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					International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
   INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME
                                 TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET)

ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online)
                                                                                 IJCIET
Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October, pp. 78-87
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp
Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI)
                                                                              ©IAEME
www.jifactor.com




      TIME AND SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT BY USING PRIMAVERA

      Abusalah Mohamed Alakhdar Abdlaziz1, R.K. Pandey1, Prabhat Kumar Sinha1,
                                    Ashok Tripathi1, Anshuman2
                1
                    Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences
                         (Formerly Allahabad Agricultural Institute), Allahabad
                                             2
                                               BITS Pilani



ABSTRACT

        Time and schedule management by using primavera is a useful technique for modeling and
analyzing project management, This paper is a conceptual paper that Projects are expected to be
completion in schedule and help to project manager to control schedule while achieving
performance, quality and cost goals by proper planning and execution.
        The benefits of primavera are using quantified data, allowing project managers to better
justify and communicate their arguments when senior management is pushing for unrealistic project
expectations. Proper risk management education, training, and advancements in computing
technology combined allow project managers to implement the method easily. In the field of project
management, primavera can quantify the effects of risk and uncertainty in project schedules and
budgets, giving the project manager a statistical indicator of project performance such as target
project completion date and budget.

1. INTRODUCTION

        A project is composed of jobs, activities functions or tasks that are related one to the other in
some manner, and all of these should be complete the project.
  Time and schedule management is absolutely essential for project success. Running out of time,
like running out of money, will bring your project to a halt.
        Three other primary factors, which are also essential to schedule control, are: - managing
project costs, system scope, and quality, the first step in controlling a schedule “knows” what the
schedule is.
        Scheduling is the allocation of resources. More specifically, scheduling in the mechanical
process of formalizing the planned function, assigning the starting and completion dates to each part

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME

(or activity) of the work in such a manner that the whole work (or project) proceeds in a logical
sequence and in an orderly and systematic manner.
        Although no shortcuts exist for managing projects, some tools and practices can help prepare
you for the job. Using project management software can organize your thinking and identify
potential problems.
        Before implementing primavera to schedule projects, participants should understand the
processes involved in project management and the associated recommendations that help smooth
implementation of software that helps you reach your goals.

1.1 Project management
        Project management is the application of knowledge, skill, tools and techniques to project
activities to meet project requirement. The elements of project management control include
programmed objectives, policy restrictions, resource, constraints, government regulation, feedback
and revision of objective.
        Planning a project includes the following: working out when, where and who is going to do
the project. The crucial part of successful project management, however is the action you take after
the project plan is created.
        Using project management software you can organize your project and recognize potential
problem. Project management software is used for making project management easier especially
when you encounter difficulties.

1.2 Project Planning
        Projects do not often succeed without careful planning. Planning of a project team to address
the five critical factors that determine software program success or failure is: -Quality, Cost,
Schedule, Performance, and Supportability. [21, 22]
        The project plan establishes common goals, expectations, terminology among the participants
and stakeholders. To be successful, everyone must work on the same project – following the same
plan.
        Planning is essential to control a project. Planning [1, 3, 9, 25] establishes a baseline with
which to gauge progress. If the project begins to deviate from the plan, action can be taken to put the
project back on track.
        An important purpose of the project plan is to have the project team go through the planning
process. This allows the team to work together and rehearse the development of the project.
        Team will evaluate risks, development life cycles, resource availability, budgets, and all other
significant tasks. They will solve problems, which are encountered in project of work and will get a
feel for the work before actually beginning the development work itself. Planning is not the same as
having a plan. It consists of an ongoing process by which changes are incorporated in to the project
in an orderly manner.

1.3About Software (Primavera)
        Computer software is a general term used to describe the role that computer programs,
procedures and documentation play in a computer system.
        Primavera[2,5,8,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,23,24] is special because project managers designed it
for project managers. It helps you from the moment you begin thinking about a project. Building the
original network and organizing the project data in primavera are simple.
        Primavera enables you to store actual quantity and cost data per update period so you can
compare historical information to the current period using resource profiles and reports.



