Introduction to GIS systems

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					Introduction to
 GIS Systems
   Ady Ecker
History
                Applications
￿ Cartography
￿ Military C 4I
￿ Government
￿ Transportation
￿ Agriculture
￿ Business
￿ Communications, mobile devices
￿ Internet


http://gis.esri.com/esriclips/clip.cfm?ClipID=60
The North Carolina Center
      for Geographic
  Information & Analysis
          (CGIA)
     For More Information
   www.cgia.state.nc.us
    What is a Geographic
 Information System (GIS)?
￿A computer-based data storage and
 analysis tool that combines previously
 unrelated information into a
 comprehensive picture.
      Corporate Geographic
           Database


Framework Data              Thematic Data

         Land Ownership

         Transportation             Flood Zones
                                     Wetlands
         Surface Waters
                                     Landcover
         Boundaries
                                     Water Lines
         Geodetic Control
                                     Sewer Lines
         Elevation
                                     Soils
         Aerial Imagery
GIS gives you the power to do
   things that were simply
      impossible before.
￿ The   power
 to
 understand
 complex
 relationships
 .



                 Forsyth County: Water Supplies & Water
                            Delivery System
￿ The power to
 plan for tomorrow,
 based on an
 accurate picture
 of today.
    power to present data in a clear,
￿ The
 compelling way.
￿ The   power to make informed decisions.
￿ Thepower to save time, money
 and even lives.
      GIS can be applied to:
￿ Crime  reduction     ￿ Economic
￿ Public safety          development
  enhancement          ￿ School bus routing
￿ Siting new schools   ￿ Fire station location
￿ Redistricting        ￿ Land conservation
￿ Floodplain mapping   ￿ Environmental impact
￿ Growth                 studies
  management           ￿ Water & sewer
￿ Disaster recovery      expansion
￿ Tax mapping          ￿ Superfund cleanup
      Situation #1:
The City of Wilson needed to
   locate a new fire station.
               Wilson, N.C.
Without GIS:

￿ drive   all the roads in the city
       times and distances to each
￿ figure
  household and business by hand
￿ allow    a year to complete the study
             Wilson, N.C.

With GIS:
    more than 40 computer
￿ ran
 scenarios in just 3 days
￿ analyzed benefits of building a new
 station versus moving an existing one
￿ determined  best solution: relocate 2
 existing stations
            Wilson, N.C.

Results:
￿ reduced time to reach all locations in
 city from 7 minutes to 4 minutes
￿ over5 years, city saved an estimated
 $2,000,000 in building costs,
 equipment, salaries, etc.
Disaster recovery
Floodplain mapping



                                            500
                                            year
                                            flood


          Hurricane                        100
          Floyd                            year
                                           flood




                      Flooding in Greenville
Watershed
 planning
Zoning
Smart
growth
Police and fire deployment
Residential
developme
nt
Economic development
Fund allocation




              Prime
              Farmland in
              Johnston
              County
Intelligent demographics
       Typical system structure


                                    display
data
              storage   network
acquisition
                                  Application
                                  logic
          Research areas

￿ Computer vision
￿ Computational Geometry
￿ Graphics
￿ HCI
                 Geodesy

￿ Ellipsoid
￿ Projections:Geographic, UTM
￿ Distance, Azimuth
￿ Datum
                     Elevations
￿ Geoid
￿ DTM  representations:
  TIN, Grid, elevation
  contours
￿ Problems:
  –   interpolation
  –   rendering
  –   line and area of sight
  –   planning routes in 3D
  –   HCI
            Practical issues

￿ Formats
￿ Data  integration
￿ Software engineering
￿ Printing
             Key Players

￿ Nima
￿ ESRI  – ArcGIS
￿ Intergraph - Geomedia
￿ MapInfo
￿ Autometric (Boeing)
Snapshots (Autometric)
Snapshots (Autometric)
                    ESRI

￿ http://gis.esri.com/esriclips/clip.cfm?ClipID
  =83
￿ http://gis.esri.com/esriclips/clip.cfm?clipID
  =111
￿ http://gis.esri.com/esriclips/clip.cfm?clipID
  =107
        GeoMedia Demos

￿ Queries
                Skyline

￿ http://www.skylinesoft.com/corporate/go3d
 /go3d_home.asp?StartCity=Washington
The End

				
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