clean transportation and fuels;
                                                                      percent of that total.1
         3. Increased energy efficiency;
         4. Pollution prevention or environmental cleanup;            Employer Survey Results
            and
                                                                      Through the employer survey, we categorized direct
         5. Renewable energy production.
                                                                      green jobs in Michigan into five core areas. The
         The Michigan Green Jobs Study used a three-                  Clean Transportation and Fuels area comprises
      pronged methodology that included quantitative,                 just over 40 percent — close to 40,000 jobs — of
      analytical and qualitative research. The quantitative           all green jobs. Nearly one quarter of green jobs
      work involved a survey sent to thousands of                     were attributable to the Energy Efficiency core
      employers to uncover private sector green job trends.           area, and most of the positions were associated
      This marks the first attempt in Michigan to survey              with the state’s construction industry. This
      employers directly in order to measure the current              distribution reflects Michigan’s large automotive
      number of Michigan green jobs. The analytical work              and construction sectors. Green jobs were most
      involved merging labor market information and                   common in these specific industries: Transportation
      economic intelligence with survey results to uncover            Equipment Manufacturing (25,780 jobs), Professional,
      industry and occupational trends. The qualitative               Scientific, and Technical Services (22,178 jobs),
      approach involved using focus groups to enhance                 Specialty Trade Contractors (9825 jobs), and
      our understanding of green-related workforce issues.            Construction of Buildings (3,571 jobs).


      1 As of February 009, seasonally unadjusted private jobs for Michigan totaled ,7,600 according to data from the Michigan
        Department of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth, Bureau of Labor Market Information and Strategic Initiatives, Current Employ-
        ment Statistics program.




4   Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009
                        Distribution of Direct Green Jobs by Core Area

                                                                   Agriculture and Natural
                                  Increasing                       Resource Conservation
                               Energy Efficiency                            13%
                                     23%


                                                                          Pollution Prevention and
                                                                           Environmental Cleanup
                                  Clean
                             Transportation                                          13%
                                and Fuels
                                   41%

                                                                   Renewable Energy Production
                                                                                9%



                                                        Source: Michigan Department of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth



   From an occupational perspective, over 70                    The survey asked employers to outline their
percent of direct green workers fall into three broad       expected hiring needs for the next two years. Growth
categories:                                                 occupations most frequently cited include engineers,
   • Production occupations (8 percent)                    skilled trades, and certain technical specialist job
  • Engineering occupations (4 percent)                    titles. The occupations cited span a variety of
  • Construction occupations (19 percent)                   education and skill levels.
    Over one-third of the positions in the Clean                Despite the need for some specialized green
Transportation and Fuels Core area were engineers,          skills, employers in the focus groups stressed that
and a large portion of the remainder were production        workers still need the basics. Green skills are an
positions such as assemblers or machinists. In Energy       overlay of new skills and knowledge; and learners
Efficiency, the two most common occupations were            cannot access the new knowledge without the
related to construction: HVAC installers and General        requisite foundation. Skills in science, technology,
maintenance workers. Farmworkers made up a quarter          engineering and math will be important, and
of green jobs in Agriculture and Natural Resource           positions with these skills may be most difficult to
Conservation, while various kinds of engineers and          fill. Nearly 70 percent of employers in the survey
environmental specialists were important in the             said training their green-related workers would
Pollution Prevention and Environmental Cleanup core         be workplace-based as they looked to upgrade or
area. The Renewable Energy Production core area has         enhance current workers’ knowledge. This finding
the most diverse mix of green occupations, employing        reinforces the importance of career ladders for
engineers, technicians, mechanics, and production staff.    current and incoming workers.




                                                                                           Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009   5
      Green Related Industry Trend Analysis                      Green Related Firm Trends
      To gather additional information not captured by               Michigan analyzed a small sample of 58 green
      the employer survey, Michigan identified over 100          related firms’ trends over a three year period to shed
      industries considered to be green related. Not all         light on potential employment trends. While findings
      jobs in these industries are green jobs, but these         from this analysis are intriguing, they are indicators
      are sectors that could potentially benefit from an         only and cannot be generalized to the health of all
      expansion of the Michigan green economy. Green             green-related firms in Michigan given the sample size.
      related industries have recorded job losses since          Firms in the Renewable Energy Production cluster
      004, like the rest of the Michigan economy, but           added nearly 1,900 jobs from 005 to 008, a growth
      several specific green related industries have added       rate of 0 percent. This finding is an indicator that
      jobs: Semiconductor Manufacturing, Recyclable              firms in this cluster are the most likely to experience
      Material Wholesalers, and Environmental Consulting         job growth, even though they represent less than
      Services.                                                  10 percent of the overall green jobs in Michigan.
          A handful of detailed green-related sectors in         Renewable Energy Production includes areas like wind
      Michigan are not only relatively highly concentrated       and solar manufacturing and installation.
      in terms of jobs, but also managed to record                   The sample also suggests that green-related firms
      employment growth from 004 to 008. Process               may be a significant source of entrepreneurial activity.
      & logistics consulting firms, which offer operating        Of the 58 sample firms, 70 appear to have been
      advice and assistance in areas such as manufacturing       newly created since 005, creating 600 jobs – a much
      operations improvement, productivity, production           higher rate of startups than is seen in the overall
      planning, and quality assurance, were 44 percent           Michigan economy. In all, the sample firms added
      more concentrated in Michigan than in the United           more than ,500 jobs, an impressive employment
      States in the second quarter of 008. Employment in        expansion of 7.7 percent (the total Michigan average
      this industry was up nearly four percent since 004.       was negative 5.4 percent). This small segment of the
      Firms in the business of Industrial design services        green economy far outpaced employment trends for
      have also recorded employment expansion since              the Michigan economy as a whole.
      004, and are highly concentrated in the Michigan
      economy. Taken as a whole, the green-related               Occupational Trends
      industries selected for this study comprise a higher       Green jobs can be found across the spectrum of
      share of total jobs in Michigan than is true of the        broad occupational categories, such as professional
      national economy.                                          workers with specific skill sets directly needed by
          Not all jobs in these green-related sectors are        green-related firms; production, maintenance, and
      currently generated by the green economy. However,         transportation occupations; critical occupations for
      if green business expands in the state, many existing      small start-up green-related firms, such as sales
      Michigan firms in these sectors could have the expertise   engineers or technical sales representatives; and jobs
      to diversify into green business activities.               in teaching or training that will be needed to prepare




              Green Jobs in Michigan—
              The opportunity to create new Michigan jobs rests overwhelmingly with the clean
              energy, green-collar economy. We know the combination of these targeted efforts,
              coupled with the determination of Michigan’s workers’ to embrace the green
              economy, will help transform our state.




6   Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009
                          Sample Career Progression: Renewable Energy


                                                         Electrical and Electronic
  Electrician Helper              Electrician                                               Electrical Engineer
                                                         Engineering Technician


  Employment (2006)           Employment (2006)             Employment (2006)                Employment (2006)
        1.260                      24,000                         4,240                            6,370

     Growth (2016)              Growth (2016)                    Growth (2016)                  Growth (2016)
         3.6                        4.5                               7.4                           6.6

     Wage (2007)                 Wage (2007)                     Wage (2007)                     Wage (2007)
       $13.53                      $27.18                          $24.14                          $36.11

Educational Requirement     Educational Requirement       Educational Requirement          Educational Requirement
    Short-Term OJT              Long-Term OJT               Associate’s Degree                Bachelor’s Degree



  Entry Level                                   Moderate Level                                   Higher Level




the future green-related workforce. Green-related        manufacturing with Michigan’s engineering expertise
occupations with above average expected job growth       and modernized machining. Investments in energy
rates include engineering, professional and mid-skill    efficiency represent a major opportunity for Michigan
mechanic and laborer positions. Careers in green-        to create jobs, save money, and reduce our reliance
related occupations exist at all levels of educational   on fossil fuels. By replacing traditional fossil fuel
attainment. This sample career progression in the        energy, Michigan’s energy efficiency program will
renewable energy area illustrates the job potential in   save Michigan over $ billion in electricity costs over
green.                                                   the next 0 years. Advanced energy storage, and in
    Green-related industries hold the potential for      particular the production of lithium ion batteries for
workers to earn above average wage rates. Thirteen       cars, holds enormous potential for job creation in
of the top 15 broad industries in terms of green jobs    Michigan. Michigan is rapidly becoming a center for
paid more than the private sector average weekly         advanced energy storage innovation aimed at, among
wage of $811, while ten were well above this average     other things, electrifying the automobile.
(at least $100 per week more). Furthermore, eight of         We know the combination of these targeted
the top 15 green industries paid more than $1,000 per    efforts, coupled with the determination of Michigan’s
week, or over $50,000 per year.                          workers to embrace the green economy, will help
    What the Future Holds: The opportunity to            transform our state.
create new Michigan jobs rests overwhelmingly with
the clean energy, green-collar economy. With our
advanced manufacturing expertise, our depth of                   For More Information—
engineering talent, and our local access to original                Bureau of labor Market Information
                                                                           & Strategic Initiatives
equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and suppliers, we
                                                                       Labor Market Analysis Section
are poised to create tens of thousands of good-paying
                                                                    3032 W. Grand Boulevard, Suite 9-100
green jobs for Michigan workers. In the renewable                            Detroit, MI 48202
energy sector, Michigan has the potential to become                            (313) 456-3100
a regional and global powerhouse in wind turbine                                 www.michigan.gov




                                                                                       Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009   7
      Letter from Governor




                                              May 11, 2009


           Dear Friends:

                 These are both challenging and exciting times as we work to transform
           Michigan into the nation’s leading green state. Our aggressive efforts to grow a
           renewable energy industry in Michigan will create jobs, diversify our economy, help
           break our dependence on foreign oil and fossil fuels, and create healthier
           communities for us and future generations.

                  We are seeing new green industries take hold in Michigan because of our
           abundant renewable resources, our research and development initiatives, our
           advanced manufacturing experience, and especially because of our highly skilled
           workforce. In conjunction with our unparalleled economic development incentives,
           these assets are making Michigan the renewable energy hub of North America and
           the advanced-battery capital of the world.

                  Our Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) and our goal to reduce fossil fuels
           by 45 percent by 2020 are also driving investment and the creation of green jobs.
           By aggressively pursuing advanced energy storage, wind and solar technologies,
           biofuels, geothermal, and other green industries, Michigan stands to create tens of
           thousands of new green jobs for Michigan citizens.

                 No state can match our Green Jobs Initiative that supports employers by
           meeting their worker training needs in emerging renewable energy and green jobs
           industries. The findings in this report, provided by Michigan employers, are
           instrumental in helping us capture our full potential in the green economy, and we
           thank them for their invaluable input.

                  Michigan’s move to a clean energy, green economy will create all kinds of
           jobs for all kinds of people. These are the jobs that will reshape our economy and
           accelerate our recovery.

                                              Sincerely yours,




           Jennifer M. Granholm                                     John D. Cherry, Jr.
           Governor                                                 Lt. Governor




8   Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009
Introduction
              The economic potential of the green economy has been an increasingly high-
              profile topic in Michigan and across the nation.


