Migration

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					MIGRATION AND
  ECONOMICS




 Zoltan Grossman, The Evergreen State College
       http://academic.evergreen.edu/g/grossmaz
           Types of migration

• Emigration (from) or immigration (to)


• Voluntary or involuntary (forced)


• International (between countries)
  or internal (within a country).

• Documented or undocumented
Migration flows
         Push factors

• Violence (war or high crime)

• Poor economy


• Ethnic or religious persecution

• Degraded resources or poor weather
           Pull factors

• Peace (or more security)

• Economic opportunities/ good services


• Freedom of expression

• Better sense of place or weather
    Intervening obstacles

• Restrictions on immigration


• Bias against immigrants


• Distance and lack of money


• Cultural unfamiliarity
VOLUNTARY MIGRATION


          • Gross migration
            – Total number of
              migrants


          • Net migration
            – Gain or loss as
              result of migration
   Chain migration
• Family/friends write
  home, attract new
  immigrants

• Family reunifications

• “Secondary migration” to
  new home in adopted
  country
                Mexican
                “braceros”       “Guest workers”
                in U.S.,
                1950s

                             • Temporary employment

                             • Send money home
Turks in Germany, 1980s
                             • Kids become citizens?

                             Filipina domestic workers
                             in Hong Kong, 1990s
    “Brain Drain”

• Educated, skilled
  migrate for better jobs

• Wealthy, educated
  country gains

• Poor country loses
  skilled people
                           REFUGEES
                           (involuntary)


• Flee war or persecution
  – International or internal (unrecognized)


• Many move to temporary camps

• Apply for “asylum” (safe haven)
Main sources of refugees
                        Highlands in Laos
             Laos
  Thailand


  Hmong
 refugees
from Laos                          Mekong
                                   River
                                   (border)

                    Refugee camp
                    in Thailand
 Hmong
refugees
  from
  Laos

Many now
in Calif.,
Minn., Wis.
                  “Ethnic cleansing”
                    Forced removal of
                      an ethnic group
                   (term from breakup
                  of Yugoslavia, 1990s)
Serbs expelled
from Krajina
(Croatia), 1995

           Albanians
             expelled
       from Kosovo
       (Serbia), 1999
Afghan refugees
 Migration
and the U.S.
International / Involuntary :
  Transatlantic Slave Trade
                          Diaspora
                       A group scattered
                       globally by large-
                        scale migration

                          Jewish Diaspora
  African Diaspora
Chinese Diaspora
Palestinian Diaspora
   Internal /
 Involuntary:
Indian Removal
    west of
Mississippi River
Waves of immigration, 1840s
Annual Immigration by Region of Origin
Origins and Destinations of Recent Immigrants
Immigration Patterns from Asia
                    Riot against
Anti-immigrant       Chinese in
 movements          Denver, 1880




 Signs against
  Japanese in
California, 1930s
       Anti-immigrant arguments

• Immigrants “take jobs” and drain services
  – Yet mainly “low-end” jobs

• Immigrants “threaten” culture/language
   – Argument sees diversity as negative

• Anti-immigrant movements affect elections
     –Austria, France, Denmark, California, etc.
       Undocumented immigrants
    more likely than U.S. citizens to…

• Be employed
  – Work longer hours

• Be free from assistance
  – Contribute to federal taxes through payroll

•Drain state social services
   –Federal gov’t should compensate states?
Immigration Patterns from Latin
           America
                          Economic migrants
                             or refugees?
                        Cubans, Vietnamese had preferred
                            status because they left a
                               Communist country
                         (Haitians, Salvadorans left U.S. allies)


Mariel Boatlift
from Cuba, 1980s




    Boat people from
         Haiti, 1990s
                   Who came to whom?
 U.S. annexed
northern Mexico
  in 1845-48


“We didn’t cross
  the border.
  The border
 crossed us.”
Internal migration within U.S.
Shifting Center of U.S. Population,
           1790 - 1990
Rural-to-urban shift
  (Voluntary/internal)
The Great Migration




       African Americans
       moving from South
        to North to work
         in war industries
Shift to Sunbelt and West, late 20th century
U.S. Interregional Migration
(annual average in 1000s during 1990s)

				
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