Conclusion by pengxuezhuyes

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									W   E       E   K       7      R       E       F    L E C T I                  O     N   S   A   N   D
                                   U       P       D A T E S
                            A C on c lu s ion t o Proje c t C u t Up or S h u t Up




                              CURTAIN CALL

!       !       !   !                  By: Zach Connell




!       !       !   ZC Fitness: http://www.zcfitnessandnutrition.com
	

       	

        	

       What This Has Meant To Me
!         It’s hard for me to believe that 45 days ago I started this cutting nutrition and training program as a means to stay moti-
vated and set out specific goals for me while rehabbing a torn hip adductor. Honestly, I was in the most frustrated state of mind that
I’ve ever experienced when it came to lifting and I was absolutely convinced that I’d be having surgery right about now. Feeling as
much pain as I did in my groin region just waking up and getting out of bed let alone lifting on it was completely discouraging and
the most awkward and unwelcoming discomfort that I believe a man can experience. Using a weight for squats that I used for my
first max out ever in high school in the football weight room has been an extremely humbling experience for the past 6 1/2 weeks,
but guess what? It worked. I no longer have any pain and getting in a deep squatting position doesn’t bother me at all.

!         While this is great for me personally my favorite part about this experience is how I went about the process. While I
couldn’t stick to my original goals of gaining a good bit of muscle mass in the gym with some time and extra motivation I was able
to devise a training and nutrition program that I believe can serve as a successful model for losing weight or cutting up for a body
building/ fitness competition. As a Kinesiology Master’s program student and completing an Exercise and Sport Science degree in
undergrad my pet peeve has always been the people in my major that don’t seem to well actually exercise. I firmly believe that in
order to be successful in this field of work you have to have a strong desire to apply what you’re learning to your own personal life.
After all, what better tool can you use to represent your body of work other than your own body? Furthermore, I’m happy to have
completed this program since it serves as a testament to my passion for the field of fitness and as a powerful tool to help relate to
my clients. I can also use it to help construct safe and effective training programs ranging from an individual wanting to lose weight
in order to improve their health to an elite body builder who is trying to prep for the stage. I also used the nutritional strategy of
carbohydrate cycling for the first time in my life and I have to say that I’m a more well rounded trainer for it. Skeptical of the idea
that eating more fat helps burn more fat? Yeah, I was too, but my diet consisted of more fat/day in the past 6 weeks than I think it
has in the past 5 years and to my amazement my body torched fat right off of my frame.

!         Lastly, like I previously mentioned, I believe that far too many good ideas fail to be fulfilled simply because they were
never put on paper. While training and exercise have been my major release from stress the amount of time I spend in the gym/
week has left me feeling far too one track minded- until recently. Writing for the first time in my life and putting extra effort into
cooking have added extra dimensions to my being and dedicating time for this blog has made me a happier person and I feel that I
have more to contribute to the world’s table of conversation. So I only find it appropriate to strongly suggest to you that if you have
an idea that you feel strongly about- pursue it, write it down, reflect upon it and if you truly believe it to be of value then act upon
it. Your ideas are way too important. Your talents are far too vast. Time is too precious, and the world is too crowded for you to try
to just fit in. Instead of trying to find your place amongst the masses why don’t you just create something truly beautiful that you
can call your own? The world is changed by people who strive to be different and embrace their own path and I challenge you to
realize the potential of your own gifts and blaze your own trail.

!         So without further ado, it’s finally time to reveal to you the results of Project Cut Up or Shut Up. In this reflection, I will
include; before and after DEXA scan results, before and after pictures, an in-depth review of successful nutritional strategies for
everyone including specific ideal templates from my high carbohydrate, low carbohydrate and no carbohydrate training days, a full
in depth review of vitamins and minerals, a full review of my supplement stack complete with usage recommendations for the
average gym goer and competitive body builder, a review of my training philosophy and finally a detailed step by step guide of
how to create a training program to burn fat by incorporating carbohydrate cycling into your diet.




ZC Fitness and Nutrition !                                                                        We e k 7 R e f l e c t i o n s : C u r t a i n C a l l


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               !         !            Before & After: DEXA Scan Results
                                                                                              !       I have to admit for the past week
                                                                                              I’ve been really unsure of where I was going
                                                                                              to end up when everything was all said and
                                                                                              done and this project was over. When I
                                                                                              started this program on October 29th my
                                                                                              bathroom scale pegged me at 190 lbs. A few
                                                                                              days later I had my first DEXA scan on Hal-
                                                                                              loween that informed me I was 188.1 lbs at
                                                                                              the time and my body composition con-
                                                                                              sisted of 8.4% body fat. That’s the equiva-
                                                                                              lent of 15.79 pounds out of my total 188.1
                                                                                              lbs was fat mass. Looking back at the results
                                                                                              of my first DEXA scan and week 1’s reflec-
                                                                                              tions I wanted to set out some specific goals
                                                                                              for my program. At a healthy weight loss
                                                                                              goal of 1 lb/week and having budgeted a
                                                                                              little over 6 weeks for my program I wanted
                                                                                              to trim down to 180-182 pounds- a weight
                                                                                              corresponding to 4-6% body fat if I main-
                                                                                              tained my lean body mass (fat free mass).
                                                                                              The overly ambitious competitor in me was
                                                                                              really hoping to reach 180 pound and closer
                                                                                              to the 4% body fat mark but the professional
                                                                                              exercise physiologist in me wanted to en-
                                                                                              sure that I went about getting my results in
                                                                                              a healthy process that I could recommend to
                                                                                              another individual.

                                                                                              !       When it was all said and done this
                                                                                              program lasted 45 days, 42 days between
                                                                                              DEXA scans, and I went from a weight of
                                                                                              190 to 180 lbs. according to my bathroom
                                                                                              scale and a weight of 188.1 to 182.6 lbs ac-
Before Training DEXA Scan: 188.1 lbs. 8.4% Body Fat 15.79 lbs Body Fat 164.08 lbs Lean Mass   cording to the DEXA scan. (Sidenote- this
                                                                                              goes to show you that bathroom scales
                                                                                              aren’t always accurate ) Seeing how the
               DEXA scan is more accurate I’m going to reflect upon some results solely from the numbers of the Before & After
               DEXA scans.

               !         Looking at the DEXA scan at the conclusion of my training and nutrition program I dropped from 188.1
               pounds to 182.6 pounds and went from 8.4% body fat to 5.8% body fat in 42 days between scan or in a 6 week time
               period. In forms of poundage, I went from having 15.79 pounds of fat on my body and 164.08 pounds of lean body

               ZC Fitness and Nutrition !                                                                We e k 7 R e f l e c t i o n s : C u r t a i n C a l l


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mass on 10/31 to having 10.66 pounds of fat and
163.76 pounds of lean body mass. The most impor-
tant result from this scan that I’m absolutely de-
lighted about is the fact that I didn’t lose any sig-
nificant amount of muscle mass so my weight loss
in the past 6 weeks was purely fat loss. Ta-da! the
whole premise of my training and nutrition pro-
gram worked flawlessly and I now have the evi-
dence to prove it.

Let’s do a little more reflecting and number
crunching on the results. Firstly, I want to point out
that this isn’t a healthy % body fat to aspire to
achieve and should by no means be your overall
goal if your trying to get fit. The FIT Institute of
Texas, where I got my DEXA scan done, states that
a fit % body fat range for a 23 year old male like
myself is 8-19%. The technician wasn’t overly
enthused to see that I dropped out of the fit range
and into the very lean category, <8% body fat, since
my last visit. After explaining the purpose of my
training program and that this was a very
temporary state he felt better and actually started
talking to me about working there- Go Figure. So
the whole premise of why it’s a borderline
                                                            After Training DEXA Scan: 182.6 lbs. 5.8% Body Fat 10.66 lbs Body Fat 163.76 lbs lean mass
unhealthy % body fat is that your body needs a
certain amount of body fat to properly maintain
bodily function, insulate your internal organs, regulate your body temperature, provide shock absorption, promote
healthy operation of your nervous system and maintain a healthy reproductive system. Roughly 3% of your total
body fat falls into this category and is deemed essential body fat and falls into this category. So how close did I cut it
to adversely effecting my bodily function? Well, 5.8- 3% = 2.8% body fat to spare at maximum and at a weight of
182.6 pounds 1% body weight = 1.826 pounds. So 2.8% more body fat x 1.826 pounds per 1% body weight = 5.11
pounds of body fat to spare. So in the 6 weeks between scans I burned 5.13 pounds of fat or 0.855 lbs fat/week and it
would require a little under 6 more weeks for me to completely exhaust the rest of my excess fat and suffer extremely
negative health effects- so now is a good time to stop. If my goals were to compete in a body building competition,
I’d recommend considering 2-4 more weeks of training with this program to drop to a body fat range of 4-5%.