Nationally, the passage of the 009 American                 a better understanding of the breadth and nature of
Recovery and Reinvestment Act targeted the                   Michigan’s green economy.
U.S. renewable energy industry and also funds                    The analysis that follows focuses on the green
investments in the weatherization of federal buildings       economy and the jobs, industries, and occupations
and private housing throughout the country.                  that it contains. This study presents the results
     In Michigan, Governor Jennifer M. Granholm              from the first actual survey of Michigan employers
has signed legislation to increase tax incentives for        that attempts to quantify the current number of
the development and manufacturing of advanced                Michigan green jobs. In addition, this report utilizes
batteries, and proposed a series of energy and green-        existing workforce data produced by the Michigan
related initiatives in her February 009 State of the        Department of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth
State address.                                               to address questions regarding the characteristics
    Interest has also never been higher in obtaining         of green-related sectors that were not addressed in
information on the quantity and characteristics of           the survey findings. This study focuses on the size
jobs produced by the green economy. However,                 and broad characteristics of current green jobs in
private and public research organizations have               Michigan, but will also serve as an important baseline
only recently taken steps to attempt to define and           measure for tracking future green industry growth.
measure green jobs for the U.S. and for individual
states.                                                      The Potential of Michigan’s Green Economy
    There are several reasons for this. First, traditional   Though there is not yet a common mechanism for
information sources and databases on industries and          defining the green economy, it is clearly related to
occupations are not specific enough to accurately            the development of new technologies that advance
measure the number of green jobs in the economy.             the production and use of clean energy, and conserve
In addition, a uniform definition of green jobs does         the earth’s natural resources. To be green means
not yet exist. An examination of existing studies on         very broadly to be in the business of developing
the topic reveals that most reports define green jobs        environmentally-friendly, sustainable solutions to
slightly differently. This makes it difficult to conduct     resource allocation and environmental challenges.
direct comparisons and evaluate trends using these               However, when it comes to developing a more
studies.                                                     precise definition of this topic, researchers typically
    In spite of these challenges, the need for improved      need to focus on specific segments of the green
information on the green economy remains high.               economy.
The impact of climate change, the potential health               This report defines the Michigan green economy
benefits from pollution prevention, the need to              as industries that provide products or services related
reduce domestic dependence on foreign oil, and               to renewable energy, increased energy efficiency,
the opportunity that the green sector presents               clean transportation and fuels, agriculture and natural
for new business opportunities and job creation              resource conservation, and pollution prevention or
are all reasons for further study of this broad              environmental cleanup.
sector. Recognizing the importance of such issues,               If the Michigan green economy successfully
policymakers and industry leaders are striving to gain       expands, a variety of benefits could be realized




                                                                                        Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009   9
       by the residents of Michigan. First, a greener            invest in the jobs of the future. Existing Michigan
       economy would seem to be vital to a state that            companies could benefit from expansion of the green
       has many competitive advantages due to its rich           economy by providing products, parts, and services
       natural resources. An emphasis on sustainable             to this potential growth sector.
       energy sources could help reduce the state’s
       carbon footprint and improve air and water quality.       Defining Green Jobs
       An expansion of the green economy would also              As indicated above, existing research studies contain
       contribute to national goals to meet current and          many different definitions of a green job. The
       future energy needs while reducing current reliance       definitions used must be broad enough and flexible
       on foreign energy sources.                                enough to encompass the very different economic
           Major benefits could also accrue to Michigan’s        activities that are often thought of as related to the
       workforce, as the greening of the economy                 green economy. However, if defined too broadly, the
       holds promise for new and diverse employment              term “green jobs” can quickly lose relevance or can
       opportunities. By moving the economy into renewable       be impossible to quantify.
       and clean energy solutions, Michigan will establish           This study attempts to estimate the number
       a more diverse industry mix—one that will be better       of green jobs in the Michigan economy using an
       positioned to capitalize on future high growth sectors    employer survey. We also evaluate the characteristics
       and reduce the cyclical impact of future economic         of jobs in green-related industries and occupations
       downturns. Michigan’s long-term goal has been to          using existing information resources. Some of the
       increase the diversification of the state economy and     definitions used are below:




             Green Economy: Industries that provide products or services related to renewable energy,
                            increased energy efficiency, clean transportation and fuels, agriculture and
                            natural resource conservation, and pollution prevention or environmental
                            cleanup.

             Green Jobs:       Includes primary occupations engaged in generating a firm’s green-related
                               products or services, and the other support jobs created by the firm’s green-
                               related revenue.

             Green-related Industry:
                              A detailed industry sector that is likely to contain firms that produce parts,
                              components, products or services related to the green economy. Industries and
                              firms were classified as green-related based on their primary product or service;
                              not based on whether they were taking internal steps to use less energy or be
                              more environmentally responsible.

             Green-related Occupation:
                              Job titles commonly utilized by green-related industries to produce products and
                              services for the green economy. Green-related occupations can be found in a
                              variety of educational and skill levels, such as:
                               • Scientists and engineers needed in energy research
                               • Skilled production workers utilized in a manufacturing setting
                               • Critical occupations at small start-up green firms, such as technical sales staff
                               • Construction laborers and skilled trades used in LEED construction projects




10   Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009
Michigan’s Research Approach
The Michigan Green Jobs Study uses a three-pronged approach to study green jobs in Michigan, which
includes the following: 1) a quantitative approach, ) an analytical approach, and a ) qualitative approach.
The quantitative approach was accomplished by the use of an employer survey, the analytical approach was
done by merging labor market information and economic intelligence with survey results, and the qualitative
approach used focus groups to add additional qualitative information on green-related workforce issues.



                         Qualitative Approach
                                                                         Quantitative Approach
                           (Focus Groups)
                                                                                (Survey)

                                                 Michigan’s Green
                                                Research Approach




                                           Analytical Approach
                                             (Existing LMI)




Quantitative Approach –                                      and occupations. As a result, the DELEG research team
                                                             used existing labor market information resources
Michigan Green Jobs Survey
                                                             to identify and study green-related industries and
In the first quarter of 009, the Michigan Department
                                                             occupations. These resources allowed examination of
of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth (DELEG)
                                                             the levels and trends of jobs in green-related sectors,
conducted the Michigan Green Jobs Survey. This was
                                                             the wage levels paid in green-related occupations,
the first actual attempt in Michigan to directly survey
                                                             and the skills and educational requirements for
employers to measure the current number of Michigan
                                                             certain green-related positions.
green jobs.
                                                                 In addition to the research on industries and
    The survey was a critical part of the research effort,
                                                             occupations, the research team identified over 50
because it quickly became apparent that it would not
                                                             green-related businesses across the state. These
be possible to accurately estimate the current number
                                                             businesses were identified through Internet research,
of Michigan green jobs using existing information
                                                             business resources, and public databases. As this
sources. The survey will also assist in identifying the
                                                             section of the report reveals, this sample of firms,
share of jobs in detailed industries that are related to
                                                             although small and not necessarily representative
the green economy. The survey questions also allowed
                                                             of the overall green economy, managed to record
employers to classify their green workers by core green
                                                             impressive job growth from 005 to mid-008 during
activity, and collected information regarding employer
                                                             a difficult period for the Michigan economy.
expectations of future employment levels, difficulty in
hiring qualified workers, green occupations requiring
unique skills, and employee training.                        Qualitative Approach –
                                                             Michigan Focus Groups
Analytical Approach – Examination                            Eight focus group sessions were conducted during
of Industries and Occupations                                February and March 009 with employers, industry
Since the employer survey content needed to be               experts, and educators representing various segments
focused and targeted, the survey could not address           of the green economy. These sessions, led by staff of
many workforce questions regarding green industries          DELEG and the Corporation for a Skilled Workforce,



                                                                                        Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009   11
       were intended to collect qualitative information             a Low-Carbon Economy. This study attempted to
       on key workforce issues facing each sector, such             estimate the impact on Michigan of a $.1 billion
       as finding skilled workers and identifying industry          investment in energy efficiency and renewable energy.
       training needs. The other goal of these sessions             This was to simulate Michigan’s share of a potential
       was to promote collaboration among employers                 national green investment in energy efficiency, mass
       through the Governor’s Green Jobs Initiative. Part           transit and freight rail, smart grid, and wind, solar
       of this initiative includes the formation of Green           and bio-fuels. The study estimated the employment
       Sector Skills Alliances, which will be comprised of          impact in Michigan at 61,94 new jobs in two years,
       private employers, educational providers, and other          but included both green and non-green jobs.
       stakeholders in the green economy. These alliances               A second study that attempted to measure green
       will be formed to jointly tackle key workforce issues.       jobs in Michigan was Global Insight’s 008 report
       Focus groups were held in these general industry             done for The United States Conference of Mayors,
       areas:                                                       entitled U.S. Metro Economies - Current and Potential
          • Agriculture and Food Systems                            Green Jobs in the U.S. Economy. The report estimated
          • Environmental Resource Management                       the number of current green jobs among Michigan
                                                                    metro areas to be 1,614, out of an estimated
          • Green Construction
                                                                    751,051 jobs nationwide. The study also attempted to
          • Recycling                                               forecast green employment by state and estimated
          • Solar                                                   a potential job creation of 99,819 in Michigan by the
                                                                    year 08. These job estimates were based on a set
          • Wind
                                                                    of assumptions of market forces, legislation, and
                                                                    local green initiatives in the U.S., and the job counts
       Existing Research Studies                                    reflected direct and indirect green employment.
       on Michigan Green Jobs                                            A third report, published in 006 by the
        The Michigan DELEG research staff conducted an              Renewable Energy Policy Project, was entitled
       extensive review of existing studies on the green            Component Manufacturing: Michigan’s Future in the
       economy during the design phase of this study. In            Renewable Energy Industry. This study focused on
       fact, our eventual employer survey instrument was            the potential job impact of the manufacture of parts
       adapted from a survey design developed by the State          for renewable energy systems, such as wind, solar,
       of Washington.2                                              geothermal, and biomass. It assumed an investment
          A limited number of prior studies have been               of $160 billion in manufacturing industries over 10
       conducted to attempt to measure green employment             years, and allocated shares of that investment to each
       in Michigan. Just three examples are listed below.           state. The study estimated Michigan’s job potential at
          The Center for American Progress published in             4,777 new jobs in green industries, with 70 percent
       September 008 a study entitled Green Recovery – A           in wind energy. No estimate of current Michigan green
       New Program to Create Good Jobs and Start Building           jobs was presented.




        See 008 Washington State Green Economy Jobs, Washington State Employment Security, January 009




1   Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009
Chapter I: Michigan Green Jobs Survey Results
               A survey of employers was necessary in order to estimate the current number
               of green jobs in the Michigan economy. The Michigan Department of Energy,
               Labor & Economic Growth conducted a statewide employer survey during the
               first quarter of 2009. The sample of survey respondents, representing a broad
               spectrum of private industries, provided information on existing green jobs by
               detailed occupation in their respective firms. This section presents the survey
               results.

