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Chemical Kinetics and Equilibrium - PowerPoint

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					Chemical Kinetics and Equilibrium

Reaction Rates
• How fast or slow the reaction occurs

Collision Theory
• 2 conditions must be satisfied for a chemical reaction to occur Particles of reactants must collide with one another; and Colliding particles must have sufficient energy

Activation Energy
• Minimum amount of energy needed for a reaction to occur

F> Ea Ea

F < Ea

Ea

Energy Diagram for Exothermic reaction

increasing energy

Average energy of reactants

Energy difference bet. reactants and products

Average energy of products

Energy Diagram for Endothermic reaction

increasing energy energy of the products energy of reactants

energy difference

Factors Affecting Rate of reaction
• • • • Surface Area Concentration of reactants Temperature Presence of Catalyst

Surface area of reactants
• Consider the block of wood or wood shavings The smaller the particle size of wood the greater the surface area exposed to oxygen thus the rate of reaction increases.

Concentration of Reactants
• An increase in concentration of the reactants causes an increase in the rate of chemical reaction

Temperature
• Higher temperature increases reaction rates • Ex: ripe fruits are placed in the refrigerator to slow down the ripening process.

Presence of Catalyst
• Catalyst Substance that speeds up chemical reaction without itself undergoing a chemical change Inhibitor --->substances that slow down reaction

Activation energy of uncatalized reaction
• catalyzed activation energy

Uncatalyzed • activation energy

• • • • • •

Note: Catalysts increases reaction rates by providing alternative reaction pathways with lower activation energies

Lower activation energy
• Means that a lower amount of energy is needed to surpass the energy barrier.

Chemical Equibrium
• It is always assumed that chemical reaction go to completion • However, only few chemical reactions proceed to completion • Reversible reaction N2O4(g) 2NO

Reversible Reaction
• A chemical reaction in which the products can regenerate the original reactants
N2O4(g) colorless 2NO2 brown

N2O4(g) -------> 2NO2(g) ( forward Reaction) 2NO2 (g)-------> N2O4(g) (backward Reaction)

Chemical Equilibrium
• The rate of forward reaction and backward reactions are equal • Is dynamic  The reactants constantly forms the products while the products constantly forms the reactants Note: In equilibrium, concentration of reactants and products do not change

Ex: dynamic Equilibrium
• Carbonated Drinks • CO2 + H20 ---> H2CO3 carbonic acid
When the bottle is opened the pressure is released, carbon dioxide evolved from the decomposition of carbonic acid

H2CO3 ------> CO2 + H2O

• CO2 + H20

H2CO3

Equilibrium Constants(K)
Can be obtained in any equilibrium reaction Equal to the Ratio of the equilibrium concentration of the products to the equilibrium concentration of the reactants aA + bB ----->cC + dD Where: a,b,c & d -- are the coefficients A,B,C & D– are the chemical species

Equilibrium Constant(K)
aA + bB ----->cC + dD

• K = [C]c [D]d [A]a [B]b

=

[ products ] [reactants]

--> Experimentally at equilibrium, Concentration of the

products raised to a certain power divided the concentration of the reactants also raised to a certain power is constant at( fixed temperature)

Is also called equilibrium expression

Note:
• K = [ products] [reactants] • is the concentration of products over that of the reactants • If the K value is small, it means that the equilibrium concentration of the products is small while the reactants are large. This indicates that at equilibrium, the system consist mostly of reactants • If the K value is great , it means that the equilibrium system consist mostly of the products

Writing equilibrium expression
• If a pure liquid or solid is involved in a reaction, its concentration is omitted in the equilibrium expression because it has constant concentration in mol/L at constant Temperature

Ex:
• Write the equilibrium expression for the reaction below • H2(g) + F2(g) 2HF(g)

• K = [ HF]2 • [H2] [F2]

Ex:2
• Write the equilibrium expression for the reaction below • N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)

• K = [NH3]2 [N2][H2]3

Ex:3
• Write the equilibrium expression for the reaction below • CaCO3(s) CaO(s) +CO2(g)

• K = [ CO2]

Ex:4
• Write the equilibrium expression for the reaction below • 2Hg(l) + O2(g) 2HgO(s)