!        Finally, let’s say that I did want to compete in a body building competition and dropped another 3.28 lbs of
body fat to compete at 4% body fat. I’d only weight 179.32 lbs. You’ve seen how much food it takes to sustain the
amount of muscle mass I’m carrying around and at 179 pounds that wouldn’t be nearly enough muscle to have a
chance to successfully compete as a professional body builder-possibly a fitness model or a physique competition but
never a body builder. That goes to show how impressive it is for some men and women to sustain that much muscle
mass with small amounts of body fat.

!

ZC Fitness and Nutrition !                                                                   We e k 7 R e f l e c t i o n s : C u r t a i n C a l l


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              !        !        !          Before & After Pictures
                                               I was extremely tempted to only include
                                               the pre & post DEXA scans for this project
                                               but visual evidence serves as a huge
                                               reinforcement of success to a lot of people.
                                               Unfortunately, that’s the same reason that
                                               people are more willing to do anything
                                               that someone tells them if they look the
                                               part. I believe that the best source of
                                               information for your training comes from
                                               academia. Don’t completely put your faith
                                               in someone because they have the body
                                               image that you desire. Plenty of
                                               bodybuilders or self-acclaimed “fitness
                                               experts” don’t truly understand the
                                               physiology and biological processes that
                                                occur in your body when you manipulate
                                                your training and nutrition and not all of
 10/29- 190 pounds & 8.4% Body Fat
                                                them studied it in college. Some even          12/13- 182.6 pounds & 5.8% Body Fat
                                                cheat using illegal substances or pay
                                               the real professionals to write
                                               training and nutrition programs. Do
                                               your research and make sure that
                                               your trainer or the person your
                                               accepting advice from did theirs.
                                               Who would you rather get advice
                                               from? Someone who writes the
                                               program and does it or someone who
                                               simply did the program. I know who
                                               I’d pick.

                                               Also, how your body feels is more
                                               important than how your body looks.
                                               One of my main goals as a trainer is
                                               to teach my clients not to compare
                                               themselves to how other people look.
                                               These pictures are simply to
                                                                                              12/13- 182.6 pounds & 5.8% Body Fat
10/29- 190 pounds & 8.4% Body Fat              document the results of this program
                                           If you were to take your pick of which guy
                                           pictured, left or right, would perform better in an athletic competition I wonder how
              many of you would be surprised if I told you it’d be the guy on the left. Don’t let aesthetic appeal control your
              desired outcomes for your training.



              ZC Fitness and Nutrition !                                                            We e k 7 R e f l e c t i o n s : C u r t a i n C a l l


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!        !        Nutritional Strategies & Review

!        To this point I’ve only briefly touched on the basic guidelines to my nutrition program; the set caloric in-
take, an introduction to carbohydrate cycling, pictures of food I’ve made and some fun statistics about how much of
a particular food I’ve eaten. This is also vague, but in my defense this is the first time in my life I’ve implemented
carbohydrate cycling into my nutrition program and I didn’t want to say too much before I tried it out. I think it’d be
beneficial at this point to lay down some general tips/information/guidelines for what foods are good options for a
weight loss/cutting program. I’ll also take it a step further and include what an ideal low carbohydrate, high carbo-
hydrate, and no carbohydrate day from my program looked like. I’m talking time of intake, what I ate and my reason
for choosing what I chose to eat. I’ll finish off with some general guidelines about nutritional intake as well as some
basic information on vitamins and nutrients that I made as review notes for my nutrition final this semester.

Carbohydrates: carbohydrates are the main source of energy used to fuel exercise and are predominantly stored in
the form of glycogen in your muscles and liver and can also be found coursing through your veins in free form as
blood glucose. Carbohydrates are composed of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen molecules hence the abbreviation
CHO. People with type 2 diabetes exhibit compromised function of blood glucose metabolism. In this, their cells be-
come insulin resistant(an important growth hormone that shuttles glucose into working muscle cells to be converted
into energy) and blood sugar (glucose) levels remain elevated while overall bodily function declines. The muscles in
your body and your liver can only store so much glucose in the form of glycogen and once those stores are saturated
all further carbohydrate intake is converted to excess adipose tissue aka fat. The previous two conditions have caused
a pandemic Carbohydrate-phobia that has terrorized dedicated fitness and nutrition enthusiasts all over the world.
The truth is carbohydrates don’t deserve this negative reputation since not only are they essential for fueling quick
paced bioenergetics pathways and exercise (think sprinting and lifting weights) when combined with protein for
post-training recovery they enhance muscle protein synthesis aka bigger muscle development! While they will never
be the poster macronutrient for bodybuilders we all know that there’s no Batman without Robin or Turbo Man with-
out Booster no matter how weak the sidekick seams.
!         Another Important designation of carbohydrate function to consider for nutritional intake is the glycemic
index (GI) of the carbohydrate you’re taking in. The glycemic index is a function of how quickly the carbohydrate
you eat is broken down into blood sugar (glucose) and how rapidly your bodily absorbs it in order to convert it to
Energy or store it for potential energy use down the road. There are three designations when it comes to the GI sys-
tem: High GI Carbs, Moderate GI Carbs and Low GI Carbs. High GI carbs are going to be broken down by your
body and absorbed by bodily cells faster than moderate and then low GI carbs. The major benefit of knowing how
carbohydrate intake affects your blood sugar levels is having the knowledge of knowing which type of carbohydrate
on the GI spectrum you should be consuming at what time of the day. I don’t want you to get caught up in classify-
ing every single carbohydrate you eat or be responsible for sending you into an OCD Carb GI classifier I simply want
you to see how controlling your CHO intake can enhance your performance predominantly when it comes to; recov-
ery from exercise, fueling future training sessions as soon as you finish up in the gym, maximizing muscle glycogen
stores and optimizing maximum protein synthesis and muscle hypertrophy.
Here are a few tips when it comes to your Carbohydrate consumption and a sample GI index chart:
      Ø It is essential that you consume a high GI carbohydrate source+ protein after lifting weights. This will
          help optimize your muscle gains. My favorite combination for post-training carbs is blending Cheribundi
          Tart Cherry Juice with Vanilla Protein and having a sweet potato with my meal. While cherry juice ranks as
          a low GI the added protein will help increase the GI level of the recovery shake. Also, sweet potatoes are a
          moderate GI CHO source but the added protein of the shake and grilled chicken I eat helps bump up how
          fast my body is absorbing the carbs I’m consuming. This is also a good time for a high carb fruit. My favorite
          for this situation is pineapple but watermelon and fruit cocktails get the job done as well.
      Ø Moderate and Low GI carbohydrates are good for sustaining energy when there are a few hours before
          you engage in physical activity. If you want a slow release of energy and want to feel full for a few hours
          before you workout than a lower GI food is the right choice here. Quaker’s Weight Control Oatmeal is my
          go to here. While it lacks the sophistication and some benefits of steel cut oats or other oatmeal it gets the job
          done. It has added protein and fiber to help balance my nutritional needs and help me stay full. I like to pair
          2 packets of oatmeal + a cup of low fat chocolate milk after fasted cardio in the morning to start my day off
          with the proper fuel that I need. Other good lower GI sources for breakfast include yogurt, cottage cheese,
          toast and cereal. Moderate GI sources good for dinner or a few hours after your last training session of the
          day include: rice, sweet potato, carrots, beans and dark green vegetables.
ZC Fitness and Nutrition !                                                              We e k 7 R e f l e c t i o n s : C u r t a i n C a l l


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ZC Fitness and Nutrition !       We e k 7 R e f l e c t i o n s : C u r t a i n C a l l


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                                                            Proteins: (include I love protein shirt pic) Proteins serve as a macronu-
                                                            trient source composed of polypeptide chains of amino acids. Proteins
                                                            are essential for cell structure, signaling pathways and encoding ge-
                                                            netic information. Proteins gain their popularity in the bodybuilding
                                                            realm due to their ability to enhance muscle size and strength but it is
                                                            sometimes overlooked that proteins play a crucial role in weight loss
                                                            programs. Protein powder supplementation often gets knocked in the
                                                            academia realm since uneducated people do abuse protein supplemen-
                                                            tation after buying into the whole “more is better” philosophy that the
                                                            supplement industry wants them to believe. The upper level of pro-
                                                            tein intake recommended for strength athletes in textbooks and by my
                                                            nutrition professor is 1.5-1.7 g/ kg body weight. Some simple math
                                                            shows that at a beginning weight of 86.36 kg (190 lbs) my recom-
                                                            mended protein intake would be roughly 147 grams protein at the high
                                                            end. Well I disagree and that’s why at 40% of my intake has been Pro-
                                                            tein every day of this program while I’ve manipulated how much en-
                                                            ergy I’m deriving from fats and carbohydrates. That translates to 309
                                                            grams of protein to start my program and has tapered off to about 275
                                                            grams/ day; values reaching 3.5g /kg body weight. The reason why
                                                            this works is that proteins aren’t utilized as a fuel source for exercise
                                                            (roughly 2% of energy used) and what the body doesn’t use to increase
                                                            muscle mass , repair sustained damage, or convert to energy it simply
                                                            eliminates. I caution that if you have impaired kidney function this
                                                            isn’t a practical solution since you are likely to experience unnecessary
                                                            physiological strain on your urinary system that can easily be avoided
                                                            by being more conservative. This isn’t a green light to break into the
                                                             nearest GNC and down a jug of protein powder like a crazed zombie
Me showing my affection for my favorite macronutrient        in a zombie apocalypse either. You need to be intelligent about your
                                                             protein consumption and do it in a manner that allows your body to
                                                             absorb it at maximal rates. There are a few things to point out in the
            Protein Department including:

