07-RAINFED AG-BHARAT by huangyuarong

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									POTENTIAL OF RAINFED
AGRICULTURE IN INDIA


International Water Management Institute
                     &
  Central Research Institute for Dryland
      Agriculture (ICAR), Hyderabad
    Estimated partitioning of the increased
freshwater requirements between rainfed and
             irrigated agriculture
Global analysis of over 100 agricultural
developmental projects found that yield
levels in projects focused on improving
rainfed agriculture has raised on average
by 100%, often several hundred percent,
while the comparable achievement in
irrigated projects was a yield increase of
only 10%. Under rainfed farming,
operating at a lower yield level, every
new investment results in a relatively
higher and more equitable yield response.
Range of rainfall variability across hydro-climatic zones
           Annual P, PET and moisture deficit index for
           different dryland stations of India

Stations          P, mm       PET, mm       MDI, %
Ludhiana          680.1       1359.9        -50.0
Hisar             428.4       1615.6        -73.2
N. Delhi          660.1       1658.7        -60.2
Jodhpur           366.0       1843.0        -80.1
Agra              679.0       1467.2        -53.7
Hyderabad         772.2       1756.8        -56.0
Anantpur          583.0       1857.1        -68.6
Rajkot            594.3       2144.6        -72.3
Akola             596.7       1729.7        -65.5
Indore            929.1       1813.2        -48.8
          Rainfall partitioning in farming system in
          semi-arid tropics.



                                                       Non-productive
                                                        evaporation




Half of the rainfall is generally “lost” to the atmosphere as non-productive 
evaporation.
                        Drylands of  India
                                              u    Erratic rainfall 
                                                   leading to frequent 
                                                   drought events
                                              u    Degraded lands
                                              u    Resource poor 
                                                   farmers
                                              u    Small and 
                                                   marginal 
                                                   holdings
                                              u    Lowering of 
                                                   groundwater table
25 dryland centres and 25 Agromet centres work 
  on dryland technologies all over the country
                         Predominant Rainfed
Rice               46%   Crops
Groundnut          80%

Soybean            97%

Rapeseed mustard   36%

Sunflower          76%

Safflower          99%
Sesame             96%

Linseed            97%

Castor             96%

Pigeonpea          96%

Chickpea           78%

Blackgram          94%

Greengram          93%

Cotton             67%

Wheat              14%
Sorghum            91%
Pearlmillet        94%
Fingermillet       90%
Maize              76%
 Challenges of Rainfed Areas


Ø Drought and water scarcity is a constant threat
Ø Stubborn poverty & food insecurity
Ø Low rainwater use efficiency, low crop
  productivity & high instability
Ø Land degradation & declining soil health
Ø Acute fodder shortage and poor livestock
  productivity
         Comparison of important characteristics of
         predominantly rainfed and irrigated regions of India

Parameter                     Rainfed   Irrigated   All
                              regions   regions     regions
Pop. density (p/km2)          163       297         230
Pro. of small farms,%         52        76          69
Poverty ratio, headcount, % 37          33          35
Land prod. INR/ha             5716      8017        6867
Labor prod. INR/ha            6842      9830        8336
Food grain con. kg/cap/a      260       471         365
Bank credit, INR/ha           1050      1650        1350
Infra. Dev. Index             0.30      0.40        0.35
Pro. of irri. area, %         15        48          42
Distribution of rainfed crop based production systems in
                different rainfall zones
Seasonal and Annual Rainfall over India




              Season              Rainfall (mm)   Percent of    Quantum of 
                                                   Annual        Rainwater 
                                                   Rainfall     (m. ha. m*)
       Pre-Monsoon                      94            9             52
       (Mar – May)
       Monsoon                         851           78            296
       (Jun – Sep)
       Post-Monsoon                    109           10             40
       (Oct – Nov)
       Winter                            36           3             12
       * Million hectare meters
       (Dec – Feb)
       Annual                            1091                      400
• Any region which has less than 30% irrigated area through
  major/ minor/ groundwater irrigation is considered to be as
  rainfed and the agriculture practiced is “Rainfed Agriculture”