As Figure 1 indicates, an estimated 96,800 direct                    Most of the information collected in the survey
green jobs currently exist among Michigan private                reflects only “direct” green jobs; that is, employees
employers. Figure 1 also displays how those jobs                 whose primary function is the production of green-
are distributed among the five core green areas.                related products or services for a particular firm.
Green jobs accounted for .4 percent of total private            However, the presence of green business activities
employment in Michigan. 4 Further detailed survey                in many of these firms also generates additional jobs
results, including the primary industry sectors that             at that particular firm for support employees. These
generate green jobs, the occupational concentration              support jobs may range from accounting staff to
of these jobs, and employers’ future expectations                human services staff to clerical staff. For example, a
regarding hiring, skills, and training are provided in           manufacturing firm may have 0 machinists building
the narrative that follows.                                      wind turbine blades, as well as one accountant and
                                                                 two clerical positions that support the wind turbine


               Figure 1: Summary of Michigan Direct Green Jobs by Core Area

                                                                           Total Direct             Percent Share of Total
   Core Area
                                                                           Green Jobs                 Direct Green Jobs

   TOTAL DIRECT GREEN JOBS                                                     96,767                        100.0%

   Clean Transportation and Fuels                                               39,317                        40.6%

   Increasing Energy Efficiency                                                22,236                         23.0%

   Pollution Prevention and Environmental Cleanup                              12,345                         12.8%

   Agriculture and Natural Resource Conservation                               11,986                         12.4%

   Renewable Energy Production                                                   8,843                          9.1%

   Green Jobs Not Assigned to a Core Area                                        2,040                          2.1%

                                                             Source: Michigan Department of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth


 All respondents did not report the number of green jobs by core area or by occupation. For this reason, table columns may not
  always sum to the total count of green jobs.
4 As of February 009, seasonally unadjusted private jobs for Michigan totaled ,7,600 according to data from the Michigan
  Department of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth, Bureau of Labor Market Information and Strategic Initiatives, Current Employ-
  ment Statistics program.




                                                                                                Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009   1
        business. Without the wind turbine blade revenue, the
        three support jobs would not exist.
            The survey asked firms to attempt to quantify the
        number of jobs they currently have that support their
                                                                  Green Jobs Core Areas Definitions
        green business activities. The survey results show        Agriculture and Natural Resource
        that the green economy may contribute an additional       Conservation: Natural resource
        1,00 support jobs to Michigan’s economy.
                                                                  conservation refers to products or
        Survey Results: Direct Green                              services designed to help conserve,
        Jobs by Core Green Area                                   maintain, and improve natural resources
        As mentioned previously in the report, the primary        and the environment. Certain “green”
        purpose of the employer survey was to estimate the        agricultural businesses provide
        number of Michigan green jobs, due to the limitations     necessary inputs for the production
        of existing economic databases. Although Michigan         of biomass energy including: wood,
        industries are assigned codes using the North             agricultural crops and animal wastes.
        American Industrial Classification System (NAICS), this
                                                                  These “crops” can be viewed as
                                                                  renewable and sustainable if managed
                                                                  properly. Other examples include food
     There are 109,067 Green Jobs in Michigan
                                                                  systems, forest and land management,
     Michigan boasts 109,067 total green jobs—
                                                                  and organic farming. Sustainable
     both direct and support- among private sector
                                                                  agriculture and forestry are achieved
     employers. There are 96,767 direct green jobs                by governmental and private industries
     and 1,00 support green jobs. This is big                   adopting certain industry standards
     news, but it also shows the huge potential                   utilizing established best management
     for growth of the green economy. Michigan’s                  practices.
     overall private sector employment is .                     Clean Transportation and Fuels: Clean
     million; green jobs currently account for .4                transportation refers to the research,
     percent of that total.                                       development, and production of
                                                                  new technologies for energy storage
        system has limits in the measurement of green jobs.       and alternative fuels, as well as
        For example, no single code or group of codes exists      the engineering of improved fuel
        to isolate all firms producing components for the         efficiencies and emissions reductions.
        manufacture of wind turbines or solar panels.             Examples of these activities include:
            Therefore, Michigan adapted a green job survey        advanced batteries, fuel cells, electric
        instrument developed by the state of Washington.
                                                                  and hybrid vehicles, alternative fuels,
        The Michigan survey asked firms to not only specify
                                                                  public transit, and activities related to
        occupations that were green-related, but to classify
        them into the following green “core areas”:               meeting fuel efficiency standards, and
           • Agriculture and natural resource conservation        more.
           • Clean transportation and fuels
           • Increasing energy efficiency
           • Pollution prevention and environmental cleanup
           • Renewable energy production




14    Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009
            Figure 2: Distribution of Direct Green-Related Jobs by Core Area

                                                                  Agriculture and Natural
                                 Increasing                       Resource Conservation
                              Energy Efficiency                             13%
                                    23%


                                                                         Pollution Prevention and
                                                                          Environmental Cleanup
                                 Clean
                            Transportation                                           13%
                               and Fuels
                                  41%

                                                                  Renewable Energy Production
                                                                                9%



                                                         Source: Michigan Department of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth




    These categories add significantly more depth to
the data, by contrasting the number of green jobs
in Michigan in each of these core areas. These core
areas illustrate the primary green business activities
                                                                 Green Jobs Core Areas Definitions
that generate jobs in the Michigan economy. Figure              Producing Renewable Energy:
presents the distribution of green jobs by core area             Renewable energy is energy generated
according to the survey results.
                                                                 from sustainable, natural resources—
    As might be expected considering the importance
                                                                 such as sunlight (solar), wind, water
of the auto industry in Michigan, the Clean
Transportation and Fuels core area accounts for the              (hydro), geothermal heat, and biomass
largest number of the state’s green jobs, roughly                (wood and wood waste, agricultural and
9,00 or 41 percent. Nearly one-quarter of green                energy crops & associated residues,
jobs in the state were attributable to the Energy                animal waste, municipal solid waste,
Efficiency core area, and most of these positions were           food products & processing waste),
associated with the state’s construction industry.
                                                                 that can be naturally regenerated in the
     The remaining third of green jobs was distributed
                                                                 short-term. Related businesses include
among the other three core areas. Pollution
Prevention & Environmental Cleanup and Agriculture               those producing renewable energy as
and Natural Resource Conservation supplied about                 well as firms that produce and supply
1,000 green jobs each, while Renewable Energy                   parts or equipment used in energy
chipped in nearly 9,000 green jobs.                              collection and distribution such as solar
                                                                 panels or wind turbines.




                                                                                           Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009   15
       Survey Results: Direct Green                                   numbers or percentages of green jobs. All Michigan
                                                                      firms are classified by detailed industry using the
       Jobs by Detailed Industry
                                                                      NAICS coding system, and the survey results were
       Beyond the broader core areas identified by the
                                                                      tabulated by -digit NAICS industry. Figure  presents
       survey, a key next step was to examine the primary
                                                                      survey results on the primary industries that generate
       industry sectors in Michigan that generate large
                                                                      the largest numbers of Michigan green jobs.



                                Figure 3: Top Michigan Industries Generating
                                  the Largest Number of Direct Green Jobs

                                                                                                             Green Jobs As
                                                                           Total Direct    Total Industry
         NAICS     Industry                                                                                  % Of Industry
                                                                           Green Jobs       Employment
                                                                                                             Employment

           336     Transportation Equipment Manufacturing                    25,780           176,254            14.6%

           541     Professional, Scientific, And Technical Services          22,178           241,786              9.2%

           238     Specialty Trade Contractors                                9,825           102,467              9.6%

           236     Construction Of Buildings                                  3,571            34,423             10.4%

           111     Crop Production                                            3,503            15,942            22.0%

           423     Merchant Wholesalers, Durable Goods                        2,793            94,879              2.9%

           561     Administrative Services                                    2,698           258,314              1.0%

           221     Utilities                                                  2,608            20,518            12.7%

           562     Waste Management And Remediation Services                  2,168            11,410            19.0%

           332     Fabricated Metal Manufacturing                             1,995           78,488               2.5%

           333     Machinery Manufacturing                                    1,664           68,848               2.4%

           327     Nonmetallic Mineral Product Manufacturing                  1,448            13,276            10.9%

           334     Computer And Electronic Product Manufacturing              1,304           20,848               6.3%

           322     Paper Manufacturing                                        1,100            13,317              8.3%

           325     Chemical Manufacturing                                     1,024            27,876              3.7%

           321     Wood Product Manufacturing                                   982             9,639            10.2%

           237     Heavy And Civil Engineering Construction                     903            16,826              5.4%

           331     Primary Metal Manufacturing                                  863            23,587              3.7%

           551     Management Of Companies And Enterprises                      716            55,090              1.3%

           811     Repair And Maintenance                                       656            36,951              1.8%

           113     Forestry And Logging                                         415             1,400            29.7%

                                                                Source: Michigan Department of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth




16   Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009
    A significant number of Michigan green jobs were
generated by the manufacturing and construction-
related sectors. Of the 1 industries in Figure ,         As might be expected considering
1 were engaged in the production of goods, and            the importance of the auto industry
the majority of those were concentrated in either
                                                           in Michigan, the Clean Transportation
manufacturing or construction. Michigan’s auto sector
                                                           and Fuels core area accounts for the
led the way in the creation of green employment, as
Transportation equipment manufacturing supplied            largest number of the state’s green
about 7,800 jobs to the green economy. However,           jobs, roughly 9,00 or 41 percent.
green jobs were found across a wide range of
industries. About one-quarter of the top green
job industries were service-based, including three
of the top 10 industries. Professional, Scientific
and Technical Services ranked second behind
auto manufacturing with over ,000 green jobs,
accounting for roughly  percent of total Michigan
green positions.
   Figure 4, highlights the largest industries for each
core area. In accordance with the economic makeup
of Michigan, detailed industries in the Construction
and Manufacturing sectors contribute a significant
job share to several core areas. For the most part,
green jobs in the core areas were highly concentrated
in two or three industry sectors. Employment in
Clean Transportation Fuels, the largest core area,
was concentrated in two industries: Transportation         Nearly one-quarter of green jobs-
equipment manufacturing and Professional, scientific,      ,6- in the state were attributable
and technical services. These two industry sectors         to the Energy Efficiency core
account for 97 percent of total Clean Transportation       area, and most of these positions
green jobs. Renewable Energy Production, the               were associated with the state’s
smallest core area, had the most dispersed
                                                           construction industry.
employment. However, its top two industry sectors,
Specialty trade contractors and Nonmetallic mineral
product manufacturing still accounted for 7 percent
of the core’s total green employment.
    In Figure 4, the Direct Green Jobs by Industry
column indicates the total number of green jobs in
that industry; the second column shows how many
jobs from that industry are in a specific core area, and
the third column reveals the percentage of total core
area green jobs in a specific industry. Crop production,
for instance, has a total of , 50 green jobs, of which
,95 are in the core area of Agriculture and Natural      Renewable Energy Production has
Resource Conservation. Therefore, the ,95 core jobs      nearly 9,000 green jobs.
in Crop production account for 7.5 percent of the
11,986 total green jobs in that core area.