                 Ø   Protein powder shouldn’t be used to substitute for protein found in foods. Liquid caloric intake promotes
                      more weight retention than natural food and is often the more expensive alternative. Remember that next
                      time you reach for your protein powder jug instead of cooking.
                 Ø   Eggs are one of the most complete sources of protein and contain essential amino acids that your body can’t
                      naturally produce. Try scrambling up some egg whites before hitting the weights if you’re hungry.
                 Ø   You might be abusing your protein powder if you’re downing 2 scoops + eating a recovery meal right after
                      lifting. Your body can only absorb so much protein/ hr (I’ve read between 10-30 grams). Try splitting up
                      your protein shake into 1 scoop prior to your workout and 1 scoop for your recovery shake. Research indi-
                      cates that this not only allows for more optimal protein absorption by your body but the added protein be-
                      fore your lift enhances protein synthesis and muscle building.
                 Ø   Don’t shy away from proteins found in fatty foods such as red meats and oily fish like salmon. These are
                      healthy fats that will help your body to operate better. Save these for high fat low carb days and you’ll be
                      happy.
                 Ø   This might be disheartening for my vegan friends but soy protein is an inferior source of protein. If you’re
                      cutting meats and animal products out of your diet you are missing out on some very important proteins,
                      vitamins and nutrient sources. You can combat this by pairing complementary non-meat protein sources
                      such as rice & beans to enhance the amino acid profile your consuming.
                 Ø   Good Sources of protein include; low fat dairy products, nuts, red meats, eggs, fish, chicken, peanut butter
                      and seafood.

            Fats: Fats are composed of a glycerol and fatty acid structure and are responsible for maintaining healthy skin and
            hair, insulating vital organs, regulating internal body temperature, providing shock absorbance, promoting healthy
            cell function and maintaining healthy testosterone levels in men. Fats are the most energy dense macronutrient yield-
            ing 9 calories/gram as opposed to the 4 calories/gram found in protein and carbohydrates. Fats are also necessary to
            help the transport and utilization of essential K,A,D, and E vitamins. Fats can be found in the form of intramuscular
            triglycerides, free fatty acids in the blood, and adipose tissue or extra fat. The scary thing is that unlike carbohydrates
            ZC Fitness and Nutrition !                                                              We e k 7 R e f l e c t i o n s : C u r t a i n C a l l


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fat has an unlimited amount of storage potential in the form of adipose tissue. The trick here is choosing the right fats
to incorporate into your diet to get the healthy benefits that fats possess. Healthy fats include monounsaturated and
polyunsaturated fats and unhealthy fats included saturated fats and trans fats.
     Ø Good Sources of healthy fats include: olive oil, avocado, peanut or almond butter, salmon, nuts, lean meats,
          flaxseed and fish and flaxseed oil.
     Ø Energy derived from fat shouldn’t exceed 20-35%. I used 15% Fat on high carb day, 25% Fat on low carb day
          and 40% fat on no carb day.
     Ø Saturated Fats should make up <10% of your daily diet.
Now I’m going to tie it all together and show you what an ideal time scheduled day of proper nutrition, supplemen-
tation and training from my program consisted of for a high carb day, low carb day and no carb day.

High Carb Day (40% CHO, 45% Protein, 15% Fat)
Meal	
  Designation/Event              Time                                   Contents
Breakfast                              8:00	
  a.m.                           3	
  Vanilla	
  Protein	
  banana	
  
                                                                              pancakes	
  +	
  reduced	
  sugar	
  
                                                                              maple	
  syrup	
  	
  &	
  1	
  cup	
  skim	
  
                                                                              milk.	
  (713	
  calories)	
  +	
  1	
  
                                                                              CLA,	
  1	
  Fish	
  Oil,	
  1	
  Animal	
  
                                                                              Cut,	
  1	
  Animal	
  Pack	
  ,	
  1	
  Yo-­‐
                                                                              himbine
Pre-­‐Workout	
  Meal                  11:00	
  a.m.                          1	
  cup	
  skim	
  milk	
  +	
  1	
  scoop	
  
                                                                              protein	
  powder	
  +	
  1	
  serving	
  
                                                                              of	
  Veggie	
  Greens	
  Mixed	
  with	
  
                                                                              Water	
  (190	
  calories)
Lift	
  (Legs)                         11:30	
  a.m.-­‐	
  1:00	
  p.m.
Post-­‐Workout	
  Meal                 1:30	
  p.m.                           1	
  cup	
  skim	
  milk	
  +	
  1	
  scoop	
  
                                                                              protein	
  powder	
  +	
  2	
  pieces	
  of	
  
                                                                              oatmeal	
  bread	
  +	
  2	
  tbsp	
  of	
  
                                                                              raspberry	
  preserves	
  +	
  4	
  egg	
  
                                                                              whites	
  +4	
  oz	
  ham	
  cubes	
  
                                                                              (709	
  calories)	
  +	
  1	
  CLA,	
  1	
  
                                                                              Fish	
  oil,	
  1	
  Animal	
  cut,	
  2	
  Yo-­‐
                                                                              himbine	
  +	
  1	
  BCAA	
  +	
  1	
  Cre-­‐
                                                                              atine	
  +1	
  Glutamine
Protein	
  Snack                       3:30	
  p.m.                           4	
  egg	
  whites	
  (68.5	
  calories)
Dinner                                 6:00	
  p.m.                           Jalapeno	
  Tortilla	
  +	
  1	
  cup	
  
                                                                              brown	
  rice	
  +	
  12	
  oz.	
  grilled	
  
                                                                              chicken+	
  1	
  CLA,	
  1	
  Fish	
  oil,	
  2	
  
                                                                              Yohimbine
Night	
  Time	
  Protein               9:00	
  p.m.                           1	
  cup	
  skim	
  milk	
  +	
  1	
  scoop	
  
                                                                              cookies	
  n’	
  cream	
  casein	
  pro-­‐
                                                                              tein	
  +	
  ground	
  cinnamon.	
  
                                                                              (190	
  calories)
Recap: I save my 1 high carb day for my leg day in the gym and leg day is also the only lifting day I don’t do cardio. I
find this to be restoring physically and mentally and I want my high carb day to be on my leg day in the gym since
it’s naturally the most taxing lifting day. I try to get a big breakfast to provide a good amount of energy to fuel my lift.
I also split my protein shake into pre & post workout shakes to help split my calories and allow my body to maxi-
ZC Fitness and Nutrition !                                                                 We e k 7 R e f l e c t i o n s : C u r t a i n C a l l


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mally absorb the protein I’m taking in. I try to keep fueling my body with protein with a protein snack a couple
hours after my post workout meal and a couple hours before dinner. I also try to add variety to my cooking and
meals to reward myself for working hard and to not get too burnt out on any individual food item.
Total Calories: 2,600 41.6% CHO, 48.7% Protein, 9.8% Fat.




Low Carb Day (30% CHO, 45% Protein, 25% Fat)
Meal	
  Designation/Event           Time                                Contents
Fasted	
  Cardio                    7:30-­‐8:00	
  a.m.	
               1	
  animal	
  pack	
  prior	
  to	
  cardio	
  
                                                                        session
Breakfast                           8:15	
  a.m.	
                      2	
  packets	
  of	
  Quaker	
  Oatmeal	
  
                                                                        Weight	
  Control	
  +	
  splash	
  of	
  
                                                                        skim	
  milk	
  +	
  1	
  cup	
  lowfat	
  	
  
                                                                        chocolate	
  milk	
  +	
  1	
  serving	
  
                                                                        veggie	
  greens	
  mixed	
  with	
  wa-­‐
                                                                        ter	
  +	
  1	
  animal	
  pak	
  +	
  1	
  CLA	
  +1	
  
                                                                        Fish	
  Oil	
  (520	
  calories)
Pre	
  Workout	
  Meal              10:00	
  a.m.	
                     1	
  cup	
  skim	
  milk+	
  1	
  scoop	
  
                                                                        whey	
  protein	
  (190	
  calories)	
  
Lift                                10:30	
  a.m.	
  -­‐	
  noon
Post	
  Workout	
  Meal             12:30	
  p.m.	
                     1	
  scoop	
  whey	
  protein	
  +	
  8	
  oz.	
  