• K= 1 • [O2]

since solid and liquid is omitted

Exercises
• Write the expression of the following Reactions
a) b) c) 2H2S(g) + 3O2(g) 2H2O(g) + 2SO2(g) CO2(g) + H2(g) ---> CO(g) + H2O(l) FeO(s) + H2(g) --->

Le Chatelier’s Principle
• States that if a change in conditions is imposed on a system at equilibrium, the equilibrium position will shift in the direction that tends to reduce the effects of that change -->The effect of change in concentration
 The effect of change in Volume

The effect of change in temperature

Effects of Change in Concentration on reaction Equilibrium

• Consider the equation below N2 + 3H2 2NH3(g)
This equation shows equilibrium because of the two arrows of the same length that is rate of forward reaction is equal to the rate of backward reaction. What will happen if you increase the concentration of N2? increasing the concentration of the reactants means more collision between them that increases the rate of forward reaction as shown below

N2 + 3H2

2NH3(g)

Notice that the arrow pointing to the right has a greater length which indicates forward reaction increases meaning more production of NH3

What happens if you increase the concentration of NH3 in the previous example?
N2 + 3H2 2NH3(g) Increasing the concentration of NH3 will shift the reaction to the left. Note: If a reactant or product is added to the system, the system shifts away from the added component If a reactant or product is removed, the system shifts toward the removed component

Exercise
• Suppose the reaction system

2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3 (g) Has reached equilibrium. Predict the effect of each of the following changes on the position of the equilibrium a) SO2(g) is added to the system Ans. Shift to the right( forward) b) The SO3(g) present is liquefied and removed from the system Ans. Shift to the right(forward) b)Some of the O2 gas is removed from the system Ans. Shift to the left ( backward)

The effect of Change in Volume and pressure
Recall : Boyle’s law : Pressure is inversely proportional to Volume of gases The smaller the volume, the higher the pressure between molecules Avogadro’s Law : V is directly proportional to the # of moles at constant T • Consider the equation below: suppose the gases below are mixed in a vessel at equilibrium 2 NOCl(g) 2NO(g) + Cl2(g) What will happen to the equilibrium position if we reduce the volume?  Reducing volume means increasing the pressure between the molecules of the gases, the system moves in the direction that lowers its pressure. In the equation above, the direction will shift to the left because the products has more molecules (3 molecules) than the reactant (2molecules).  In other words, the equilibrium position will shift toward the side of the reaction that involves the smaller number of gaseous molecules in the balanced equation 2 NOCl(g) 2NO(g) + Cl2(g)

What happens when volume is increased in the previous example? 2 NOCl(g) 2NO(g) + Cl2(g)

• When the volume is increased, it lowers the pressure of the system, thus the direction will shift to the right to increase the total number of gaseous molecules present

Predict the shift in equilibrium of the reaction below when volume is reduced
a) P4(s) + 6Cl2(g)
6 gaseous molecules

4PCl3(l)
0 gaseous molecules

The direction will shift toward the right since it has 0 gaseous molecules PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) PCl5(g) 2 gaseous molecules 1 gaseous molecule The direction will shift to the right since it has lesser number of gaseous molecules c) PCl3(g) + 3NH3(g) P(NH2)3(g) + 3HCl(g) 4 molecules 4 molecules Since the # of gaseous molecules in both sides are equal, a change in volume will have no effect on the equilibrium position b)

Practice:
•

a)
b)

For each of the following reaction predict the direction in which the equilibrium will shift when volume in the container is increased 4NH3(g) + 5O2(g) 4NO(g) + 6H2O(g) FeO(s) + H2(g) Fe(s) + H2O(g)

The effect of change in Temperature
The change in concentration and volume in the system alter the equilibrium position but not the equilibrium constant (K) The effect of temperature on equilibrium is different because the value of equilibrium constant (K) is change  If the reaction is exothermic that means it releases heat the direction will shift to the left since heat is is one of the products A) C(s) + O2(g) <-------> CO2(g) + heat direction will shift away from heat( to the left)  If the reaction is endothermic, energy is one of the reactants so the direction will shift to the right

Exercise:
• Predict the shift would each of the changes below have on the reaction
O2(g) + 2CO(g) 2CO2(g) + heat a)Increasing [CO] b)Increasing [CO2] c) Increasing Temperature d) Decreasing volume


				
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