                                                                             Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009   17
                                Figure 4: Large Industries By Core Green Area

                                                                                                                Percentage
                                                                          Direct Green      Direct Green
                                                                                                                 of Direct
        NAICS    Industries within Core Area                                 Jobs By           Jobs in
                                                                                                                Green Jobs
                                                                            Industry         Core Area
                                                                                                               in Core Area

                  Agriculture and Natural Resource Conservation (all)                          11,986

         111      Crop Production                                             3,503             3,295             27.5%

         561      Administrative Services                                     2,698             1,870             15.6%

         541      Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services           22,178             1,776             14.8%

         322      Paper Manufacturing                                         1,100             1,000              8.3%

         321      Wood Product Manufacturing                                   982                223              1.9%

                  Clean Transportation and Fuels (all)                                         39,317

         336      Transportation Equipment Manufacturing                    25,780             25,142             63.9%

         541      Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services           22,178            12,976             33.0%

                  Energy Efficiency (all)                                                      22,236

         238      Specialty Trade Contractors                                 9,825             7,470             33.6%

         236      Construction of Buildings                                   3,571             2,462             11.1%

         221      Utilities                                                   2,608             2,405             10.8%

         541      Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services           22,178             2,349             10.6%

         423      Merchant Wholesalers, Durable Goods                         2,793             1,436              6.5%

                  Pollution Prevention and Environmental Cleanup (all)                         12,345

         541      Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services           22,178             4,454             36.1%

         562      Waste Management and Remediation Services                   2,168             1,494             12.1%

         423      Merchant Wholesalers, Durable Goods                         2,793               932               7.5%

         325      Chemical Manufacturing                                      1,024               833              6.7%

         238      Specialty Trade Contractors                                 9,825               806              6.5%

                  Renewable Energy Production (all)                                             8,843

         238      Specialty Trade Contractors                                 9,825             1,257             14.2%

         327      Nonmetallic Mineral Product Manufacturing                  1,448              1,132             12.8%

         541      Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services           22,178               605              6.8%

         562      Waste Management and Remediation Services                   2,168               559              6.3%

         321      Wood Product Manufacturing                                   982                471              5.3%


                                                                 Source: Michigan Department of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth




18   Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009
    Although, a few industry sectors dominate
employment in the individual core areas, some
industry sectors are vital to multiple segments of
                                                           Green Jobs Core Areas Definitions
the green economy. For example, the Professional,
scientific and technical services industry was prevalent   Increasing Energy Efficiency: Energy
across several core areas, and comprised the               efficiency encompasses all changes
largest share (6 percent) of green jobs in Pollution      that result in a reduction of the energy
Prevention and Environmental Cleanup. Additionally,        used for a given energy service (i.e.,
the largest number of green jobs in Professional,          space heating, lighting, etc.) or level of
scientific, and technical services was in the Clean
                                                           activity. Examples include: insulation of
Transportation and Fuels core area, with nearly 1,000
                                                           a building can achieve the same desired
green positions. Another industry sector of note was
Specialty trade contractors, which holds a significant     temperature with less energy use;
share of green employment in three core areas.             adopting green building design/LEED
Specialty trade contractors engage in a wide variety       standards encourages downsizing or
of construction-related activities from site preparation   upgrading of HVAC, lighting and other
to electrical work. Employment in this sector is highly    energy systems, which reduces energy
concentrated in the Energy Efficiency core area with
                                                           demand in the building; producing an
nearly 7,500 jobs or over one-third of the core area’s
                                                           energy efficient household appliance,
green employment.
                                                           such as a refrigerator or dryer, which
Survey Results: Green Jobs                                 delivers the same performance using
by Detailed Occupation                                     less electricity; or providing engineering,
As mentioned above, survey respondents were asked          consulting or research services on
to specify the detailed occupational titles in their       operations, materials, or technologies
organization that work to provide goods or services        that improve energy efficiency.
in any of the green core areas. These responses were
coded by Standard Occupation Code (SOC), and this          Pollution prevention and environmental
information is particularly valuable. It provides for
                                                           cleanup: Pollution prevention refers
the first time actual Michigan survey-based estimates
                                                           to products that are designed to have
of the types of job titles most prevalent in the
green economy, along with employment estimates             minimal impacts on human health
in those occupations. Figure 5 lists the occupations       and the environment, and services
in Michigan with the largest number of green jobs,         that eliminate or reduce the amount
according to the survey results.                           and toxicity of potentially harmful
    Engineering occupations reported a significant         substances at their source. Businesses
share of green-related jobs in Michigan, accounting
                                                           that provide services and/or products
for about 4 percent of Michigan green employment.
                                                           related to controlling industrial and
The largest occupation – Engineers (All Other)
– included a variety of reported engineers that            commercial emissions, environmental
could not be specifically classified. Other key green-     remediation, waste treatment, recycling,
related engineering occupations included Mechanical        water conservation and treatment, and
engineers, Electrical engineers, and Environmental         brownfield redevelopment are examples
engineers. Engineering occupations can be found in         in this area.
each green core area and in many different industries.




                                                                                Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009   19
          Production occupations were also common in               workers find employment in other sectors of the green
       the green economy. These production occupations             economy including Renewable Energy Production and
       represent about 8 percent of all green employment          Pollution Prevention and Environmental Cleanup.
       in Michigan. These include job titles such as                  A variety of green jobs were reported among
       Assemblers and fabricators (All Other), Production          construction and maintenance occupations.
       workers (All Other), Machinists, and Power plant            Examples of green construction occupations included
       operators. While the majority of these occupations are      Electricians, Carpenters, and Construction Managers,
       found in the automobile industry, many production           while maintenance occupations included Heating, air



                              Figure 5: Occupations that Generate the Largest
                                   Number of Michigan Direct Green Jobs

                                                                                Total Direct        Percent of Total Direct
        SOC        Occupation
                                                                                Green Jobs               Green Jobs

                   Total, All Green Occupations                                   96,767                    100.0%

        17-2199    Engineers (All Other)                                          11,397                     11.8%

        17-2141    Mechanical Engineers                                            6,809                      7.0%

        51-2099    Assemblers and Fabricators, All Other                           3,980                      4.1%

        49-9021    Heating, Air Condition, & Refrig. Mech & Installers             3,444                      3.6%

        45-2092    Farmworkers & Laborers, Crop, Nursery, Greenhouse               3,303                      3.4%

        51-9199    Production Workers, All Other                                   3,002                      3.1%

        37-3011    Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers                          2,205                      2.3%

        49-9042    General Maintenance and Repair Workers                          1,813                      1.9%

         47-2111   Electricians                                                    1,705                      1.8%

        17-2071    Electrical Engineers                                            1,555                      1.6%

        51-4041    Machinists                                                      1,541                      1.6%
        19-2041    Environmental Scientists & Specialists                          1,525                      1.6%

        47-2061    Construction Laborers                                           1,473                      1.5%

        41-3099    Sales Representatives, Services, All Other                      1,454                      1.5%

        51-8013    Power Plant Operators                                           1,215                      1.3%

         51-1011   First-Line Supervisors of Production Workers                    1,170                      1.2%

        51-4031    Cutting, Punching, and Press Machine Setters, Oper              1,168                      1.2%

        47-2031    Carpenters                                                       1,161                     1.2%

        11-9021    Construction Managers                                            1,113                     1.2%

        51-9061    Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers            1,061                      1.1%

         51-4111   Tool and Die Makers                                             1,048                      1.1%

        17-2081    Environmental Engineers                                           988                      1.0%

                                                                Source: Michigan Department of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth




0   Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009
conditioning, & refrigeration mechanics and General          total. One example of such an occupation in Figure 5
maintenance and repair workers. Together, these two          is Environmental scientists & specialists.
broad occupational groups represent about 19 percent             In addition, agriculture-related jobs were also well
of all green jobs in Michigan. Many individuals              identified as an important source of green jobs in
employed in these job titles are building energy             Michigan. These occupations range from Farmworkers
efficient homes, offices, or factories or are retrofitting   and laborers to Landscaping and groundskeeping
existing homes, offices, or factories to be more             workers. Agriculture-related occupations supplied an
energy efficient.                                            additional 8 percent of green jobs reported in the
    Green jobs in Michigan are also generated for            survey.
a variety of professional, technical, and scientific             As with industries, occupations can also be ranked
positions. These categories generated over 9,000             within the five core green areas. Figure 6, displays the
green jobs, or nearly 10 percent of the statewide            distribution of green-related positions by core area.




                                                               A variety of green jobs were reported
                                                               among construction and maintenance
                                                               occupations. Examples of green
                                                               construction occupations included
                                                               Electricians, Carpenters, and Construction
                                                               Managers, while maintenance occupations
                                                               included heating, air conditioning, &
                                                               refrigeration mechanics and general
                                                               maintenance.


              Engineering occupations reported a
        significant share of green-related jobs in
       Michigan, accounting for about 4 percent
                  of Michigan green employment.




                                                               Production occupations were also
                                                               common in the green economy,
                                                               representing about 8 percent of all green
                                                               employment. These include job titles
                                                               such as Assemblers and fabricators (All
                                                               Other), Production workers (All Other),
                                                               Machinists, and Power plant operators.




                                                                                         Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009   1
                        Figure 6: Top Five Largest Occupations by Core Green Area
                                                                          Direct Green   Direct Green    Share of Core Area
        SOC        Occupations Within Core Area                              Jobs by     Jobs in Core    Direct Green Jobs
                                                                          Occupation         Area          by Occupation
                   Agriculture and Natural Resource Conservation (all)                      11,986
                   Farmworkers and Laborers, Crop, Nursery,
        45-2092                                                              3,303           3,025               25.2%
                   and Greenhouse
        37-3011    Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers                    2,205           1,915               16.0%

        51-9199    Production Workers, All Other                             3,002             487                4.1%

        17-2081    Environmental Engineers                                     988             441                3.7%

        19-2041    Environmental Scientists and Specialists                  1,525             412                3.4%

                   Clean Transportation and Fuels (all)                                     39,317
        17-2199    Engineers, All Other                                     11,397          10,540               26.8%

        17-2141    Mechanical Engineers                                      6,809           6,119               15.6%

        51-2099    Assemblers/Fabricators, All Other                         3,980           3,544                9.0%

        51-9199    Production Workers, All Other                             3,002           1,326                3.4%

        51-4041    Machinists                                                1,541             915                2.3%

                    Energy Efficiency (all)                                                 22,236
                   Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration
        49-9021                                                              3,444           2,834               12.7%
                   Mechanics and Installers
        49-9042    Maintenance and Repair Workers, General                   1,813           1,271                5.7%

        51-8013    Power Plant Operators                                     1,215           1,045                4.7%

        47-2031    Carpenters                                                1,161             985                4.4%

        41-3099    Sales Representatives, Services, All Other                1,454             892                4.0%

                   Pollution Prevention and Environmental Cleanup (all)                     12,345

        19-2041    Environmental Scientists and Specialists                  1,525             884                7.2%

        17-2051    Civil Engineers                                             759             491                4.0%

        19-4091    Environmental Science and Protection Technicians            771             487                3.9%

        53-7081    Refuse and Recyclable Material Collectors                   595             453                3.7%

        11-9041    Engineering Managers                                        688             424                3.4%

                   Renewable Energy Production (all)                                         8,843

        51-9011    Chemical Equipment Operators and Tenders                    494             492                5.6%
                   Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration
        49-9021                                                              3,444             434                4.9%
                   Mechanics and Installers
        47-2111    Electricians                                              1,705             222                2.5%

        51-4041    Machinists                                                1,541             166                1.9%
                   Data too few to classify fifth occupation

                                                                  Source: Michigan Department of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth


   Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009
     Clean Transportation and Fuels– The prevalence
of Michigan’s automobile industry is very evident
from the green job titles in Clean Transportation          Which critical occupations are
and Fuels. The five largest occupations in this core       Michigan focus group employers
area, accounting for nearly 60 percent of green jobs,      finding hard to fill NOW?
represent a diverse range of educational requirements
and skill sets. On the high end, Engineers require         ¸   Energy Auditors – HERS Raters
                                                               (Home Energy Rating System)
significant investments in education and training.
Moderate-skill occupations such as Assemblers and          ¸   Skilled Trades (All)
fabricators and Production workers require less            ¸   Lead/Hazardous Materials Workers
education, although do require moderate-term to
                                                           ¸   Accountants
long-term on-the-job training. Despite the declining
recent trend in jobs in the Michigan auto industry,        ¸   Wind Technicians
it is likely that the share of jobs in the industry that   ¸   Agri-Tourism Specialists
will be involved with the research, engineering,               Food Safety Specialists
                                                           ¸
and production of fuel-efficient and alternative fuel
                                                           ¸   Aquaculturalists
vehicles will continue to grow.
     Energy Efficiency– The majority of occupations        ¸   Urban Farmers
in the Energy Efficiency core area are construction-       ¸   Truckers
related. Occupations such as Heating, air                      PV Installers
                                                           ¸
conditioning, & refrigeration installers, Carpenters,
                                                           ¸   Heavy Equipment Operators
and General maintenance and repair workers are
commonly needed in new building construction or            ¸   AC/DC Electrical Workers
retrofitting projects. Although not appearing in the       ¸   HVAC (install and adapt for bio-mass
top five job titles in Figure 6, many managerial and           systems)
supervisory jobs are created in the Energy Efficiency          Plumbers
                                                           ¸
core area due to the need to meet green-building
                                                           ¸   Designers for PV, Wind, Solar
quality standards.                                             applications
   Agriculture and Natural Resource Conservation–
                                                           ¸   Sales People with knowledge in
Michigan has a very significant agricultural sector
                                                               green
and vast natural resources. Accordingly, many
                                                           ¸   Semi-Conductor Engineers
jobs in the Agriculture and Natural Resource
Conservation core area can be found on Michigan            ¸   Vacuum Techs
farms and in Michigan’s national, state, and local             Purchasing/Procure-ment/Product
                                                           ¸
parks. Occupations such as Crop, nursery, and                  Developers
greenhouse workers reflect the many jobs supplied              Qualified Tool Makers
                                                           ¸
by Michigan’s organic and sustainable agriculture
                                                           ¸   Management that can take
segment. In contrast, a portion of jobs in occupations         advantage of government funding
such as Landscaping and groundskeeping workers                 opportunities, understand new
were identified in the survey as green, and make               regulations impacted by new
up a significant share of jobs in this core area.              technologies
Environmental engineers contribute skilled green jobs
                                                                Source: Focus Groups with Michigan Employers,
in the area of Natural Resource Conservation.                                         February – March, 009
    Pollution Prevention and Environmental
Cleanup—Occupations in Pollution Prevention and
Environmental Cleanup range from the workers




                                                                                  Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009   
       who operate recycling trucks to the scientists and        Survey Results: Employer Expectations
       engineers who research and develop pollution control      Expectations of employers regarding current and
       equipment. About  percent of green occupations          future green-related workforce needs are a critical
       in this core area were generated in five job titles,      element in further understanding green jobs.
       including Environmental scientists & specialists,         Accordingly, the Department of Energy, Labor &
       Civil engineers, Environmental science & protection       Economic Growth asked employers in this survey
       technicians, Refuse & material collectors, and            questions regarding: (1) expected future job gains in
       Engineering managers.                                     green occupations, () expected difficulty filling future
           Renewable Energy Production—The most diverse          green job vacancies () whether occupations require
       set of occupations can be found in Michigan’s             unique skills when working on green projects (4) and
       Renewable Energy production core area. A wide             the potential use of formal versus informal training
       range of occupations contribute green jobs to this        for existing and new green workers.
       core area, such as engineers, technicians, mechanics
       and installers, and production staff. Jobs range          Hiring
       from technical and professional jobs generated by         Employers were asked to estimate for each current
       alternative energy research, to skilled manufacturing     green occupation their expectation for employment
       positions involved with the production of products or     in 011. (Responses to this survey question were
       parts for the alternative energy supply chain, to jobs    received from only a share of survey respondents).
       for agricultural workers engaged in the production of     Figure 7 displays the specific occupations which
       agricultural inputs used in renewable energy.             an above-average share of employers anticipate




                          Figure 7: Selected Occupations with Above-Average
                      Share of Employers Indicating Likely Job Expansion 2009-2011

             Heating, Air Conditioning, and
                                                                                                                         49%
     Refrigeration Mechanics and Installers
                     Mechanical Engineers                                                                                49%

                            Civil Engineers                                                                             48%

                     Construction Laborers                                                                       43%

                       Electrical Engineers                                                             38%

                     Engineering Managers                                                            36%
                         Landscaping and
                                                                                                     36%
                  Groundskeeping Workers
                    Construction Managers                                                         35%
              Environmental Scientists and
                                                                                               33%
               Specialists, Including Health
                       Engineers, All Other                                                    33%



                                               0      10%              20%              30%                40%          50%
                                                   Percent of Employers Reporting Expected Job Gains for Occupation

                                                                 Source: Michigan Department of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth




4   Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009
additional jobs in the next two years. This information        occupations that employers believe will be especially
does not represent actual employment forecasts,                hard-to-fill (see Figure 8 below). For the most part,
but does provide clues of occupations with some                occupations that require specialized skills, education,
potential for future short-term employment gains.              and experience will face the most difficulties.
    These growth occupations represent a broad                 Engineers were heavily represented in this list. Sales,
range of skill levels. There are mid to lower skilled          management, and construction trade job openings
occupations that require primarily on-the-job training,        were also mentioned as potentially hard-to-fill.
such as heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration
mechanics and installers, construction laborers, and           Unique Skills
landscaping and groundskeeping workers. Many other             Employers were also asked to identify occupations
job titles with solid employment expectations are high         that require unique skills when working on a “green
skill occupations, such as engineering, management,            project.” As Figure 9 below indicates, there were ten
and technical specialist positions. These often require        occupations that roughly 50-80 percent of responding
a four-year degree and several years of relevant work          employers highlighted as requiring unique skills for
experience. Future green jobs will demand various              “green” projects. This has implications for training
levels of skills and training.                                 providers, as individual green occupations will
                                                               differ in their need for specialized training. Some
Filling Vacancies                                              occupations will require very skilled workers, but the
Employers indicated on the survey the green                    skill sets used by those workers on a “green” project
occupations in which they anticipate difficulty in             will be very similar to the skills they will utilize when
filling future job vacancies. While differences exist          working on a “non-green” project. Occupations that
among industries, it is possible to identify specific          utilize unique skills when applied to “green” projects




               Figure 8: Which Green Occupations do Employers Anticipate
                            Potential Recruiting Difficulties?

           Farmworkers and Laborers, Crop, Nursery,                                                       29%
                                  and Greenhouse
           Sales Representatives, Services, All Other                                             23%
                  First-line Supervisors/Managers of
                  Production and Operating Workers                                           21%

                                 Electrical Engineers                                       20%

                              Engineering Managers                                        19%

                                 Engineers, All Other                                17%

                               Mechanical Engineers                                   16%

          Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers                                      16%

                                                                                      15%
              Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters
                                                                                     13%
                                    Chief Executives


                                                        0             10%              20%              30%


                                                            Source: Michigan Department of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth




                                                                                             Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009   5
              Figure 9: Occupations that Require Unique Skills for “Green Projects”

                      Environmental Scientists and                                                                   81%

                                    Civil Engineers                                                         72%

         Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers                                                          68%

            Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters                                               60%

                            Construction Managers                                                 59%

         Business Operations Specialists, All Other                                            56%

                             Engineering Managers                                              56%

                             Construction Laborers                                          52%

                                       Electricians                                         52%

                             Mechanical Engineers                                        49%


                                                      0%       20%             40%             60%                 80%


                                                             Source: Michigan Department of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth




       are those that may need more specialized
       training. This has implications for incumbent               Figure 10: Anticipated Training
       workers who increasingly find themselves                 Demand: Formal vs. Informal Training
       working on “green” projects, as well as potential
       new green workers hoping to transition from
       existing industries into the green economy.
           Figure 9 lists the ten leading occupations
       that employers identify as needing unique skills
       when working on “green” projects. It appears                       Formal Training
       that occupations that require significant levels of                      68%
       education or training are more likely to require
       specialized skills. Six of the leading occupations                                      Informal Training
       identified as requiring unique skills were                                                    32%
       professional or managerial positions.




                                                                                             Source: Michigan Department of
                                                                                         Energy, Labor, and Economic Growth




6   Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009
Training
In an attempt to measure the training needs of
employers, the survey asked employers about the            What training issues need to be
likely mix of training for their green-related workforce
                                                           resolved for Michigan employers?
between:
   • Formal training provided by community colleges        “Old school methods for drawing and
       or other training providers                         drafting need to be brought back. A
  • Informal training of staff on-the-job                  lot of talent never develops because
    The question sheds some light on the potential
                                                           using computers prevents from
future green-related training capacity requirements in     some foundational skills from being
the state.                                                 developed.”
    As Figure 10 illustrates, survey respondents
indicated that roughly 68 percent of their future
                                                           “Auto people are highly specialized
employee training needs may be conducted on-               but need to be cross trained in order
the-job. Although only about  percent of training        to build an entire machine, not just a
needs may be formal, most of the individual industry       component.”
sectors did report some expected utilization of formal
training.                                                  “Unions are still catching up to the new
    The information in this section would not have         tech products. Training needs to get
been possible without the participation of over 6,400      accelerated and inspectors need to learn
employers who took the time to respond to the              along with the electricians.”
Michigan Green Jobs Survey. This effort has given us
the first set of survey-based estimates ever produced      “Training for ‘green’ needs to start in
on Michigan’s current levels of green jobs by detailed     high school. We need to re-emphasize
industry and occupation. However, the survey asked         shop and vocational classes in high
a limited number of questions and could not address
                                                           schools.”
some critical variables regarding the green workforce,
such as recent employment trends, more details on          “It is important to go “Back-to-Basics”
industries and occupations, and key topics such as         – STEM skills, electrical, mechanical
the wages, skills, and educational requirements for
                                                           skills, etc.. Fifty percent (50%) of
specific green-related jobs.
                                                           persons applying to apprenticeships
    To address those issues, the remaining chapters
in this report will supplement the information from
                                                           are rejected because they don’t meet
the employer survey by incorporating existing              the basic requirements of a GED/high
sources of labor market information. The use of            school degree and sufficient algebra
multiple information sources will provide the most         completion.”
comprehensive understanding of green jobs in                            Source: Focus Groups with Michigan
Michigan.                                                                Employers, February – March, 009




                                                                               Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009   7
       Chapter II: Green-Related Industries in the Michigan Economy
                     The information from the survey on green jobs is critical because it represents
                     the first attempt to collect data directly from employers on the number of
                     current green jobs in the Michigan economy. However, employer surveys
                     need to be concise and focused to reduce reporting burden, so a number
                     of additional issues regarding green jobs were not addressed in the survey
                     questionnaire.