                                                                        Cheribundi	
  +	
  BCAA/
                                                                        Glutamine/Creatine+	
  8	
  egg	
  
                                                                        whites	
  +	
  4	
  oz.	
  ham	
  cube+	
  2	
  
                                                                        slice	
  whole	
  wheat	
  bread	
  +	
  2	
  
                                                                        tbsp.	
  raspberry	
  preserves	
  +	
  1	
  
                                                                        Animal	
  Cuts,	
  1	
  CLA,	
  1	
  Fish	
  Oil,	
  
                                                                        1	
  Yohimbine	
  (807calories)	
  
Lunch                               3:00	
  p.m.	
                      2	
  grilled	
  tilapia	
  `illets	
  +	
  Cajun	
  
                                                                        seasoning	
  +	
  1	
  tbsp.	
  olive	
  oil	
  +	
  
                                                                        1	
  CLA	
  +	
  1	
  Fish	
  Oil	
  +	
  1	
  Yo-­‐
                                                                        himbine	
  (340	
  calories)
Protein	
  Snack                    4:30	
  p.m.	
                      	
  2	
  tbsp.	
  almond	
  butter	
  (190	
  
                                                                        calories)	
  
Dinner                              6:00	
  p.m.	
                      9.6	
  oz.	
  grilled	
  chicken	
  +	
  
                                                                        lemon	
  pepper	
  seasoning	
  +	
  1	
  
                                                                        tbsp.	
  olive	
  oil.	
  +	
  1	
  CLA	
  +	
  1	
  
                                                                        Fish	
  Oil	
  +1	
  Yohimbine	
  (400	
  
                                                                        calories)	
  


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                                                              10
Night	
  Time	
  Protein              9:00	
  p.m.	
                       2	
  Tilapia	
  Fillets	
  +	
  Cajun	
  Sea-­‐
                                                                           soning	
  +	
  1	
  CLA	
  +	
  1	
  Fish	
  Oil	
  
                                                                           (220	
  calories)	
  
Recap: On low Carb days I had a few strategies. I’d try to get a good percentage of my daily carb allowance after
fasted cardio to start the recovery process and help prime my lifting session. I would avoid fat intake prior to and in
the 2 hours post exercise. I focused on splitting protein around my lift and getting a high amount of carbs and high
GI carbs right after my lift in addition to a calorie surge. 2+ hours after my recovery meal would be the time I’d start
looking towards healthy fats containing proteins. It’d almost always be almond butter, almonds or my homemade
protein bombs in this window. I’d then focus on getting whatever protein and fat I still needed at dinner. Steering
away from carbohydrates and an abundance of my calories at the end of the day helped prime my fast between my
last meal and the next morning’s cardio. This allowed me to burn more fat during my cardio session the next morn-
ing. This no carb template was what I used for the 4 days of lifting that didn’t involve legs + 1 the first off day on the
weekends for the first 4 weeks of my training program.
Total Calories: 2667 31.1% CHO, 44.1% PRO, 24.8% Fat
No Carb Day (15% CHO, 45% Protein, 40% Fat)
Meal	
  Designation/Event             Time                                   Contents
Breakfast                             9:00	
  a.m.	
                         6.5	
  oz	
  T-­‐Bone	
  Steak+	
  4	
  fried	
  
                                                                             eggs	
  +	
  1	
  tbsp.	
  olive	
  oil	
  +1	
  
                                                                             Animal	
  Cut	
  +	
  1	
  Animal	
  Pak	
  + 	
  
                                                                             1	
  CLA	
  ,	
  1	
  Fish	
  Oil	
  (744.5	
  
                                                                             calories)	
  
Snack                                 11:30	
  a.m.	
                        	
  1	
  homemade	
  peppermint	
  
                                                                             protein	
  bomb	
  (213	
  calo-­‐
                                                                             ries)	
  
Lunch                                 1:00	
  p.m.                           1	
  lb	
  96%	
  lean	
  ground	
  beef	
  +	
  
                                                                             Jalapeno	
  Tortilla	
  +Jalapenos	
  
                                                                             +	
  Med	
  Salsa	
  +	
  1	
  Animal	
  Cut,	
  
                                                                             1CLA,	
  1	
  Fish	
  Oil,	
  1	
  Yohimbi-­‐
                                                                             ne(840	
  calories)
Snack                                 3:00	
  p.m.                           1	
  homemade	
  peppermint	
  
                                                                             protein	
  bomb	
  +	
  1	
  scoop	
  pro-­‐
                                                                             tein	
  powder	
  mixed	
  with	
  1	
  
                                                                             cup	
  skim	
  milk	
  (403	
  calo-­‐
                                                                             ries)	
  
Dinner                                5:30	
  p.m.	
                         9.6	
  oz	
  grilled	
  chicken	
  +	
  
                                                                             lemon	
  pepper	
  seasoning	
  +	
  1	
  
                                                                             tbsp.	
  olive	
  oil	
  +	
  1	
  CLA,	
  1	
  Fish	
  
                                                                             Oil,	
  1	
  Yohimbine(400	
  calo-­‐
                                                                             ries)	
  
Night	
  Time	
  Protein              8:30	
  p.m.	
                         1	
  Chobani	
  Vanilla	
  Greek	
  Yo-­‐
                                                                             gurt	
  (120	
  calories)	
  
Recap: I reserved my no carb day for a complete day of rest so I appropriately did this routine on Sundays. I allowed
my body to sleep more for the recovery it desperately needed. I included a no carb day earlier in the program since I
was taking in more calories to try to keep it more interesting. I usually stuck to a large 6-8 egg omelet filled with ham
but a T-bone steak was my favorite no carb day breakfast of this training routine. I didn’t worry as much about
spacing/time I was eating since I wasn’t training. I was able to get the amount of fat I needed via red meats, olive oil,
almond butter and protein bombs. I didn’t worry quite as much about reaching my overall caloric goal on no carb
days and found it to be the easiest day to taper.
Total Calories: 2720 15.4% CHO, 45.4% Protein, 39.2% Fat.
ZC Fitness and Nutrition !                                                                  We e k 7 R e f l e c t i o n s : C u r t a i n C a l l


                                                            11
!        Please recognize that these are templates and I tried to vary my intake as much as I could to get as wide of a
variety of nutrition as possible. But there it is. You can’t say I withheld any secrets or information from you.

!       For those of you wanting a comprehensive guide to vitamins and minerals here are my notes I made for my
final exam in my nutrition class this semester.



             Ø     Water soluble vitamins: don’t require fat for absorption (include B-6, B-12, folate, thiamin, riboflavin,
                    niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline.
         Ø Vitamin B6 à involved in rxns including gluconeogenesis, niacin synthesis, and lipid metabolism. Exer-
         cise does not cause transient changes in B6 status. (liver, chicken, bananas, potatoes, spinach)
         Ø Vitamin B-12 & Folate à necessary for DNA synthesis and RBC synthesis. (fish, milk, eggs, meta, poul-
         try)
         Ø Thiamin à participates in the citric acid cycle (required for converting pyruvate to acetyl CoA), BCAA
         catabolism, pentose phosphate pathway. (wheat germ, oysters, beef liver, peanuts, green peas, collard
         greens)
         Ø Riboflavin à involved in glycolysis, citric acid cycle, and the ETC. Precursor to FAD (assist in oxidation
         rdxn rxns & ETC) (milk, cheese, oily fish, eggs, dark leafy green vegetables)
         Ø Niacin à involved in glycolysis, pentose pathway, citric acid cycle, lipid synthesis, ETC. can be used to
         reduce serum cholesterol and C ractive protein levels. (pharmacological doses à “niacin rush” – greater
         blood flow, reddening itchy skin -à pre workout supplements) (beef, pork, chicken, wheat flour, eggs, milk)
         Ø Pantothenic Acid à active form – Coenzyme A. Involved in lipid synthesis and metabolism and oxida-
         tion of pyruvate. (sunflower seeds, mushrooms, peanuts, yogurt, broccoli)
         Ø Biotin à cofactor of 4 mitochondrial carboxylases. Deficiency can result in impaired exercise perform-
         ance. (peanut butter, boiled eggs, egg noodles, Swiss cheese, cauliflower)
         Ø Vitamin C à involved in the maintenance of collagen synthesis, oxidation of fatty acids, and formation of
         N/T’s and is an antioxidant. May help prevent URI and reduces recovery time from colds. (broccoli, peppers,
         kiwi, oranges, papaya, guava)
         Ø Choline à required for synthesis of all cell membranes. Involved in carnitine & lipoprotein cholesterol.
         Affects nerve transmission, may improve strength and expedite loss of body fat. (liver, egg yolks, peanuts,
         soy bean, cabbage, grape fruit)
         Ø Fat soluble vitamins à vitamins K,A,D,E
         Ø Vitamin A à impacts the vision cycle, cellular differentiation, reproduction. Exercise may increase needs
         (carrots, broccoli, tomatoes)
         Ø Vitamin D à hormone and vitamin. Maintains calcium homeostasis and aids in bone remodeling. (milk,
         oily fish, eggs, sunlight)
         Ø Vitamin E à antioxidant fxn and role in preventing free radical damage to cell membranes. (Plant oils,
         nuts, seeds, wheat germ)
         Ø Vitamin K à necessary for blood clotting. (leafy green vegetables), cabbage, green tea, alfalfa, oats,
         cauliflower)
         Ø Major Minerals à include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur, potassium, sodium, chloride.
         Ø Calcium à bone metabolism, blood coagulation, nm excitability, cellular adhesiveness, nerve transmis-
         sion. 2.2-2.5 mmol/L(milk, cheese, yogurt, almonds, spinach)
         Ø Phosphorous à important in bone mineralization and bone growth (milk, cheese, yogurt, nuts, oatmeal)
         Ø Magnesium à mitochondrial fxn, protein, lipid, CHO synthesis, nm control. (peanuts, tofu, broccoli, spin-
         ach)
         Ø Sulfur à assists with acid-base balance and a constituent of some vitamins. (garlic, legumes, nuts,
         seeds, red meat, eggs, asparagus)
         Ø Potassium à major electrolyte. Maintain intracellular ionic strength and maintaining transmembrane
         ionic potential. May help avoid fatigue. (orange, banana, tomato, salmon, potatoes, blackstrap molasses)
         Ø Sodium & Chloride à assist in nerve transmission. Sodium required to maintain fluid balance and pre-
         vent cramping. (cured meats, cheese)
         Ø Trace Minerals: important for energy metabolism include; iron, zinc, copper, selenium, iodide, fluoride,
         chromium, manganese, molybdenum, boron, vanadium.
         Ø Iron à hemoglobin and myoglobin synthesis. (clams, red meat, oysters, egg yolk, salmon, whole grains)
         Ø Zinc à exists in all organs, tissues, fluids, and secretions. Low zinc impairs immune fxn. Also affects
         RMR, thyroid hormone levels, and protein utilization. (oysters, red meat, poultry, fish)
         Ø Copper à enhance iron absorption, forms collagen and elastin, participates in ETC and acts as an anti-
         oxidant. (organ meats, seafood, cocoa, mushrooms, nuts, seeds, whole grain breads and cereals)
         Ø Selenium à antioxidant and fxns in normal thyroid metabolism. (fish, meat, poultry, cereal, grains, mush-