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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME

1.4 Data Structure of Primavera




                             Figure 1.2: Data Structure of Primavera

 The above diagramrepresents the data structure of primavera which is the base for adding project.

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME

The following steps are to be noted while setting the data structure:-

    1. Set up the EPS: Enterprise Project Structure (EPS) is the hierarchical breakdown of division
        of the organization.
    2. Set up the OPS: Organizational Breakdown structure (OBS) is the hierarchical breakdown of
        management (individuals) of the organization.
    3. Set up the Resource: who are responsible for the activities.
    4. Set up the WBS: Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is the arrangement of work into
        manageable deliverables and sub deliverables.
    5. Set up Calendars: define the work days, holidays and work timings.
    6. The highest level of EPS is called Root which is subdivided into EPS nodes which helps in
        grouping the project.
        Activities are grouped together to form WBS which are linked to the projects. Projects are
controlled by the program managers in the OBS level, Roles are designated to resources which in
turn control the activities, Calendars define work-shifts and holidays to activities.

2. BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT

        The schedule study of Al-Deesa site which is considered as one of (the 500 scheme housing
project) in Ubari (Libya).

Name of scheme :- the 500 scheme housing project

The site :Ubari (Libya) and it divides into four sites

1. Khelaif 128 scheme housing project.

2. Fejaj 120 scheme housing project.

3. Gabraun 112 scheme housing project.

4. Al-Deesa 140 scheme housing project.

Al-Deesa site

Name of project:- 140 scheme housing project in Al-Deesa site.

Owner's name:- Executive Company of Housing (government).

Executive name:-Awased Al-Madina company .

Supervising :- Al-Jeel company.

2.1 Percentage distribution of works in the project
       The distribution ratio for each work on the project (Al-Deesa 140 scheme housing project)
includes thecosteffectivenessandthe workload. The biggest ratio was a Structure concrete work
(24%) and the smallest ratio was a Preparation work and leveling (2%).



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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME




         Preparation works and leveling


         Preparation works and leveling

                                                                                  2.50%
         Backfilling work                                        3.50%
                                                      2.50%                   2.50%       2%        2.50%
         Foundation work
                                                            3%
                                                    2.50%
                                                                                                       10%
         Structure concrete work
                                                       9%
         Bricks work and Isolation

                                                     8%                                                      24%
         Isolated layer work , concrete and floor
         tiles
                                                            6%
         Cement mortar for internal and external
         walls
                                                                         7%                    9%
                                                                                  3%
         Walls covering works


         Floors covering works
         (porcelain, ceramic & marble
         Doors, windows and steel work


         Internal painting works


         External walls work Importing & painting
         for all external walls of building



                                     Figure 2.1: Percentage Distributions of Works
                                            2.1

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1 Activities




                                                     Figure 3.1: Project

                                                                 82
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME

        After added duration of activities with start date and assigned all resources, you get duration
of project (535) days, date of finish each activity and finish project (28 Fed 11), to get Budgeted total
Cost (LYD 16,496,594).

3.2 Update Progress
       After the project was running on 10th-july -2010, I got repot on that date to compare the
progress of project between the report and update from Primavera to check the real plan of project.

3.2.1 Update Progress of Project
       The report from the project (Al-Deesa 140 scheme housing project) on 10th of July 2010, the
Completion percent of the project was (41.37%), after the data collecting and calculated and the
Completion percent for each work as show in figure (4.8), depend on Percentage distribution of
works in the project.