       These additional issues include:                             The following section contains information on
       Industry Information                                     “green-related industries.” These are industries
                                                                identified by our research staff as sectors most
          ¸ Is there a way to shed light on recent              likely to provide green
             employment trends among firms in the green
                                                                jobs. The purpose
             economy or among industries that appear
                                                                of the section is to
             related to the green economy?
                                                                highlight the economic
          ¸ Which broad green-related industry clusters         characteristics of these
             provide the most total jobs, display competitive   industries such as wage
             employment performance, or may have been           levels, employment
             more stable recently in terms of job trends?       trends, employment
          ¸ Which green-related industry sectors pay above-     concentration, and
             average wages?                                     competitive employment
                                                                performance. The
       Occupational Information
                                                                remaining chapters on
          ¸ Can a set of green-related occupations              green-related firms and
             be identified? If so, what are the basic           occupations will round out the report by providing
             characteristics of these jobs?                     additional complementary information not obtained
          ¸ Which green-related occupations are large           from the employer survey.
             enough in Michigan to produce multiple annual          To understand the following section on “green-
             job openings?                                      related industries”, it is important to define this term
                                                                and distinguish it from the green jobs estimates
           What
          ¸	 are examples of high-wage green-related
             occupations?                                       generated by the employer survey.

           Are
          ¸	 there green-related job titles available in
             the Michigan economy for persons with differing    Green-related Industry Analysis –
             educational/training backgrounds? Do career        Understanding the Data
             ladders exist in the green economy?                There are several advantages gained by examining
           What
          ¸	 are some of the key skills and knowledge           the green economy through industry employment
           sets needed in certain green-related                 data. The Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages
           occupations?                                         (QCEW) program provides a wealth of information




8   Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009
on detailed industries including the number of firms,         For example, while the construction industry holds
employment levels and trends, and wages. For this         a good number of jobs related to energy efficiency
report, the primary advantage of the QCEW data            (a green core area), the recent national recession
is that it can provide these variables for detailed       and housing market crash has adversely affected
industries related to the green economy.                  all employment in that sector. The same is true of
    A few caveats should be mentioned before              the automobile industry. Even though engineers
attempting to examine industry information. In the        in the auto industry are increasingly focused on
section that follows, the term “green-related industry”   technology development to improve the fuel efficiency
will be used extensively. It is defined as follows:       of vehicles, the enormous job cuts in the overall
                                                          Michigan auto sector will obscure any job gains
                                                          among green workers in the industry.
 Green-related Industry—
                                                              Our research staff used multiple resources to
 A detailed industry sector that is likely                compile a list of green-related industries (please see
 to contain firms that produce parts,                     the Appendix for a complete list of these sectors).
 components, products or services                             • A literature review was conducted of available
 related to the green economy. The green                        studies on the topic of industries and the green
                                                                economy. Each research report was examined
 economy includes activities such as
                                                                for specific industry titles mentioned as being
 renewable energy, energy efficiency,
                                                                “green-related”.
 clean transportation and fuels, agriculture
                                                            • Michigan worked closely with a consortium of
 and natural resources, and pollution
                                                              labor market research organizations in several
 prevention and environmental cleanup.                        other states on the topic of defining industries
                                                              and occupations related to the green economy.
                                                              Green-related industry job listings compiled
    However, the identification of these green-related        by the states of Washington and Pennsylvania
industries was not easy or straightforward. This is           were reviewed.
primarily because the NAICS classification system           • Specific Michigan firms related to the green
is not specific enough to identify specific green             economy were identified, and a sample of these
sectors. There is no single NAICS code or set of codes        firms was reviewed to identify their industry
to capture all firms involved in wind energy, solar           codes.
energy, or research into alternative fuels.
                                                            • Michigan research staff conducted a
    As a result, many of the green-related industries
                                                              comprehensive review of the NAICS coding
we selected for this chapter of the study are only
                                                              system for industries that appeared to be
partially “green”. However, analyzing this set of
                                                              “green-related”.
green-related industries is important, because these
are the some of the industry sectors that could             • The list of green-related industries was vetted
benefit most from an expansion of the Michigan green          by a team of state government and private
economy. The results of our initial employer survey           industry representatives.
and future surveys will help us to eventually refine
this list to identify the share of jobs in each green-    Employment in Michigan’s Green Clusters
related industry that is truly “green”.                   The set of green-related detailed industries
    What this also means is the employment trends         identified in this report account for over one in
in these green-related sectors must be evaluated          ten of Michigan’s total private jobs. These detailed
with caution. Since many are only partially related to    industries were classified into seven broad clusters
green activities, the employment trends displayed are     for this analysis. These include five clusters common
impacted by many factors beyond the green economy.        with the core areas in the green employer survey,




                                                                                     Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009   9
       and two additional categories, Miscellaneous               concentrated in construction, which accounts for
       Green Manufacturing and Engineering, Testing, and          nearly 77 percent of employment. It is appropriate
       Consulting Services. The seven clusters are:               that the construction industry comprises the majority
          • Agriculture and Natural Resource Conservation         of the Increasing Energy Efficiency cluster, since
          • Clean Transportations and Fuels                       current actions in energy efficiency, to a large extent,
                                                                  deal with updating building structures.
          • Engineering, Testing, and Consulting Services
                                                                      Clean Transportation and Fuels stands as the
          • Increasing Energy Efficiency                          second largest core cluster in terms of employment,
          • Miscellaneous Green Manufacturing                     accounting for 8 percent of total green-related
                                                                  employment or 109,000 jobs overall. The Clean
          • Pollution Prevention and Environmental Cleanup
                                                                  Transportation and Fuels segment is comprised of
          • Renewable Energy Production                           detailed industries primarily in auto manufacturing
           The Miscellaneous Green Manufacturing cluster          and mass transit. Michigan’s concentration of auto
       includes manufacturing industry sectors that do not        jobs dominates this cluster, and manufacturing
       solely focus on one area of the green economy. A           industries overall account for 97 percent of cluster
       prime example would be firms in the business of            jobs.
       Measuring and controlling device manufacturing. This           Engineering, Testing, and Consulting Services
       industry is engaged in the production of controlling       was the third largest green cluster, comprising .1
       and measuring devices that have a wide range of            percent of total green-related employment and
       applications - from measuring output of renewable          employing over 85,000 workers. All the industry
       energy plants to monitoring factories with the             sectors within this green segment reside in the
       goal of preventing pollution. There were several           Professional, scientific, and technical services sector,
       manufacturing industries similar to this example           which provides specialized expertise, such as
       involved in various aspects of the green economy, so       research and legal advice, to a variety of private and
       the creation of a separate green manufacturing cluster     public clients.
       was essential.                                                 Pollution Prevention and Environmental Cleanup
           The Professional, scientific, and technical services   ranked fourth in jobs among the green core
       industry provided a similar challenge. It is highly        segments, accounting for six percent of total green-
       likely that firms in this broad industry provide           related employment. However, nearly half of total
       services in a wide array of green-related activities;      employment in this cluster was concentrated in Waste
       and the sector as a whole does not neatly fit in any       Management and Remediation Services, which deals
       of the original clusters. Therefore, the research team     with the collection, disposal, and treatment of waste
       developed the Engineering, Testing, and Consulting         materials.
       Services cluster, which contains many industries               Miscellaneous Green Manufacturing provided
       that provide professional services across the green        over 19,000 jobs, or nearly five percent of total
       economy.                                                   green-related employment in Michigan. This category
           In total, 118 green-related industries were            includes manufacturing industries engaged in
       identified and assigned to a specific green cluster        producing a diverse set of products, ranging from
       based on each detailed industry’s associated               wood to organic chemicals.
       activities, products, and services. Figure 11 displays         Renewable Energy Production provided over
       the top five industries with the highest employment        18,000 jobs, or just 4.7 percent of green-related
       for each of the green-related segments.                    employment. Detailed industries in Utilities and
           Increasing Energy Efficiency was the largest           Manufacturing, focused in the areas of electricity
       green cluster, accounting for about 118,000 jobs, or       generation and distribution, comprised the majority of
       1 percent of total employment in Michigan’s green-        the Renewable Energy Production cluster, accounting
       related industries. This industry segment is highly        for about 60 percent of employment.




0   Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009
Figure 11: Employment in Select Green-Related Industries/Clusters, Michigan 2008 Q2
                                                                                                            Share of
                                                                                               Share
                                                                                   2008 Q2                Total Green-
NAICS     Cluster / Industry                                                                     of
                                                                                  Employment                Related
                                                                                               Cluster
                                                                                                          Employment
Increasing Energy Efficiency                                                       117,828                   30.6%
          Electrical Contractors and Other Wiring Installation Contractors
238212                                                                              16,306     13.8%          4.2%
          – Nonresidential
238222    Plumbing, Heating, and Air-Conditioning Contractors – Nonresidential      13,719     11.6%          3.6%
236220    Commercial and Institutional Building Construction                        13,362     11.3%          3.5%
238221    Plumbing, Heating, and Air-Conditioning Contractors – Residential          9,690      8.2%          2.5%
236118    Residential Remodelers                                                     8,462      7.2%          2.2%
Clean Transportation and Fuels                                                     109,044                   28.3%
336111    Automobile Manufacturing                                                  40,875     37.5%         10.6%
336399    All Other Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing                               21,494     19.7%          5.6%
336350    Motor Vehicle Transmission and Power Train Parts Manufacturing            15,371     14.1%          4.0%
336360    Motor Vehicle Seating and Interior Trim Manufacturing                     12,367     11.3%          3.2%
336312    Gasoline Engine and Engine Parts Manufacturing                            10,543      9.7%          2.7%
Engineering, Testing, and Consulting Services                                       85,293                   22.1%
541330    Engineering Services                                                      38,734     45.4%         10.1%
541380    Testing Laboratories                                                      19,869     23.3%          5.2%
541712    R & D in the Physical, Engineering, and Life Science (except biotech)     16,409     19.2%          4.3%
541614    Process, Physical Distribution, and Logistics Consulting Services          4,029      4.7%          1.0%
541620    Environmental Consulting Services                                          1,893      2.2%          0.5%
Pollution Prevention and Environmental Cleanup                                      22,994                    6.0%
562111    Solid Waste Collection                                                     4,374     19.0%           1.1%
423930    Recyclable Material Merchant Wholesalers                                   4,364     19.0%           1.1%
237110    Water and Sewer Line and Related Structures Construction                   3,494     15.2%          0.9%
238911    Site Preparation Contractors                                               3,326     14.5%          0.9%
562910    Remediation Services                                                       2,059      9.0%          0.5%
Miscellaneous Green Manufacturing                                                   19,033                    4.9%
325211    Plastics Material and Resin Manufacturing                                  6,651     34.9%          1.7%
322121    Paper (except Newsprint) Mills                                             2,463     12.9%          0.6%
          Instruments Manufacturing for Measuring & Controlling Industrial
334513                                                                               1,999     10.5%          0.5%
          Process Variables
321920    Wood Container and Pallet Manufacturing                                    1,619      8.5%          0.4%
334419    Other Electronic Component Manufacturing                                   1,245      6.5%          0.3%
Renewable Energy Production                                                         18,139                    4.7%
237130    Power and Communication Line and Related Structures Construction           4,311     23.8%           1.1%
221210    Natural Gas Distribution                                                   3,117     17.2%          0.8%
321113    Sawmills                                                                   2,021     11.1%          0.5%
221122    Electric Power Distribution                                                1,554      8.6%          0.4%
113310    Logging                                                                    1,313      7.2%          0.3%