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                                                             12
         room, asparagus)
         Ø Iodide à required for normal metabolic rate and synthesizing thyroid hormones. (saltwater fish, molas-
         ses, iodized salt, seafood)
         Ø Fluoride à maintains teeth and bone health. (tea, seaweed, seafood)
         Ø Chromium à potentiates the action of insulin and influences CHO, lipid, and protein metabolism. (broc-
         coli, potatoes, grape juice, turkey, ham, waffles, orange juice, beef.
         Ø Manganese à antioxidant activity bc its part of superoxide dismutase. Plays a role in CHO metabolism
         and bone metabolism. (whole grains, leafy veggies, nuts, beans, and tea )
         Ø Molybdenum à plays a role in glucocorticoid metabolism. (beans, nuts, milk)
         Ø Boron à plays a role in bone metabolism. Increase lean body mass and bone mineral density. (fruits,
         veggies, nuts, beans)
         Ø Vanadium à potentiate the effects of insulin. May increase lean body mass. (grains, mushroom, shell-
         fish)




!        Supplement Stack Review & Suggestions
     I realize that I didn’t thoroughly explain my supplementation regime thoroughly at the start of this project and I
did that on purpose. I wanted you to focus more on the other dimensions of my program; carbohydrate cycling, gen-
eral nutrition guidelines, what I hoped to gain out of this experience, what a DEXA scan is and how to design a train-
ing program based of its results and as most importantly why I did this whole project in the first place.
!          Now that Project Cut up or Shut up is over and done with I feel that it would be beneficial to reflect on how
effective I think this stack was and whether or not I believed each individual supplement was worth taking. I’ll finish
by making recommendations on which supplements may be beneficial to the common, recreational gym goer and
which I would reserve for the professional bodybuilder/athlete type.
!          Take everything I say with a grain of salt because as well all know dietary supplements lack FDA approval
and the market is filled with empty promises about the miraculous results you’ll get if take supplements by the
dozen. Unfortunately, most professors in the sports science field seem to error towards the side of being conservative
and if your jug of protein or pre-workout mix were a real life person they’d be reluctant to give it a hive five or an
“attaboy!” for its contribution to your diet. In fact, my nutrition professor in my master’s program stated that only
creatine, bicarbonate and possibly protein supplementation could enhance performance. Furthermore, he enlightened
us that 1 in 5 supplements you buy at GNC contains enough steroid or steroid residual elements to give you a posi-
tive test for steroids-that is truly an eye opening statistic. While I understand where both ends of the spectrum are
coming from there still has got to be a happy medium. I believe the best people to ask about supplements are edu-
cated people who are actually taking them. This shouldn’t serve as the only information you use to base your opin-
ion or defense for your supplementation intake but it’s an honest start:




ZC Fitness and Nutrition !                                                           We e k 7 R e f l e c t i o n s : C u r t a i n C a l l


                                                          13
Supplement             Function                  Cost/ Serving          Effective?/Recommendation

Optimum Nutrition      Increase muscle mass,     $0.69. So $1.38/day   Yes. Protein is the most widely used sup-
Whey Protein           strength and recovery     for this project and  plement for a reason but people tend to
                       between training ses-     $67.62 for this pro-  put protein powder on a pedestal com-
                       sions. Rapidly digested   ject                  pared to food. Liquid protein intake actu-
                       by the body.                                    ally leads to more weight retention then
                                                                       getting your protein intake purely out of
                                                                       food.
                                                                       Tips: do you pound 2 scoops of protein
                                                                       and eat a meal after hitting the gym? If
                                                                       yes, then you may be wasting $. Your
                                                                       body can only absorb so much protein in
                                                                       one meal. Try taking one scoop of protein
                                                                       before you hit the weights and one scoop
                                                                       after. Research shows that taking protein
                                                                       before lifting will also help build more
                                                                       muscle.
                                                                       Also, if you’re honestly working hard
                                                                       splurge a little extra on buying a higher
                                                                       quality protein powder blend like ON.
                                                                       The reason? This protein contains 4
                                                                       grams of glutamine & 5 grams of
                                                                       BCAA’s. These are important for reduc-
                                                                       ing muscle damage after intense training
                                                                       and can be used to fuel your workout
                                                                       when your muscle glycogen (carbohy-
                                                                       drate) stores are depleted (i.e. weight loss
                                                                       program)
Bodybuilding.com       Increase muscle mass, $0.96/ serving &          Yes. I think that this supplement is effec-
Casein Protein         strength and recovery day. So $33.60 for        tive for helping your body prevent mus-
                       between training ses-     this project (ran out cle breakdown while you sleep, however
                       sions. Slowly digested with 2 weeks left) at a higher cost of $0.96/ day I only rec-
                       by the body so mar-                             ommend it for the professional
                       keted as pre-bed time                           bodybuilder/athlete type. Even then, I’ve
                       supplement.                                     gotten along just fine without it. I started
                                                                       eating more tilapia before I go to sleep
                                                                       when I ran out of casein protein. This was
                                                                       a less tasty alternative but when I needed
                                                                       to get 250-300 grams of protein the fact
                                                                       that 20 grams of casein was missing was
                                                                       trivial.
Universal Nutrition:   Essential aa’s are de-    $1.54/day. $33.95     No. This supplement isn’t worth the
Animal Nitro EAA’s     rivatives of protein that for this project (I   money. I do believe that it’s effective but
                       your body can’t pro-      altered my intake) there’s a better alternative. Remember
                       duce and you need con-                          how I said you should spend more to buy
                       sume in your diet. This                         that top-notch whey protein powder? It
                       being said EAA’s are                            includes BCAA’s, which contain essential
                       often promoted to en-                           amino acids so your already getting what
                       hance muscle size and                           you need before your lift. Also, eggs are
                       strength development.                           a great source of essential protein and a
                       Recommended intake:                             eating a few egg whites before you lift
                       right before and right                          will also get the job done here and not
                       after your lift.                                cause unnecessary discomfort from being
                                                                       too filling.