           25




           20                                                                                        19.22




           15




                                                                                   10
           10




            5                                                                                                                   4.61

                                              3
                                                                2.5
                      2
                                                                                                                                                             0.43
                                                                                                                                                                                                 0                     0                            0                         0                   0                                 0                             0                 0                                0                         0
            0
                                                                                                      Structure concrete work
                                                                Backfilling work

                                                                                   Foundation work




                                                                                                                                 Bricks work and Isolation


                                                                                                                                                             , concrete and floor tiles



                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Walls covering works




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Internal painting works




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Electrical supply works
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Sewage & water supply
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            …Importing & painting for all
                                        Preparation works and




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              …(porcelain, ceramic &




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Assembly installation of

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Sewer equipment & kits
                                                                                                                                                                                          Cement mortar for internal




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Doors, windows and steel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Floors covering works
                                                                                                                                                                Isolated layer work
                Preparation works and




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  electrical works
                                                                                                                                                                                             and external walls




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               External walls work
                                               leveling
                        leveling




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   works




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 works
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 work




                                                                                                                        Figure 3.2: Update Progress



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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME

3.2 Update Progress of Project (Primavera)




                               Figure 3.3: Update Progress in WBS

        The Primavera Update progress must be after input data of project (WBS- Activity –
Resource) ,the update progress in the project (Al-Deesa 140 scheme housing project) on 10th of July
2010 , the Completion percent of the project was (76.72%), Remaining duration (201) days and
actual total cost up to this date 10th of July 2010 was (LDY 13,805,542) as show in figure (4.9), and
the Completion percent for each work as show in figure (4.10), depend on Percentage distribution of
works in the project.



                                                 84
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME


                 20
                                         18.2
                 18


                 16


                 14


                 12

                                    10
                 10


                  8                             7.11
                                                                                   6.43
                                                                            6.08
                                                              5.75
                  6

                                                                     4.16
                  4
                          3
                              2.5                      2.44                                                2.46
                      2
                                                                                                                  1.47 1.2
                  2                                                                       1.13 1.36 1.43

                  0




                                         Figure 3.4: Primavera Update Progress

        In figure 4.13 showing a compare reported progress between site's report and Primavera's
report. The delay of (Al-Deesa 140 scheme housing project) was 46.07% according to Primavera
report on 10th of July 2010.




                                                         85
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            25

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            20

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            15

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10

             Percent of achieemennt by                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5
             Primavera %
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0




                                                                          Assembly installation of electrical…




                                                                                                                                                                          External walls work Importing &…




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Floors covering works…


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Cement mortar for internal and…
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Isolated layer work , concrete and…
             Percent of achievement from



                                           Sewer equipment & kits works




                                                                                                                                            Sewage & water supply works




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Doors, windows and steel work




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Backfilling work
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Bricks work and Isolation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Structure concrete work
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Walls covering works
                                                                                                                 Electrical supply works




                                                                                                                                                                                                             Internal painting works




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Preparation works and leveling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Preparation works and leveling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Foundation work
             report %




            Figure 3.5: A compare report between Site's Report and Primavera's Report

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

   This study was used to monitor the projects by Primavera, it studied (Al-Deesa 140 scheme
housing project) Libya, through the use of Primavera effect in the project. Conclusions can be
summed up with the following:-

   •   Studying activities of the project has been done by using Primavera which describe easily
       each of activity of the project including the cost and time schedule for project.
   •   Analyzing the input data of the project and reporting the output data by which the ability for
       comparison between the original plan of the project and the required date of the project can
       be performed.
   •   Assessment of the project has been done according to the results data of the project by using
       primavera from which the delay period of the project is been calculated

REFERENCE

 [1]   Ahmad Said (2005) Projects Management.
 [2]   BABNIK, Ž. (2006) Resource constrained scheduling - a case study using Primavera Project
       Planner 3.1.
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 [4]   Condensed GSAM Handbook (2003).
 [5]   Craig Vernon Hawkins (2007) Assessing CPM Scheduling Software for the Small to Mid-
       Size Construction Firm.
 [6]   James P. Lewis (2005) Project Planning Schedule & Control.
 [7]   James P. Lewis (2007) Fundamentals of project management.
 [8]   Jim Cashman and Ronald Tayam (2010) Introduction to Critical Path Method Scheduling
       using Primavera P6.1 Client for Construction.

                                                                                                                                           86
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME

 [9] Jimmie W. Hinze (1998) Construction planning and scheduling.
 [10] M. Buckley-Golder (2004) Software Project Management Plan (SPMP).
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 [12] Michael C. Thomsett (1990) Little Black Book of Project Management.
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