• Water management ranges from in-situ conservation to
  drainage and ex-situ water harvesting for supplemental
  irrigation

• Watershed based water management is backbone for overall
  land productivity improvement

• Rainfed Agriculture covers all the climates and several annual/
  perennial crops; thus encompasses a range of agro-eco-regions
• Contribution to food production 44%
• Supports 40% of population and 2/3 of livestock
                                   India- Rainfed Region
Geographical area     328.7 m.ha

Net cultivated area   161.8 m.ha

Net Rainfed area      141.7 m.ha

Net Irrigated area     50.1 m.ha




                                        Irrigated area (> 30% irrigation)
                                        Rainfed area (< 30% irrigation )
Change in area, irrigation and productivity:
             Coarse Cereals




                       65.4   6.1%

                 0.5   0.98   1.04
                 9
Change in area, irrigation and productivity:
           Oilseeds




                        57.0   5.8%

                0.52   0.8     0.8
                       2       7
Change in area, irrigation and productivity:
               Pulses




                      18.6     2.4%

                0.5   0.59   0.60
                0
Change in area, irrigation and productivity:

                 Rice




                          66.6    4.86%

                    1.1   1.85   1.94
                    1
        Early Drought
Probability of consecutive 3 dry weeks
          from July 1st Week




    Probability (%)
       Terminal Drought
Probability of consecutive 3 dry weeks
     from September 2nd Week




Probability (%)
Identification of Rainfed districts

Priority 1
•AESR 3-13 
•Districts constituting top 85% area

Priority 2
•Districts with irrigation except canal irrigated (Future)
                                    Delineation of Sunflower Districts
 


      Selection Criteria       No. of        Area under     Area under   Gross       Yield
                               Districts     Sunflower      Rainfed      Cropped     (kg/ha)
                                             (‘000 ha)      Sunflower    Area
                                                            (‘000 ha)    (‘000 ha)

      Rainfed States (13)      224           1630           1246         120243      492



      AESR 3-13                179           1406           1075         97692       531


      Cumulative 85%           11            1143           902          12067       441
      Rainfed Sunflower
      Area


    State Name             District Name


    Karnataka              Bijapur,Gulbarga,Raichur,Dharwad
    Maharastra             Ahmednagar,Solapur,Osmanabad,Beed,Parbhani,Nanded
                          Delineation of Rainfed Soybean Districts
    Selection criteria           No. of      Area under    Area under     Gross       Yield
                                 districts   Soybean       Rainfed        Cropped     (kg/ha)
                                             (‘000 ha)     Soybean        Area
                                                           (‘000 ha)      (‘000 ha)
                                                                           

    Rainfed states (13)          202         3666          3574           112689      532


    AESR 3-13                    160         3483          3391           90863       569


    Cumulative 85% Rainfed 21                2857          2843           11217       911
    Soybean Area

    State Name            District Name
    Madhya Pradesh Ujjain,Sehore,Mandsaur,Betul,Ratlam,Seoni,Narsinghpur,Vidisha,Shajapur,
    Hoshangabad, Dhar,Indore,Dewas,Chhindwara, Sagar, Guna, Raisen
    Maharastra Nagpur
    Rajasthan Jhalawar , Chittorgarh
Analysis of district/Sub-agro climatic region wise deficits of effective
rainfall in meeting the water requirements of important crops at
different time periods of crop growth.

   Water balance analysis 

            •Climatic water balance
            •Crop Water balance

   •FAO Crop water balance was carried out for each 
   district for dominant crops with dominant soil 
   type and water holding capacity.
üNot considered the spatial variability with in soil. Ideally, the model should
be run for the crop covered area with underlying soil properties.
üConstraint: Distribution of cropped area changes across the district during
different years.

üSowing is supposed to be completed with normal onset of
monsoon. Normal crop duration was assumed.


üResults include crop wise and AESR wise surplus/deficit during
the crop growing season.


üFAO standard crop coefficients were used.