                                                                                                    Continued next page




                                                                                         Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009   1
     From previous page

     Figure 11: Employment in Select Green-Related Industries/Clusters, Michigan 2008 Q2
                                                                                                                      Share of
                                                                                                         Share
                                                                                         2008 Q2                    Total Green-
     NAICS     Cluster / Industry                                                                          of
                                                                                        Employment                    Related
                                                                                                         Cluster
                                                                                                                    Employment
     Agriculture and Natural Resource Conservation                                          13,024                       3.4%
      111422   Floriculture Production                                                       4,900       37.6%           1.3%
      111421   Nursery and Tree Production                                                   4,504       34.6%           1.2%
     813312    Environment, Conservation and Wildlife Organizations                          1,264        9.7%           0.3%
     111998    All Other Miscellaneous Crop Farming                                            602        4.6%           0.2%
     712190    Nature Parks and Other Similar Institutions                                     524        4.0%           0.1%
     Total Green Related Employment                                                       385,355

                                                                        Source: Michigan Department of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth



            Agriculture and Natural Resource Conservation was the smallest green segment, with only .4 percent
        (1,000 employees) of total green-related jobs. (It is important to note that the Quarterly Census of
        Employment and Wages program (QCEW), that generates this employment data, does not capture self-
        employed workers, which is a significant component in agriculture). Two industries in this green segment stood
        out: Floriculture production and Nursery tree production comprised 7. percent of total employment in the
        cluster. Many of the industry sectors in this area are engaged in crop production, which is very sensitive to
        seasonal variations.




          Figure 12: Share of Green-Related Employment by Cluster, Michigan 2008 Q2


                                                                                 Miscellaneous Green
                                                                                 Manufacturing 4.9%
                                               Increasing Energy
                                                   Efficiency
                                                     30.6%                             Pollution Prevention and
                                                                                      Environmental Cleanup 6%

          Engineering, Testing and                                                      Renewable Energy Production
            Consulting Services                                                                    4.7%
                   22.1%
                                                           Clean
                                                      Transportation                 Agriculture and Natural
                                                         and Fuels                 Resource Conservation 3.4%
                                                          28.3%




                                                                   Source: Michigan Department of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth




    Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009
   Broad Cluster Analysis –                                   greater than 1.0 (Figure 1). Each of the four clusters
                                                              witnessed losses in employment from 004 to
   Location Quotients
                                                              008. The only broad cluster to gain in employment
   An analysis of green-related industries in Michigan
                                                              over that time, Renewable Energy Production, had
   can be put into perspective by comparing statewide
                                                              a relatively low concentration of employment in
   results to national norms. By deriving location
                                                              Michigan.
   quotients for each of Michigan’s seven green-related
                                                                  Many green-related industries suffered job loss
   industry clusters, it is possible to compare base
                                                              from 004 to 008, as did the broader Michigan
   employment and industrial activity across regions. A       economy. However, a handful of detailed green-
   state’s location quotient is determined by comparing       related sectors in Michigan are not only relatively
   the share of employment in a particular industry           highly concentrated in terms of jobs, but also
   or cluster to the share of employment in that same         managed to record employment growth from 004
   industry in the national economy. A location quotient      to 008. Process & logistics consulting firms, which
   greater than 1.0 for a detailed industry signals that an   offer operating advice and assistance in areas such as
   area has a concentration of jobs above the national        manufacturing operations improvement, productivity,
   average in that industry. Four out of Michigan’s seven     production planning, and quality assurance, were
   broad green-related clusters have location quotients       44 percent more concentrated in Michigan than in



                     Figure 13: Employment, Location Quotient, Employment
                             Change by Cluster; Michigan, 2004-2008


              High Job Concentration Loss in Jobs Since 2004                        Location Quotient    High Job Concentration Gain
                                                                                                               in Jobs Since 2004




Employment Change




                                                                                                        Low Job Concentration Gain in
              Low Job Concentration Loss in Jobs Since 2004                                                    Jobs Since 2004


                                                                   Source: Michigan Department of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth




                                                                                                         Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009   
       the United States in the second quarter of 008.
       Employment in this industry was up nearly four
       percent since 004. Firms in the business of Industrial          Renewable Energy—
       design services have also recorded employment
                                                                        The Renewable Energy Production cluster
       expansion since 004, and are highly concentrated in
                                                                        showed a growth rate of 7.1 percent during
       the Michigan economy (Figure 14). Taken as a whole,
                                                                        this period of economic slowdown.
       the green-related industries selected for this study
       comprise a higher share of total jobs in Michigan than
       is true of the national economy.
           As was previously mentioned, it should be noted
       that not all jobs in these green-related sectors are
       currently generated by the green economy. However,
       if green business expands in the state, many existing
       Michigan firms in these sectors could have the expertise
       to diversify into green business activities.

       Job Change in Green-Related Industries
       In recent years, Michigan’s economy has been
       impacted by significant levels of job loss. Between
       the second quarter of 004 and 008, private
       payroll jobs in Michigan experienced a decline of
       5.4 percent. Following the state’s trend, total jobs
       in this set of green-related industries jobs also           communication line and related structures construction
       contracted during this time, falling at a faster rate of    (+996 jobs) and Semiconductor and related device
       18.5 percent. However, this is an imperfect gauge of        manufacturing (+835 jobs). Establishments that
       the status of green-related employment, since many          produce solar and fuel cells may be classified in
       of the job cuts in these industries had nothing to          the Semiconductor and related device manufacturing
       do with the green economy, but merely reflect that          industry.
       many green-related jobs are in the manufacturing                The majority of the job losses stemmed from
       and construction industry sectors. These are the very       two core areas: Clean Transportation and Fuels,
       sectors most impacted by recent job loss, due to the        and Increasing Energy Efficiency. Not surprisingly,
       deterioration of the auto industry and the collapse of      there is a high concentration of manufacturing and
       the housing market.                                         construction sectors in these two clusters.
           Despite these data limitations, Figure 15 displays          About one-third of the total green-related
       some relevant results. This chart contrasts the             industries exhibited job gains over this period.
       percentage point change in employment for all seven         Figure 16 shows a selection of specific green-related
       green-related clusters, from 004 to 008. Despite the      industries that exhibited gains in employment
       recent decline of total jobs in green-related industries,   between the nd quarter of 004 and 008, with the
       three of the clusters have outperformed the change          Renewable Energy Production industries mentioned
       in total state payroll jobs. The Agriculture and Natural    above leading the growth. A diverse set of green-
       Resource and the Miscellaneous Green Manufacturing          related industry sectors displayed job growth, from
       segments declined more slowly than total jobs, at -.1      Recyclable material merchant wholesalers – which
       percent and -5.1 percent, respectively.                     deals with the distribution of industrial scrap and
           A relative bright spot is Renewable Energy              other recyclable materials – to firms involve in
       Production, which showed a growth rate of 7.1 percent       providing Environmental consulting services. The
       during this period of economic slowdown. The bulk           growth of the green economy spans an array of
       of this growth is fueled by two industries, Power and       industry sectors.



4   Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009
     Figure 14: Cluster and Select Industry Employment, Location Quotient,
                    Employment Change; Michigan, 2004-2008

                                                                         Location                         ’04-’08 Emp
Cluster / Industry                                                                      2008 Q2 Emp
                                                                         Quotient                           Change

Agriculture & Natural Resource Conservation                                 1.28           13,024            -2.2%

   111422       Floriculture Production                                     2.72            4,900             0.3%

   712190       Nature Parks                                                2.04              524             8.5%

Clean Transportation & Fuels                                                5.45         109,044            -33.6%

Engineering, Testing, & Consulting                                          1.38           85,293            -6.4%

   541330        Engineering Services                                       1.36          38,734             -1.4%

   541380       Testing Laboratories                                        4.36           19,869           -11.7%

   541614       Process & Logistics Consulting                              1.44            4,029            3.8%

   541712       R&D in the Physical, Eng., Life Sciences                    1.29          16,409            -10.4%

Increasing Energy Efficiency                                                0.77          117,828           -17.2%

   327215       Glass Product Manufacturing                                 3.45            5,061           -15.1%

   327993       Automatic Environmental Control Mfg.                        1.42              998            -5.5%

   541420       Industrial Design Services                                  4.91            2,039           53.7%

Miscellaneous Green Manufacturing                                           1.03           19,033            -5.1%

   325211       Plastics Material & Resin Mfg.                              3.64            6,651            -0.5%

   325311       Measuring and Controlling Devices                           1.14            1,114            -5.6%

Pollution Prevention & Environmental Cleanup                                0.94          22,994             -8.0%

   221320       Sewage Treatment Facilities                                 1.54              357            -1.4%

   423930       Recyclable Materials Merchant Wholesalers                   1.21            4,364            10.1%

   562111       Solid Waste Collection                                      1.20            4,374             9.8%

   562112       Hazardous Waste Collection                                  2.76              650           -14.2%

   562219       Other Non-hazardous Waste Treat. & Disp.                    3.11            1,462            2.8%

   562998       All Other Misc. Waste Management Services                   1.19              479           -10.3%

Renewable Energy Production                                                 0.57           18,139             7.1%

   221119       Other Electric Power Generation                             1.04              314            -9.5%

   486210       Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas                      1.16              909            -9.0%

All Green-Related Clusters                                                  1.21         385,355            -18.5%

                                                           Source: Michigan Department of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth




                                                                                           Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009   5
                    Figure 15: Change in Employment for Green-Related Clusters,
                                        Michigan 2004 to 2008




                                                                                                                                                   Miscellaneous Green Manufacturing




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Total Green Related Employment
                                                  Clean Transportation and Fuels




                                                                                                              Increasing Energy Efficiency




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Renewable Energy
                                                                                                                                                                                       Pollution Prevention and
                                                                                   Engineering, Testing and
                        Agriculture and Natural




                                                                                                                                                                                         Environmental Cleanup
                        Resource Conservation




                                                                                        Consulting Services




                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Production
            10%




              0%




            -10%




            -20%




            -30%
                                                                                                                                                                                       Overall Change in Total Jobs

                                                                                                                                                                                       2004–2008

            -40%




       Michigan’s Competitive Employment                                                                                                         Areas of relative strength for Michigan’s
                                                                                                                                             green-related industries were concentrated in the
       Performance in Green-related Industries
                                                                                                                                             Increasing Energy Efficiency, Miscellaneous Green
       A few green-related industries have grown more
                                                                                                                                             Manufacturing, and Renewable Energy Production
       rapidly in Michigan than in the United States. To
                                                                                                                                             clusters. The single best Competitive Employment
       better understand this, we take up a measure of
                                                                                                                                             Performance industry in Michigan included firms in
       Competitive Employment Performance. This variable
                                                                                                                                             the business of producing Semiconductor and related
       measures the level of local job growth in an industry
                                                                                                                                             devices. From the second quarter of 004 to the
       which is above the increase that would have been
       realized had that local industry simply matched the                                                                                   same quarter in 008, this industry added 85 jobs
       national industry trend. Competitive Employment                                                                                       in Michigan. During the same period, the industry
       Performance sectors include statewide industries that                                                                                 nationally shed an estimated 11,500 jobs. It is likely
       are adding jobs faster in Michigan than nationally,                                                                                   that Michigan’s comparatively good performance
       and may indicate that an industry sector enjoys a                                                                                     reflects growth of employment in solar manufacturing
       regional competitive advantage. Figure 17 identifies                                                                                  whereas the larger national reduction of jobs reflects
       a few green-related sectors in which job gains in                                                                                     primarily non-green production cutbacks, such as
       Michigan have outpaced national trends.                                                                                               chips for computers.