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                                                          14
Universal Nutrition:   This is a vitamin and    $0.56/day and        Yes. I think that this supplement is great
Animal Paks            mineral supplement       $27.78 for this pro- for this project. Most importantly, it main-
                       that is enhanced with 3g ject. (I only take 1 tains immune health and delivers the
                       protein.                 pak/day instead of proper vitamins and nutrients that your
                                                the recommended 2) body needs- especially if you’re cutting.
                                                                     Also, if you decide to carb cycle like me
                                                                     chances are you aren’t getting a wide
                                                                     variety of fruits and vegetables and this is
                                                                     where a top-notch vitamin supplement is
                                                                     crucial. Not necessary if you’re nutri-
                                                                     tional intake is normal.
Universal Nutrition:   Body fat and thermo- $1.37/day $47.95 for This supplement is very effective but you
Animal Cuts            genic supplement         this project. (5     have to be extremely cautious if you’re
                                                weeks)               thinking about using it. The physiological
                                                                     effects to make it work are absolutely
                                                                     taxing. I don’t recommend this for any-
                                                                     one other than the professional body-
                                                                     builder type before a competition.
Yohimbine Hcl          Enhance fat loss via     $0.10/day $4.90 for Yes. I believe that this supplement works
                       down regulation of pre this project (I got a and that it’s a much cheaper and less tax-
                       and post androgen 2      buy 1 get 2 free     ing alternative for all gym goers.
                       receptors.               deal)
L-Carnitine            Enhances fat loss via    $0.28/day (I had     I originally bought this because I read 3
                       promoting transport of extra so I didn’t buy weeks of Carnitine supplementation can
                       fatty acids into the mi- any additional)      enhance testosterone levels (written by
                       tochondria for oxidation                      Bill Kramer editor of the Journal of
                                                                     Strength & Conditioning). For fat loss, I
                                                                     don’t think this is worth the $ since stud-
                                                                     ies have show no real effects.
CLA’s                  Isomers of essential     $0.08/serving and Yes. I believe that this supplement is ef-
                       fatty acids that help    $0.24/day. $11.76    fective but I don’t know to what extent.
                       promote fat loss and     for this project.    For the cheap cost it’s worth taking.
                       muscle and strength
                       gain.
Fish Oil               Contains Omega 3 fatty $0.05/serving and Yes. I believe that fish oil is a very healthy
                       acid that reduces in-    $0.15/day. $7.35 for form of fat and while it won’t take away
                       flammation and muscle this project.            all of your muscle inflammation/pain I’m
                       degradation                                   of the opinion that if it takes any away
                                                                     it’s worth its cheap cost.
Veggie Greens          This supplement con- $0.45/day. $22.05        I believe that this supplement is highly
                       tains EFA’s, phytonutri- for this project.    effective. I don’t believe that it’s neces-
                       ents, probiotics, fiber                        sary if you have an adequate diet. It’s
                       and digestive enzymes.                        great if you’re on a highly restrictive re-
                       All in all a vegetable                        gime like my project and the combination
                       supplement equipped to                        of phytonutrients, probiotics, fiber and
                       enhance your immune                           digestive enzymes will do wonders for
                       system.                                       your immune system to help avoid get-
                                                                     ting run down and eliminate any set-
                                                                     backs from getting sick.




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                                                          15
C4 Watermelon/ N.O. Nitric oxide in this mix $0.65/serving.           I’m a little divided on this one. I believe
2 Green Apple       helps deliver more oxy- $18.45 for this pro-      that it can be extremely effective if used
                    gen to working muscle ject (4x/week)              properly but that it’s also expensive. I
                    and promotes more                                 wouldn’t recommend it for a novice lifter
                    efficient ATP synthesis.                           but I would recommend it for an ad-
                    This reduces the energy                           vanced lifter or a lifter experiencing lift-
                    cost of exercise and en-                          ing plateaus as long as they are on a
                    hances endurance. Caf-                            committed routine. A cheaper alternative
                    feine in this mix acts as                         would be black coffee or caffeine pills.
                    a central nervous stimu-                          Try mixing vanilla protein, chocolate cof-
                    lant and increases focus.                         fee, 5 ice cubes and ground cinnamon
                                                                      into a pre-workout ice coffee shake.
Optimum Nutrition      nonessential AA but can $0.16/serving. $8.15 I believe that glutamine is effective in
Glutamine Powder       be conditionally essen- for this project.      improving recovery. It is pretty cheap so I
                       tial under high physio-                        think it should be a component in all
                       logical stress when it’s                       dedicated gym-goers post workout
                       used as a fuel source for                      shake.
                       immune system cells.
                       Can reduce exercise-
                       induced stress.  Claims
                       (improved recovery,
                       decreased muscle ca-
                       tabolism, and muscle
                       gain)
Optimum Nutrition      used in the body as       $0.08/serving. $3.92 If you’re going to spend money on one
Creatine               phosphocreatine. Found for this program.       supplement other than protein make it
                       in meat  & fish. In-                            creatine. Period. There is plenty of re-
                       creases strength, endur-                       search indicating that creatine use is ef-
                       ance, power and muscle                         fective in enhancing muscle and strength
                       gains. Increases ATP                           gains.
                       production.  Insulin is                        How to use: Loading phase (take 15-20
                       known to play a role in                        grams for 5 days)
                       creatine transport into                        Maintenance phase (take 5 grams every
                       the muscle.                                    day thereafter)

Optimum Nutrition      (leucine, isoleucine,    $0.35/serving.        I believe that this supplement is effective.
BCAA                   valine) Can be utilized $17.10 for this pro-   Due to the price, I recommend again that
                       for E during endurance ject.                   only gym-goers with a committed routine
                       exercise when glycogen                         purchase this product.
                       stores are low. Higher
                       blood levels of BCAAs
                       in the presence of tryp-
                       tophan (AA associated
                       w/ fatigue) could help
                       delay fatigue but an
                       increase in performance
                       hasn’t been exhibited by
                       elite athletes. BCAAs
                       can help improve Im-
                       mune system fxn in
                       depleted athletes and
                       reverse decline in glu-
                       tamine levels.




ZC Fitness and Nutrition !                                                            We e k 7 R e f l e c t i o n s : C u r t a i n C a l l


                                                          16
Cheribundi Tart         Cherry Juice filled with $1.75/serving. $35    This isn’t a typical supplement but rather
Cherry Juice            polyphenols that reduce for this project.     an ergogenic aid. I included it since I mix
                        muscle tissue damage (Used for 4 weeks)       it with my post workout protein shake.
                        and delayed onset mus-                        Research has shown that consuming a
                        cle soreness. Also, con-                      high GI (quickly digested) carbohydrate
                        tains natural sources of                      + protein is more effective at building
                        melatonin.                                    muscle. I chose to use this as my high GI
                                                                      recovery carb due to the research indicat-
                                                                      ing that this product reduces muscle
                                                                      damage and promotes recovery between
                                                                      training sessions. I believe that it’s effect
                                                                      but also very expensive so I recommend
                                                                      it if you can afford it. If not, there are
                                                                      plenty of other high GI carbs for your
                                                                      recovery meal.
Melatonin               Works as a natural sleep $0.06/serving        Yes. I took prescription sleep aids starting
                        aid .                    $0.12/day. $5.88 for freshman year in undergrad since I had
                                                 this project.        problems sleeping and I progressively
                                                                      relaxed to using just melatonin and it gets
                                                                      the job done. It also really helps counter-
                                                                      act the high levels of caffeine in your
                                                                      daily intake if your taking animals cuts+
                                                                      a pre-workout as well.

This turned out to be a decently expensive project when it came to supplementation($340 for 7 weeks= $48.57/week).
I have a couple of thoughts after looking at all of this. First, I wanted to make a stack as comprehensive as a typical
body builder’s and I would tweak it if I were going to do this again. With that being said, I’d eliminate: the cherry
juice (just too expensive), the pre workout mix, Animal Nitro EAA’s, Animal Cuts (I’d keep if I were actually compet-
ing), Veggie Greens, Casein Protein and L-Carnitine. The adjusted cost would be $153 = $21.85/week. Another thing
to take into consideration is that my grocery bill was an average of $20 less for this project than usual. Take that into
account + the adjusted proposed stack and the difference essentially pays for the supplements. Also, while supple-
ments are expensive they are about personal budgeting decisions. While I spent a good bit on supplements for this
stack I spent a total of $0.00 on food from restaurants/fast food, alcohol and the bar scene/night life. I’m done justi-
fying my decisions so take it for what it’s worth.

Here is a comprehensive supplement review that I made from one of my Nutrition textbooks:



         Ergogenic aid à any substance or strategy that improves athletic performance by improving Energy produc-
         tion.
         Ø Dietary supplements in US regulated under DSHEA (label guidelines only)
         Ø Approximately 60% of all elite athletes use one or more dietary supplements.
         Ø 45% of all college athletes use supplements (primarily creatine + multivitamins)
         Ø Androstenedione àanabolic steroid used to increase blood testosterone. Increases free testosterone
         but also can increase estradiol. Chronic use can impair prostate health and it can also decrease HDL. (la-
         beled as a prohormone)
         Ø BCAAs à (leucine, isoleucine, valine) Can be utilized for E during endurance exercise when glycogen
         stores are low. Higher blood levels of BCAAs in the presence of tryptophan (AA associated w/ fatigue) could
         help delay fatigue but an increase in performance hasn’t been exhibited by elite athletes. BCAAs can help
         improve Immune system fxn in depleted athletes and reverse decline in glutamine levels. Typically daily
         consumption = 5-20 grams.
         Ø Caffeine à improves endurance performance as well as delays fatigue and enhance fat loss. Ironically,
         caffeine doesn’t significantly increase fat loss but has a strong role as a CNS stimulant that results in a
         heightened sense of awareness & a decreased perception of effort. It may reduce motor unit recruitment
         threshold and enhance nerve condxn velocity. Effective dose for endurance athletes = 5-6 mg/kg BW. Uri-
         nary levels exceeding 15 ug/mL are banned by the NCAA. Caffeine increases BP, HR, GI distress, Insomnia.
         (doesn’t seem to cause dehydration or electrolyte imbalances.)
         Ø Carnitine à essential in the human body to transport fatty acids into mitochondria to be oxidized for E.
ZC Fitness and Nutrition !                                                             We e k 7 R e f l e c t i o n s : C u r t a i n C a l l