üSurplus was estimated after deleting districts with surplus of
50mm and those districts with runoff less than 10% of rainfall.


Assumption: The above surplus can reasonably utilised through
in-situ moisture conservation practices.
 Dominant districts for Sunflower

            50                                                                          60
            45    Bijapur                                                 PPT                              Gulbarga                                                                        PPT
                                                                          PE                                                                                                               PE
                                                                                        50
            40
            35                                                                          40
            30




                                                                                   PPT/PE
 PPT/PE




            25                                                                          30
            20
                                                                                        20
            15
            10
                                                                                        10
            5
            0                                                                               0
                                      22    week 31 34 37             46 49                                      10   13    16        19    22   25week          34   37    40




                                                                                                                                                      28

                                                                                                                                                           31




                                                                                                                                                                                 43

                                                                                                                                                                                      46

                                                                                                                                                                                           49

                                                                                                                                                                                                52
                     10
                     13
                            16
                                 19


                                           25
                                                28




                                                            40
                                                                 43




                                                                              52



                                                                                             1

                                                                                                      4

                                                                                                           7
            1
                 4
                      7




        35
                                                                                                 50
        30                                                                                       45
                                                                                                 40
        25
                                                                                                 35
PPT/PE/WR




                                                                                     PPT/PE/WR
        20                                                                                       30
                                                                                                 25
        15
                                                                                                 20
        10                                                                                       15
                         Bijapur                                          PPT                    10                     Gulbarga                                                       PPT
            5                                                             PE
                       AWHC=150.00mm                                      WR                     5                    AWHC=150.00mm                                                    PE
                                                                                                                                                                                       WR
            0                                                                                    0
                 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41                                         24    25   26    27        28        29    30   31    32   33    34        35   36   37    38
                                     Week                                                                                                             Week
Dominant districts for Cotton
     80                                                                       70
                                                               PPT                             Amaravathi                                                  PPT
     70            Yeotmal                                                    60                                                                           PE
                                                               PE
     60
                                                                              50
     50




                                                                        PPT/PE
                                                                              40
PPT/PE




     40
                                                                              30
     30
                                                                              20
     20

     10                                                                       10

       0                                                                        0




                                                                                      11
                                                                                      13
                                                                                      15
                                                                                      17
                                                                                      19
                                                                                      21
                                                                                      23
                                                                                      25
                                                                                      27
                                                                                      29
                                                                                      31
                                                                                      33
                                                                                      35
                                                                                      37
                                                                                      39
                                                                                      41
                                                                                      43
                                                                                      45
                                                                                      47
                                                                                      49
                                                                                      51
                                                                                       1
                                                                                       3
                                                                                       5
                                                                                       7
                                                                                       9
             1
             3
             5
             7
             9
            11
            13
            15
            17
            19
            21
            23
            25
            27
            29
            31
            33
            35
            37
            39
            41
            43
            45
            47
            49
            51
                                        week                                                                               week

            80                                                                       70
                                                               PPT                                                                                       PPT
            70                                                 PE                    60                                                                  PE
                                                               WR                                                                                        WR
            60
                                                                                     50
PPT/PE/WR




            50
            40                                                           PPT/PE/WR   40

            30                                                                       30

            20            Yeotmal                                                    20
            10          AWHC=150.00mm                                                                 Amravati
                                                                                     10
                                                                                                    AWHC=150.00mm
            0
                                                                                     0
                 2223242526272829303132333435363738394041424344454647
                                                                                          23 2425 26 27 28 2930 31 32 3334 35 36 3738 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 4647 48
                                         Week
                                                                                                                           Week
Surplus, m ha.m
Surplus, m ha.m
Deficit
Drought Years

vCase studies were carried out for few dominant districts of
Andhra pradesh covering Rayalaseema, Telengana and Coastal
Andhra regions.


vCrop Water balance model was run for those dominant
districts with predominant soil type for different years ranging
from 1966 onwards.


vNormal years and moderate drought years were separated
based on IMD declaration for meteorological subdivision.
Assumed that the those districts falling in that met divisions
were all affected by drought.


