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CARAT_RACKHAM IT Fellowship 2002-2003 Seeing Through Chemistry


									CARAT/Rackham IT Fellowship 2002-2003 Living Textbook: Seeing Through Chemistry Project --Program introduction and research design January 22, 2003 Joseph Krajcik (Faculty Mentor) BaoHui Zhang (PhD Student)

Overview • Introduction to Living Textbook (LT) Project • Introduction to Seeing Through Chemistry (STC) Project • Research design of LT-STC program

Team members • Carl Berger, CARAT • Karen Dickinson, ITCS • Marcy L Bauman, Media Consultant, College of Pharmacy, Living Textbook Designer • Faculty mentor: Joe Krajcik, SOE • Graduate student: BaoHui Zhang, SOE • Faculty participants: Jadwiga (Dotie) Sipowska; Paul G Rasmussen; Brian Coppola, Chemistry Department, LSA • Student Aide: Carolyn Potts

Web interface: Living Textbook map.html

Introduction: Living Textbook
• Target users: University faculty • Purposes: Sharing of resources; Re-use of resources; Updating materials; and Interface with other campus systems • Web-based learning environment – Faculty create, modify units and modules – List of all modules in the Living Textbook – Video, PowerPoint slides, and a discussion. – Flash animation and quiz

Demonstration: Living Textbook
• Steps of using the program: – Login – Name a module – Place the module within a unit – Choose a layout – Place elements in the frames – Edit module’s elements – Save module • The web site is under development. For more information of it, please contact with Marcy Bauman at

Introduction of STC CD-based program
• The program was developed at the University of Michigan (Rasmussen, Dershimer, Wurman, et al., 1996) • Target users: College chemistry freshman with limited lab experience (especially CSP students). • 6 Units: Acids & Bases; Property & Structure; Reaction Rates; Oxidation-Reduction; Solubility/Precipitation; Spectroscopy • Features: Table of Contents; Concept maps; Content Windows and Inquiry Questions; Hypermedia and multiple media; Trail Map

Screenshots of STC CD-based program

Screenshots of STC CD-based program

Introduction of STC online program • URL: roscopy/conceptmap.html • Unit: Spectroscopy

Introduction of STC online program (Cont.)

Introduction of STC online program(Cont.)

Demonstration of STC online program

• Pattern of use, actions: – Start – Content window – Read concept map; – Read cards; – Answer inquiry questions; – Answer focus questions; – Watch focus video; – Watch animation; – Watch experiment

Research Design: Literature review • Base pattern (prior to entering their initial response): qr; cqr (Card, Inquiry Questions, Response to a questions); qcr (about 50%); cqcr; Revision pattern: Some students revised their explanation even with a correct answer, they improved their score by 1.5 points (total score 4) (Jones & Baxter). • Iterative use of the inquiry question (criss-cross); different media types provided multiple perspectives (cognitive flexibility theory) (Dershimer,

Research Design: Literature review (Cont.) • Students w/ the highest number of sessions spent significantly less time on each session; More media types, longer time on non-media content as well (More conscientious greater variety of media); concept map as organizing tool (Jones & Berger, 1995) • Students’ beliefs affected by professors’ emphasis in their lectures seemed to determine students’ engagement (Canady, 2000; Jone, 2001).

Research Design: Literature review (Cont.) • Charts created In EventRecorder • The charts show individual differences in using STC • The two students both had 6 sessions and total amount of time using STC

Research Design: Context and participants • Curriculum: Chem 130 (Spectroscopy unit) • Student population: first year college students, 370 total • Target students: Probably from Section 200 • Four discussion sessions: Two as control groups and two as experimental groups. They are all taught by the same professor and listen to the same lecture. One control group and one experiment groups are taught by the same GSI; the other two groups are taught by another GSI.

Research Design: Research questions 1. What are the patterns of use of the LT-STC online program? • 1a. How often do students use LT-STC program? • 1b. How long do they spend on the LT-STC program? • 1c. What do they do when using the program: Navigation pattern: Start, Read concept map; Read cards; Answer inquiry questions; Watch focus video; Watch animation; Watch experiment; Use of different media types: Videos; Animation; or Experiment

Research Design: Research questions (Cont.) 2. What are the differences between the patterns of use for online STC and CD-based STC? 3. What usability issues might be affecting how students use the tool? 4. What are the differences between a control group (who don’t use STC online) and an experimental group (who do use STC online) in terms of their mastery of chemistry content, the participation of class discussion, and their perceptions in knowledge, experience and confidence (PPI)?

Research Design: Data sources
Prior to the beginning of the Spectroscopy unit: • The professor and GSIs learn to use LT-STC • Collect demographic data for participants (e.g. prior chemistry experience; use of technology) • Administer a PPI concerning Spectroscopy topics (knowledge, experience & confidence with technology, content, and group discussion) • Administer a pre-test on Spectroscopy topics • Interview: Instructors’ perceptions of the role of STC in Learning Chemistry

Research Design: PPI
• PPI stands for Participant Perception Indicator • PPI is a technique to measure learners’ perceptions (self-efficacy) in science learning (Bandura, 1977; Berger and Carlson, 1988; Berger, Kerner, and Lee, 1998) • For example, on a scale of 1 to 5, a person can rate his/her knowledge, experience, and confidence in change the tires of a car. The perception might also change overtime. This is why researchers use PPIs multiple times during the process of a course.

Research Design: Data sources (Cont.) During the Spectroscopy unit: • Videotape the professors’ lectures on Spectroscopy • Audiotape target student groups’ discussion sections on Spectroscopy • Administer a second PPI. • Collect log files showing how students navigate through the material and how much time they spend in each area. • Do interviews and think-aloud protocols to determine how students decide navigation



Research Design: Process videos vs. log files Process video is a special technique that captures what happens on a computer screen when users are using a computer program and also what users are talking when using the program. It provides live data about how users use and navigate through a program and also why they make the decisions through their talking (Krajcik, Simmons, and Lunetta, 1988). It can be used for very fine-grained analysis of learners’ use a program for learning subject matters, but not only the technology itself. Log files with pre-set codes can capture when and how a user navigate through a program. Log files from a large scale of users can reveal patterns that are statistically significant.

Research Design: Data sources (Cont.) After the Spectroscopy unit: • Administer a post-test on Spectroscopy topics • Administer a third PPI • Collect data about individual students’ answers given on the Spectroscopy post-test. • Debriefing interviews after PPI: Professor, GSIs, target student

Research Design: Data analysis (Cont.) Q1,Q2, Q3. • Log files: More technical work needs to be done • Process Videos: Event Recorder (Start, card, video, response, etc); • Interviews: focusing on “how” and “why” Q4: • Log files: More technical work needs to be done • Process Videos: Event Recorder (Start, card, video, response, etc); • Interviews: focusing on “how” and “why” • PPI (Qualitative and statistical comparison) • Pre-post-tests: Correctness; explanations (Quality)

Any questions? Thank you !!
Contact information: Professor Joseph Krajcik, BaoHui Zhang,

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