                                                           17
        Synthesized from lysine. Claims include; decreased muscle pain, increased weight loss, endurance, CV fxn
        and strength. May improve recovery from high intensity exercise. Dose- 2-4 g/day.
        Ø Chromium (chromium picolinate) à essential mineral that augments the axn of insulin by increasing
        the # of insulin receptors & may improve protein synthesis. Claims: increase muscle mass & decrease body
        fat. Found in (beef, poultry, eggs, nuts, whole grains) DRI- 20-35 ug/day. Excessive intake can compromise
        Iron absorption & damage DNA.
        Ø CLAs à isomer of EFA linoleic acid (omega 6) found in unsaturated fats such as lamb, beef, dairy.
        Claims: weight loss, fat loss, muscle gain, strength gain. Significantly positive test results include; de-
        creased body fat, improved triglycerides & LDL cholesterol, increased RMR. (dose: 3-4 grams/day)
        Ø Creatine à used in the body as phosphocreatine. Found in meat & fish. Increases strength, endurance,
        muscle gains. Increases ATP production. Insulin is known to play a role in creatine transport into the mus-
        cle.
        Ø Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)à precursor to testosterone & estrogen but considered a weak an-
        drogen. (prohormone) DHEA is one of the steepest hormonal drops upon aging.
        Ø Ephedra à has been used to treath asthma & nasal congestion. Used for weight loss, increasing E, and
        endurance performance. Increased fx when taken w/ caffeine. Negative side effects include; headache, inc
        HR, BP , & insomnia.
        Ø Glucosamine/Chondroitin Sulfate à claimed to reduced joint pain and improve fxn & alternative ther-
        apy for osteoarthritis. Glucosamine is an amino sugar that can help form/repair cartilage. Chondroitin is part
        of a protein that aids in elasticity of cartilage. Rec dosage glucosamine 1500-2000 mg/day & chondroitin
        1,200 mg/day for 6-8 weeks.
        Ø Glutamine à nonessential AA but can be conditionally essential under high physiological stress when it’s
        used as a fuel source for immune system cells. Can reduce exercise induced stress. Claims (improved re-
        covery, decreased muscle catabolism, and muscle gain) No rec dose (usually 5-10 g/day)
        Ø HMB à metabolite of the aa leucine & an anticatabolic BCAA. Promoted to enhance lean body mass and
        increase strength gains.
        Ø Medium Chain Triglycerides à contain FA’s w/ 6-10 C atoms. Quickly emptied from stomach and rap-
        idly reach mitochondria via the portal vein. (theorized to spare muscle glycogen in favor of fat oxidation to
        increase training endurance levels). No proven benefits. Can cause serious GI distress.
        Ø Multivitamin & Mineral supplements à 1 of the most popular supplements. Good for athletes that
        chronically restrict E or experience eating disorders.
        Ø Antioxidant Vitamin Supplements (Vitamins C & E) à Guard against oxidative stress; endurance per-
        formance leads to greater oxidative stress- free radicals can cause tissue damage. >2,000 mg/day Vitamin
        C can result in GI distress. Vitamins C & E used to fight colds and upper respiratory tract infections. Vitamin
        C may not prevent colds but it significantly reduces the length of a cold. Athletes restricting caloric intake
        are at risk for not consuming enough Vitamin E. DRI of Vitamin E is 15 mg.
        Ø Protein Supplements à 1.2-1.7 g/kg rec. (increase muscle mass, strength, & recovery). PRO intake >
        2.5 g/kg BW puts athletes at risk for dehydration.
        Ø Pyruvate & Dihydroxyacetone à Suggested that pyruvate supplementation can increase aerobic en-
        durance and decrease body fat. (can cause GI distress) linked to weight loss claims but no real proven
        benefits of supplementation.
        Ø Ribose à 5 C sugar & needed for ATP synthesis. Claimed to improve high intensity exercise
        performance. No proven fx.
              Ø Vanadium à has insulin mimetic properties. Increases hepatic and muscle insulin sensitivity, aug-
                ments glucose uptake, and stimulates glycogen synthesis in subjects w/ type 2 diabetes. No proven
                benefits of supplementation for people w/o type 2 diabetes.




ZC Fitness and Nutrition !                                                           We e k 7 R e f l e c t i o n s : C u r t a i n C a l l


                                                          18
                     Training Review & Philosophy
!          The happiest result other than successfully rehabbing my leg for this project was the fact that I didn’t lose
any muscle mass or a significant amount of strength in the process. There are tons I mean tons of different training
protocols that can be used to successfully implemented to get the results that I did because the nutritional
intervention has more impact on your results. I barely changed up my workout routine from what I was previously
doing before Project Cut up or Shut up- only things that changed were shorter rest intervals and a smaller reduction
in weight in a few lifts. With that being said, here are a few tips to consider when to comes to your training:

1) Train with a stop watch: Do you know how long you are resting between sets? Find out! Knowing how long you
    should be resting adds another level of specificity to your training. If you’re trying to burn fat use a Rest Interval of
    1:00-1:30 minutes for complex movements (squat, bench, deadlift etc) and a rest interval of 0:45-1:00 minute. If
    you’re trying to build pure strength use a Rest Interval of 2:00-3:00 minutes to let your ATP stores fully recover
    between sets.

2) If you’re trying to lose weight that doesn’t mean that you shouldn’t try to lift heavy. Muscle mass is a reflection of
    muscle cross sectional area (size) which is a reflection of your strength so it’s important that you’re trying to move
    a good bit of weight to avoid weight loss in the form of muscle mass loss. My recommendation is still aim to lift a
    weight that you can manage for 10 reps with a short rest interval.

3) If you look at any of the workout templates I attached in previous reflections it’s important to note that those
    workouts are tailored towards building muscle mass through a couple designated complex movements (complex =
    multi-joint such as squat, deadlift, bench) and volume. I’m not a power lifter or a raw strength lifer. Also, I don’t
    ever do more than 10 reps for my exercises (exclusion of calf press, abdominal work and shrugs). I think if you are
    getting to a point where you’re doing 12-15 reps for a challenging exercise like bench press, squats, deadlifts or
    dumbbell press you are inappropriately directing your efforts and would do better lifting a little heavier. After all
    bigger muscles require more energy and will burn more fat anyways.

4) Find a happy balance of calories to burn from lifting weights and cardio. A good rule of thumb is that a mile on the
    treadmill is = 100 calories burned. Treadmill machines often over label how many calories you are burning from
    exercise. The faster you’re moving the more calories you are burning and you’re burning even less if you are biking
    or on the elliptical.

5) Lifting weights has been proven to elicit benefits for your cardiovascular system similar to cardio.

6) How important is cardio then? cardio is a great insurance policy to keeping the extra pounds at bay. For the 45
    days of this program I had 28 fasted cardio session with each lasting 25 minutes and covering 3.14 miles. That’s
    87.92 miles or a minimum of 87.92 x 100 = 8,792 calories burned. That’s the equivalent of 2.512 pounds of fat
    burned or a body fat% reduction of 1.322% just from cardio alone.




ZC Fitness and Nutrition !                                                               We e k 7 R e f l e c t i o n s : C u r t a i n C a l l


                                                              19
How to Construct Your Own Program to Cut Body Fat
1) Determine your daily caloric need/intake: The most effective strategy here is to get a DEXA Scan with a full report
    that will come complete with an Estimated Caloric Expenditure Chart. (Check out Week 1’s Reflection: Clear Cut
    Goals to see what a full DEXA Scan Looks Like) DEXA Scans can be expensive ($75-$100) so there is a free alterna-
    tive that is relatively close in projecting your caloric needs. It’s called the Mifflin Equation and you can use it to
    determine your Resting Metabolic Rate (your caloric expenditure/requirements at rest). Here’s how to use the
    Mifflin equation with my information at the beginning of this project:

1)	
  Mifflin	
  Equa,on	
  RMR	
  =	
  5	
  +	
  10	
  x	
  Weight(kg)	
  +	
  6.25	
  x	
  Height(cm)	
  -­‐	
  5x	
  Age

Conversion	
  factors:	
  1	
  kg	
  =	
  2.2	
  pounds	
  &	
  1	
  inch	
  =	
  2.54	
  cm

Plug	
  in	
  your	
  informa,on:	
  5	
  +	
  10	
  x	
  (190)	
  +	
  6.25	
  x	
  (188	
  cm)	
  -­‐	
  5	
  x	
  (23)

RMR	
  =	
  1,929	
  calories

2) determine	
  caloric	
  demands	
  of	
  your	
  daily	
  ac,vity:

Rest	
  or	
  Sleep	
  =	
  	
  xhours	
  x	
  1.0

Very	
  Light	
  Ac,vity(waking	
  hours	
  excluding	
  exercise)	
  =	
  xhours	
  x	
  1.5