vRunoff was calculated for total crop season and for the period
of SMW of 35-40 weeks which could be harvested for
supplemental irrigation.
v2/3 of runoff during SMW 35-40 could be utilised for
supplemental irrigation.
v85% application efficiency was considered.
Surplus,mm
vWater Use is proportional to Yield
vDifference in yield increase between drought to normal year is
linearly proportional to difference in yield.
vIncremental yield per mm of water is estimated. Based on runoff,
harvestable runoff for supplemental irrigation is estimated and increase
in production is also estimated.
Possibility of increase in production during Drought years
vDuring drought years production can be enhanced
in medium to high rainfall areas with more
certainity. Response from Medium to Deep soils
would be higher.


vDuring normal years, cropping intensity can be
enhanced by provision of one irrigation at the time
of sowing in rabi season.


vSupplenmental irrigation can be given to low to
medium deep soils in high to medium rainfall zones.


vStability of production can be ensured during
normal years from shallow depth soils also.
IRS-P6 LISS-III data showing spatial distribution of COTTON crop
                 in Nagpur district (Oct. 11, 2004)




         Area: 78000 ha
Yield gap analysis
Crop : Cotton
District                                         Yieldgap
Guntur Prakasam                                  33-66%
Adilabad ,Ahmedabad, Akola ,Amravati
Aurangabad Baroda Belgaum Broach Buldhana
Chandrapur Dewas Dharwad Dhule Jalgaon Jalna
Khandwa Khargone Kurnool Mehsana Nagpur
Nanded Parbhani Raichur Shimoga Wardha Yeotmal   More than 66%
    Maize
District                                            Yield gap
Adilabad, Ambala, Bastar, Chhindwara ,Chittorgarh   33-66%
,Dumka ,Etah ,Farukkabad Gurdaspur ,Hoshiarpur
,Kanpur (Dehat), Khargone Mandla, Mandsaur,
Medak, Nizamabad, Roopnagar ‘Sabarkantha
Shajapur
Dharwad ,Karimnagar, Mysore Shimoga                 Less than 33%
Ballia, Banswara, Betul, Bhilwara Bilaspur          More than 66%
Buduan ,Bundi ,Dewas, Dhar ,Dhule ,Dungarpur
Ganjam Guna Hardoi Hazaribagh Indore Jaunpur
Jhabua ,Jhalawar, Kaira ,Kalahandi, Keonjhar
Kheri, Koraput ,Kota, Lalitpur, Palamu ,Panch
Mahals
Phulbani ,Ratlam ,Saharanpur, Shahdol ,Shivpuri
,Sidhi
Sitapur ,Surguja, Tonk, Udaipur ,Unnao
   Supplemental irrigation through Water harvesting
Rainfall      Soils, AWHC   Response to SI   Response to SI
                            during normal    during normal
                            year             year


Low           Low           WH not           WH not
                            possible         possible
Low           Medium        WH not           WH not
                            possible         possible
Low           High          WH not           WH not
                            possible         possible
Medium        Low                            WH not
                                             possible
Medium        Medium        Good             WH not
                                             possible
Medium        High          Average          Good
High          Low           Good             Good
High          Medium        Average          Good
High          High                           Average
  Assessment of the response of other production inputs
  use such as fertilizer, high-yielding variety use of major
  rainfed crops
Rain water harvesting and recycling – Farm pond - lined with
local material
Improving the productivity of groundnut + pigeonpea
intercropping system through
supplemental irrigation – Anantapur in a drought year
Effect of different amounts of supplemental
irrigation during drought stress at
pod development stage of groundnut -
Anantapur
Supplemental irrigation improves Tobacco grade

          Treatment            Green     Cured    Bright    Bright     Grade 
                                leaf      leaf      leaf     leaf      index 
                              (kg/ha)   (kg/ha)   (kg/ha)    (%)      (kg/ha)
 T1 20 mm, one irrigation      6858       1110      474     42.70       849