6   Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009
                        Figure 16: Employment Growth in Michigan’s
                            Green Related Industries, 2004-2008

                                                                                2004        2008        #        %
NAICS     NAICS Title
                                                                                 Q2          Q2       Change   Change

          Power and Communication Line and Related Structures
237130                                                                        3,315         4,311       996      30.0
          Construction
334413    Semiconductor and Related Device Manufacturing                          325       1,160       835     256.9

541420    Industrial Design Services                                          1,327         2,039       712      53.7

423930    Recyclable Material Merchant Wholesalers                            3,962         4,364       402      10.1

813312    Environment, Conservation and Wildlife Organizations                    904       1,264       360      39.8

334419    Other Electronic Component Manufacturing                                958       1,245       287      30.0

541620    Environmental Consulting Services                                   1,732         1,893       161        9.3

541690    Other Scientific and Technical Consulting Services                      884       1,013       129      14.6
          Commercial, Industrial, and Institutional Electric Lighting
335122                                                                            284         353        69      24.3
          Fixture Manufacturing


                                                          Source: Michigan Department of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth




  Figure 17: Job Change and Competitive Employment Performance for Green
              Clusters and Select Industries; Michigan, 2004-2008

                                                                                                      MI        U.S.
                                                             Jobs        Jobs           Change
Cluster / Industry                                                                                  Percent    Percent
                                                             2004        2008           in Jobs
                                                                                                    Change     Change

Increasing Energy Efficiency

541420     Industrial Design Services                        1,327        2,039            712       53.7%      37.4%

333415     Air-Conditioning, Heat, Refrigeration Equip.      2,235        2,539            304       13.6%      -1.8%

Miscellaneous Green Manufacturing

334419     Other Electronic Component Manufacturing            958        1,245            287      30.0%        9.4%

326113     Unlaminated Plastics Film & Sheet                   642          751            109       17.0%     -10.8%

Pollution Prevention & Environmental Cleanup

562920     Materials Recovery Facilities                        59         133              74      125.4%     34.4%

Renewable Energy Production

237130     Power & Communication Line Construction           3,315        4,311            996      30.0%      24.9%

334413     Semiconductor and Related Devices                   325        1,160            835      256.9%      -5.2%


                                                          Source: Michigan Department of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth




                                                                                            Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009   7
       Wages in Green-related Industry Clusters                          As Figure 18 illustrates, the wage impact of this
       The total impact of green-related industries is not           set of green-related industries is much higher on
       limited to their direct employment numbers. Wages             average than those industries not associated with the
       paid across specific industries provide a good deal           green economy. As of the second quarter 008, the
       of information about prospects for growth and offers          Engineering, Testing and Consulting Services cluster
       clues about what kind of potential total impact a             paid the highest wages per worker on an annualized
       particular industry has on the economy in terms               basis. Workers across a variety of occupations within
       of disposable income and spending. If a particular            these industries made roughly $81,900 per year on
       industry pays above-average wages, it is important            average, nearly double the overall private average
       to recognize the impact that industry has on the local        of $4,00. This is not surprising considering that
       economy, well beyond the direct jobs supplied.                many businesses within this group employ workers
           The table below presents average industry wages           with extensive technical and scientific knowledge
       for Michigan green-related industries from the                in industries such as Testing laboratories, Research
       Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages (QCEW)                 and development, and Engineering and environmental
       program. This data reflects overtime pay and bonuses,         consulting.
       and reflects the wages earned by all workers in these             In fact, aside from Agriculture and Natural
       industries, not just green-related workers. Each of           Resource Conservation, all green-related industry
       these sectors obviously employs a mix of occupations,         groups provide above-average industry wage rates.
       earning high, moderate, and low earnings level.               Clean Transportation and Fuels was a very close
       However, despite these data limitations, the wage             second with wages almost 90 percent higher than
       data for industries likely to employ green workers            average, due to payroll generated by the Michigan
       shows that many pay above average wage levels.                auto industry. And, despite the high average
           The table below offers a broad view of the seven          wages displayed by the top two clusters, Pollution
       green-related industry clusters identified earlier in the     Prevention and Environmental Cleanup, which ranked
       report, and provides some general insight into the            second to last, averaged a 1.5 percent premium over
       potential relative wage impacts of segments of the            total private wages per worker.
       green economy.




        Figure 18: Total Payrolls and Per-Worker Averages in Green-related Clusters

                                                                                          Per Worker         Comparison with
                                                                   Total Wages
        Cluster Description                                                                 Wages             Private Sector
                                                                   (Annualized)
                                                                                         (Annualized)         Average Wage

        Engineering, Testing and Consulting Services               $6,984,542,112           $81,889             + $39,722

        Clean Transportation and Fuels                             $8,644,817,928           $79,278              + $37,112

        Miscellaneous Green Manufacturing                          $1,157,841,632           $60,833             + $18,667

        Renewable Energy Production                                $1,022,781,804           $56,386             + $14,219

        Increasing Energy Efficiency                               $5,927,686,336           $50,308              + $8,141

        Pollution Prevention and Environmental Cleanup             $1,091,248,976           $47,458              + $5,291

        Agriculture and Natural Resource Conservation                $307,752,536           $23,630              -$18,537

                                                                   Source: Michigan Department of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth




8   Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009
Wages in Detailed Green and                                   terms of green jobs paid more than the private sector

Green-related Industries                                      average weekly wage of $811, while ten were well
                                                              above this average (at least $100 per week more).
The wages in the broad clusters serve to provide a
                                                              Furthermore, eight of the top 15 green industries paid
general overview of green-related industry wages.
However, more detailed information on specific green          more than $1,000 per week, or over $50,000 per year.
and green-related industries can be gleaned from the              The highest paying of the industries that generate
QCEW data as well. The table below provides a look            many green jobs was Utilities, which averaged
at the top 15 three-digit NAICS industries ranked in          roughly $1,480 per week per worker in the second
terms of their share of overall green jobs (according         quarter 008. Close behind it were the Transportation
to the results from the survey) and the average               equipment manufacturing ($1,41), Professional
weekly wages (from the QCEW) paid in each industry            and technical services ($1,41), and Chemical
overall (not just to green workers).                          manufacturing ($1,5) industries.
    As Figure 19 indicates, green-related industries             Though manufacturing industries account for
hold the potential for workers to earn positive wage          many of the highest-paying green-related sectors,
rates. Thirteen of the top 15 broad industries in             opportunities to make decent wages in the green



    Figure 19: Average Weekly Wages per Worker in Top Green Job Industries*

                                                                               Average Industry            Share of Total
 3-digit NAICS   Industry Name
                                                                                Weekly Wages                Green Jobs

      336        Transportation Equipment Manufacturing                               $1,421                    26.6%

      541        Professional and Technical Services                                  $1,341                    22.9%

      238        Specialty Trade Contractors                                           $885                     10.2%

      236        Construction of Buildings                                             $873                       3.7%

      111        Crop Production                                                        $414                      3.6%

      423        Merchant Wholesalers, Durable Goods                                  $1,202                      2.9%

      561        Administrative Services                                                $568                      2.8%

      221        Utilities                                                           $1,480                       2.7%

      562        Waste Management and Remediation Services                              $922                      2.2%

      332        Fabricated Metal Product Manufacturing                                $888                       2.1%

      333        Machinery Manufacturing                                              $1,095                      1.7%

      327        Nonmetallic Mineral Product Manufacturing                            $1,059                      1.5%

      334        Computer and Electronic Product Manu.                               $1,066                       1.3%

      322        Paper Manufacturing                                                    $969                      1.1%

      325        Chemical Manufacturing                                               $1,335                      1.1%

                 Average Industry Weekly Wage                                           $811

                                                 *Share of total green jobs derived from DELEG employer survey. Average wages
                                               come from QCEW program, and reflect all jobs in the industry, not just green jobs.

                                                           Source: Michigan Department of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth




                                                                                               Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009      9
       economy cover a wide range of broader two-                    actual green jobs clearly hold the potential to impact
       digit NAICS sectors as well. The eight $1,000-plus            the economy beyond direct employment by providing
       industries were spread across four different broad            notable income to workers.
       sectors: manufacturing, professional and technical                Figure 0 provides wage data on a more detailed
       services, utilities and wholesale trade. These sectors        set of green-related industries than the broader
       offer a good deal of variety by occupation and cover a        sectors shown in Figure 19.
       wide range of interests and skill sets.                           The industries in Figure 0 represent the ten
           Consistent with the analysis of green-related             largest green-related sectors in terms of aggregate
       clusters, the agriculture-related industry in this list,      employment size (total jobs, not necessarily just
       Crop production, had the lowest average wage at only          green jobs). Each of these detailed industries has an
       $414 per week. Administrative and support services is         average weekly wage in excess of the private industry
       another detailed industry that provides many green            average. This is an important indicator in that large
       jobs (.8 percent of total green), but paid notably           industries generate large numbers of job openings,
       less than average ($568 weekly). Aside from these             and these industries also tend to pay above average
       exceptions, however, the top industries in terms of           wages.




                             Figure 20: Annual Payroll-Per-Worker – 10 Largest
                                Detailed Green-Related Industries – Michigan
                                                                                          Total Private Average, $42,166


                              Testing Laboratories                                                                   $105,308

           R & D in the Physical, Engineering, and
              Life Sciences (except Biotechnology)                                                                 $97,290

                   Motor Vehicle Transmission and
                                                                                                                   $95,280
                  Power Train Parts Manufacturing

                        Automobile Manufacturing                                                                  $94,944

                              Engineering Services                                                 $70,375
                        Motor Vehicle Seating and
                       Interior Trim Manufacturing                                           $63,823

            Electrical Contractors and Other Wiring
          Installation Contractors —Nonresidential                                       $57,611
          Plumbing, Heating, and Air-Conditioning
                    Contractors —Nonresidential                                          $57,201

                      Commercial and Institutional
                           Building Construction                                        $55,695

                All Other Motor Vehicle Parts Mfg.                                      $54,692


                                                      $0   $20,000       $40,000      $60,000       $80,000      $100,000


                                                                  Source: Michigan Department of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth




40   Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009
    Industries such as Testing laboratories        physics. However, positive wages are also likely to
and Research and development in the physical,      be available in industries requiring less extensive
engineering, and life sciences, pay particularly   education such as Plumbing and heating contractors
high average wages, and are examples of green-     and Electrical contractors. Workers in these and other
related sectors that are part of the knowledge     green-related sectors will still need extensive specific
economy. These sectors contain jobs requiring      skills training, which will contribute to their ability to
extensive education in mathematics, science, and   earn positive wages.




                                                                                Michigan Green Jobs Report 2009   41

								
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