Heavy	
  Ac,vity	
  (,me	
  spent	
  working	
  out/exercising)	
  =	
  xhours	
  x	
  7.0	
  *	
  If	
  you	
  plug	
  in	
  the	
  amount	
  of	
  hours	
  you	
  are	
  willing	
  to	
  	
  	
  	
  
dedicate	
  to	
  training/	
  week	
  your	
  caloric	
  intake	
  es9ma9ons	
  will	
  reflect	
  that.	
  If	
  you	
  want	
  to	
  spend	
  4	
  hours/week	
  li=ing	
  weights	
  
and	
  doing	
  cardio	
  plug	
  in	
  4.	
  If	
  you	
  want	
  to	
  spend	
  10	
  hours/week	
  li=ing	
  weights	
  and	
  doing	
  cardio	
  plug	
  in	
  10.	
  The	
  resul9ng	
  	
  	
  
sugges9on	
  will	
  	
  appropriately	
  correspond	
  with	
  your	
  desired	
  level	
  of	
  exercise*

Daily	
  Ac,vity	
  Demands:(	
  x	
  hours	
  x	
  1.0	
  +	
  x	
  hours	
  x	
  1.5	
  +	
  xhours	
  x	
  7.0)/24	
  hours	
  

Plug	
  in	
  your	
  informa,on:	
  I	
  sleep	
  7.5	
  hrs/night,	
  train	
  for	
  2	
  hours	
  and	
  have	
  14.5	
  other	
  waking	
  hours	
  	
  (7.5	
  hrs	
  x	
  1.0	
  +	
  14.5	
  x	
  1.5	
  +	
  
2.0	
  x	
  7)	
  =	
  43.25/24	
  hrs	
  =	
  1.8	
  Ac,vity	
  Factor	
  

3) Total	
  Energy	
  Needs	
  =	
  RMR	
  x	
  Ac,vity	
  Factor

Plug	
  in	
  your	
  informa,on	
  (me):	
  1,929	
  calories	
  x	
  1.8	
  =	
  3,471.48	
  kcal/day	
  to	
  sustain	
  body	
  weight	
  of	
  190	
  lbs.	
  

2) Set	
  a	
  healthy	
  weight	
  loss	
  goal:	
  A	
  healthy	
  rate	
  of	
  losing	
  weight	
  (body	
  fat)	
  is	
  1	
  lb/	
  week	
  but	
  if	
  you	
  have	
  more	
  to	
  lose	
  than	
  it’s	
  
   fine	
  to	
  lose	
  up	
  to	
  2	
  lbs./	
  week.	
  Knowing	
  that	
  1	
  lb	
  =	
  3,500	
  calories	
  your	
  going	
  to	
  need	
  to	
  trim	
  500	
  calories/	
  day	
  off	
  of	
  your	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
   projected	
  energy	
  needs.	
  

For	
  Me:	
  3,471.48	
  kcal/day	
  -­‐	
  500	
  =	
  2,971.48	
  calories/day.	
  

If	
  this	
  seems	
  like	
  a	
  lot	
  of	
  calories	
  to	
  you,	
  that’s	
  because	
  it	
  is.	
  Recognize	
  that	
  I	
  spend	
  10+	
  hours/	
  week	
  training	
  and	
  that	
  I	
  	
  am	
  
naturally	
  bigger	
  than	
  most	
  people	
  at	
  6’2”	
  and	
  190	
  lbs.	
  

3) Incorporate	
  	
  a	
  Carbohydrate	
  Cycling	
  Strategy	
  into	
  your	
  Nutri9on:	
  While	
  you	
  can	
  s,ll	
  see	
  results	
  from	
  reducing	
  your	
  overall	
  
   daily	
  caloric	
  intake	
  I	
  think	
  that	
  carbohydrate	
  cycling	
  is	
  a	
  more	
  effec,ve	
  approach	
  because	
  it	
  trains	
  your	
  body	
  to	
  use	
  energy	
  
   more	
  efficiently	
  and	
  is	
  used	
  properly	
  can	
  be	
  a	
  less	
  psychologically	
  taxing	
  process:	
  you	
  can	
  afford	
  to	
  eat	
  a	
  wider	
  variety	
  of	
  
   foods	
  and	
  incorporate	
  more	
  fat	
  into	
  your	
  diet.	
  Here’s	
  how	
  to	
  effec,vely	
  carb	
  cycle:




ZC Fitness and Nutrition !                                                                                                                                           We e k 7 R e f l e c t i o n s : C u r t a i n C a l l


                                                                                                                   20
Use	
  a	
  low	
  carb	
  day	
  5	
  days	
  out	
  of	
  the	
  week-­‐	
  I	
  use	
  this	
  on	
  all	
  workout	
  days	
  other	
  than	
  leg	
  day	
  and	
  1	
  rest	
  day	
  on	
  weekends.	
  Use	
  a	
  
high	
  carb	
  day	
  one	
  day	
  out	
  of	
  the	
  week-­‐	
  I	
  like	
  to	
  reserve	
  this	
  for	
  my	
  leg	
  workout	
  day	
  and	
  use	
  a	
  no	
  carbohydrate	
  day	
  1	
  day	
  out	
  of	
  
the	
  week-­‐best	
  for	
  a	
  complete	
  rest	
  day.	
  

No	
  Carb	
  Day:	
  (45%	
  Protein,	
  40%	
  Fat,	
  15%	
  CHO)

Low	
  Carb	
  Day:	
  (45%	
  Protein,	
  25%	
  Fat,	
  30%	
  CHO)

High	
  Carb	
  Day:	
  (45%	
  Protein,	
  15%	
  Fat,	
  40%	
  CHO)

These	
  are	
  general	
  guidelines.	
  It’s	
  fine	
  to	
  start	
  with	
  2	
  high	
  carb	
  days	
  or	
  use	
  2	
  low	
  carb	
  days	
  if	
  you	
  want	
  to.	
  Also,	
  realize	
  that	
  this	
  
whole	
  technique	
  revolves	
  around	
  really	
  high	
  protein	
  intake	
  with	
  only	
  the	
  amount	
  of	
  fat	
  and	
  carbohydrate	
  you’re	
  taking	
  in	
  
changing.	
  For	
  ,ps	
  on	
  healthy	
  carbohydrates,	
  proteins	
  and	
  fats	
  to	
  incorporate	
  into	
  your	
  diet	
  please	
  look	
  back	
  over	
  the	
  nutri,on	
  
sec,on.	
  

4) Use	
  a	
  Diet	
  Tracker	
  or	
  a	
  calorie	
  Tracker:	
  Diet	
  tracker’s	
  make	
  it	
  really	
  easy	
  to	
  document	
  what	
  food	
  your	
  taking	
  in	
  during	
  the	
  
   day	
  and	
  the	
  good	
  ones	
  give	
  you	
  a	
  visual	
  %	
  breakdown	
  of	
  how	
  much	
  carbohydrate,	
  protein,	
  and	
  fat	
  you’re	
  taking	
  in	
  during	
  the	
  
   day	
  and	
  it	
  takes	
  even	
  less	
  ,me	
  to	
  plug	
  in	
  your	
  food	
  intake	
  than	
  you	
  think.	
  It’s	
  also	
  a	
  really	
  good	
  way	
  of	
  planning	
  out	
  your	
  day	
  
   to	
  ensure	
  that	
  you	
  are	
  gejng	
  the	
  right	
  propor,on	
  of	
  macronutrients	
  and	
  it’s	
  a	
  simple	
  way	
  of	
  seeing	
  what’s	
  been	
  working	
  for	
  
   you	
  so	
  you	
  can	
  repeat	
  successful	
  days.	
  I	
  used	
  the	
  Perfect	
  Diet	
  Tracker	
  on	
  my	
  MacBook	
  Pro	
  and	
  it	
  was	
  a	
  very	
  good	
  diet	
  
   tracker.	
  	
  	
  	
  Another	
  effec,ve	
  and	
  free	
  alterna,ve	
  that	
  I’ve	
  used	
  in	
  the	
  past	
  is	
  hlp://www.livestrong.com/myplate/	
  .	
  

5) Roll	
  up	
  your	
  Sleeves,	
  go	
  to	
  work	
  and	
  have	
  fun	
  geZng	
  fit	
  in	
  the	
  process!




!               !                !                !                Final Words

!               Well ladies and gentlemen, there it is. An effective strategy for cutting body fat in a safe and effective

manner filled with my personal style. I don’t know about you but I have really enjoyed this program. From the
bottom of my heart I hoped that you learned something, laughed once or twice, feel motivated and most importantly
feel like you have the necessary tools to effectively use this for your own training goals. I absolutely appreciate every
single one of you that checked this out and gave me words of encouragement along the way. That’s going to do it for
me and as always......




You Stay Classy My Friends,




Zach




ZC Fitness and Nutrition !                                                                                                                                   We e k 7 R e f l e c t i o n s : C u r t a i n C a l l


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