 T2 30 mm, one irrigation      7238      1213      517      42.62      937

 T3 30 mm two irrigation       7254      1250      517      41.40      954
 (15 mm + 15 mm)
 T4 40 mm one irrigation       7337      1238      529      42.70      962

 T5 40 mm two irrigation       7664      1283      548      42.70      990
 (20 mm + 20 mm)
 T6 control (no irrigation)    5477      942       374      40.23      709

 SEM  ±                       240.69    65.72     33.60               52.20

 CD at 5%                     758.06    206.96    106.02              164.43

 CV (%)                        5.98      9.70     11.82               10.04
        Soil Water Conservation


 Surplus Index     Possible Options
 <12               In-situ conservation (I)
 12-25             In-situ conservation (I) and Water Harvesting (WH)
 >25               Drainage (D), In-situ conservation (I) and Water Harvesting

      Crop Management Options


Yield Gap        Possible Options
<33      Non monetary inputs (NMI) and improved varieties (V)
33-66    Non monetary inputs (NMI), Fertilizer Management (F) and Improved
         Varieties (V)
>66      Improved Varieties (V), Fertilizer Management (F), Plant protection
         measures (PP), Non monetary inputs (NMI) or shifting alternate land
         uses
             Viability of Water Harvesting in different Climatic
                                  Zones

Climatic zone                   Rainfall                       Possibility



Hyper arid                      <100 mm                        Too dry for viable runoff farming (P/PET <
                                                               0.3) like in desert areas

Arid                            100-500 mm                     Runoff farming is possible (P/PET
                                                               0.03 – 0.2)

Semi-arid                       500-1000 mm                    Runoff farming is practicable (P/PET 0.02 –
                                                               0.5)



Sub-humid                       >1000mm                        Combine runoff farming with shallow water
                                                               table/ Choes/ Springs etc.) like in
                                                               Himalayan montane and sub-montane region
                                                               (P/PET > 0.5)

                 P/PET is ratio of Precipitation (rainfall) to Potential Evapo-Transpiration
Components of Rainwater Management in watershed Mode


              •   In-situ conservation
              •   Grade line Bund
              •   Drainage line treatment
              •   Water harvesting & utilization
              •   Groundwater recharge


     Agro Climatic Zone    Rainfall (mm)    Order of components



  Arid                        100-500                  1, 3

  Dry Semi-arid               500-750               2, 1, 3, 5

  Wet Semi-arid              750-1000              2, 3, 4, 5, 1

  Sub-humid                  1000-2500             3, 4, 2, 1, 5

  Per-humid                   >2500                 3, 4, 2, 1
                     Potential of replacement of dryland crops with other high 
                     production/value crops and diversification of agriculture
                Intercropping system is stable with pigeonpea


States                   Intercropping system                                     Base crop +    Land Equivalent
                                                                                  Pigenonpea          Ratio
                                                                                  yield(kg/ha)

Jharkhand                Maize + pigeonpea (3)                                      2103+616          1.77

Jharkhand                Groundnut + pigeonpea (3)                                  1245+525          1.73

Jharkhand                Rice + pigeonpea (4)                                       1427+456          1.65

Maharastra               Pearl millet + pigeonpea (8)                               336+351           1.64

Maharastra               Sunflower + pigeonpea (7)                                  288+434           1.60

Andhra Pradesh           Groundnut + pigeonpea (7)                                   964+51           1.54

Karnataka                Groundnut + pigeonpea (5)                                  944+267           1.21

Karnataka                Finger millet + pigeonpea (5)                              2102+250          1.13


            Figures in parentheses are years of on-farm trials in Operational Research Project
             Benefit-cost ratio
under different land use systems at Hyderabad



     Farming system    Period    Benefit : cost ratio
                       (years)
   Agri-horticulture     30             5.53

   Silvi-pastoral        10             2.45

   Silvi-agriculture     10             1.99
   (with castor
   intercrop)
   Agro-forestry         10             1.65
   (with sorghum +
   pigeonpea)
   Arable farming        1              1.34

								
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