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									   Ramsey County, MN
 Juvenile Justice Redesign

          Final Report

     Executive Summary

Submitted by: Huskey & Associates in
association with Kimme & Associates

         January 29, 2013
                                                                    Juvenile Justice Redesign Report

                               Board of County Commissioners

                                     Blake Huffman, District 1
                                   Mary Jo McGuire, District 2
                                    Janice Rettman, District 3
                                       Toni Carter, District 4
                                     Rafael Ortega, District 5
                                    Jim McDonough, District 6
                                   Victoria Reinhardt, District 7

                         Juvenile Justice Redesign Executive Team

                             Carol Roberts, Department Director
                    Michael Belton, Deputy Director, Juvenile Probation
             Laurie Lindahl, Deputy Director, Administrative Services Division
      Chris Crutchfield, Deputy Director for Community Relations and External Affairs
                     Steve Poynter, Superintendent, Boys Totem Town
                 Brian Portzen, Superintendent, Juvenile Detention Center
                Peter Jessen-Howard, Assistant Director, Juvenile Probation
            Leah Bower, Supervisor, Research, Evaluation and Contracting Unit
                   Gale Burke, Manager, Fiscal Services/Accounting Unit
                            Dr. Neerja Singh, Treatment Director
            Keith Lattimore, Assistant Superintendent Juvenile Detention Center
                        Theresa Neal, Principal, Correctional Schools
                             Michael Steward, Project Specialist

                            Special Acknowledgements to
        Michael Steward, Juvenile Justice Redesign Project Manger (Extraordinaire)
        Leah Bower and Edward Hauck, Research, Evaluation and Contracting Unit
             Second Judicial District, Ramsey County Juvenile Court Judges
                Ramsey County Community Corrections Department Staff
                 Ramsey County Community Human Services Department
            Ramsey County Community Members, Elders, Parents and Youth
                          Minnesota Department of Corrections
                         Minnesota Department of Public Safety

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                                  Special Acknowledgements

 The consultant team wishes to express its sincere gratitude to the Director of the Ramsey
     County Community Corrections Department for her strong leadership toward the
 implementation of evidence-based principles and policies and to her Executive Team for
   their dedication to excellence throughout this project. While this was an independent
  professional evaluation of the programs and services of the Department, the Executive
           Team provided valuable input for the consultant team’s consideration.

 The consultant team also wishes to especially acknowledge the Research, Evaluation and
     Contracting Unit (Leah Bower, Ed Hauck, May Shoua Moua, Jacob Chin, and Laurie
   Alexander) for their work on the Juvenile Justice Redesign project. They gathered data
   from existing databases and, in some cases, created new databases for the consultant
 team to analyze, which proved extremely valuable for this project. The leadership of Leah
Bower, Manager, and the dedication and research assistance from her staff was exemplary.

                                    Project Research Team

                      Bobbie Huskey, MSW, Researcher, Project Leader
                         Paula Tomczak, Ph.D., Senior Researcher
                                Dennis Kimme, AIA, Architect
                           Elizabeth Donovan, Executive Assistant
                              Elana Sorkin, Production Assistant

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The Ramsey County Community Corrections Department (RCCCD) retained Huskey & Associates,
Chicago, IL, after a national search to assist the Department in developing its 10 Year Plan (Plan) for the
delivery of juvenile services, particularly to identify the options for the Boys Totem Town (BTT) and the
Juvenile Detention Center (JDC). This Plan addresses the needs of the youth and families within the
juvenile justice system, and it was developed with input from the Commissioners, County Manager,
Finance Director, Judiciary, County Attorney, Public Defender, Law Enforcement, parents, youth,
community members, Elders, community providers, and Probation, BTT, and JDC staff. In fact, more than
20 focus group interviews were conducted including more than 140 individuals. Others were invited but
could not participate due to scheduling conflicts.

This objective and inclusive process confirmed that Ramsey County should continue to operate the
Boys Totem Town, and at the same time, modify and expand its service continuum to better meet the
needs of the youth, families and community. The Current Service Continuum was developed during an era
when more confinement was considered desirable for youthful offenders. However, the County’s
stakeholders realize that it can no longer confine non-violent youth than is needed. System change is
critical to more effectively meet the needs of youth and families and to control the costs to the community
and to the County.

Ramsey County is commended for its accomplishments to date in detention reform through the efforts of
the Annie E. Casey Foundation’s JDAI Initiative. In fact, Ramsey County is considered one of the nation’s
Leading Sites by the Annie E. Casey Foundation. This stakeholder-driven Plan intends to build on these
achievements. It will recommend additional, supportive ideas that are based on objective, quantitative
research and on inclusive, qualitative input from those many individuals who will either operate the Plan
directly or influence the operation of the Plan.

I.      Methodology

This project addresses three major issues faced by the RCCCD:
 Reduced populations in its institutions due to juvenile justice reform
 Aging, and deteriorating facilities (BTT and JDC) under the RCCCD’s responsibility
 High per diem costs at the Juvenile Detention Center and Boys Totem Town

These issues create the urgent need to evaluate the current service continuum and recommend a New
Service Continuum that ensures a lower rate of reoffending while containing costs. Some of the research
questions posed in this project were:

1. Does Ramsey County have the right number and type of community-based supervision options and
   beds to serve its juvenile justice populations? If not, what is the right number and type of options that
   would be more effective?
2. Are the options within the current service continuum effective at reducing the rate of reoffending? If not,
   what is a more effective service continuum at reducing the rate of return and which reduces
   unnecessary incarceration?

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3. Does the current Boys Totem Town address the needs of the youth housed in it? If not, what should be
4. Should the County continue to operate a Boys Totem Town in the future?
5. Building on the previous architectural analyses of facilities, what are two options for the delivery of the
   Department’s facilities that address renovation, new construction, standalone or co-location, or
   regionalized services and present the advantages and disadvantages of each option? What are the
   preliminary space needs of these facility options and their estimated costs? What criteria should guide
   site placement?
6. What are the components of the new service continuum and what supporting data is presented to build
   the business case for this new service continuum?

Trends Analysis: These research questions were answered through an objective, analytical process
involving extensive data gathering and analysis of data from every aspect of the juvenile justice system and
of the Department’s Juvenile Probation, Boys Totem Town and Juvenile Detention Center.

Characteristic Profile of Youth: Gathered and analyzed the risk and needs of the youth housed in the
Boys Totem Town to 1) provide an understanding of who is housed at the BTT so that program services
can better meet their needs and 2) document the number of youth who might be eligible for less restrictive

Facility Assessment: Conducted facility assessments of 23 functional components of the operations at
the Boys Totem Town and the Juvenile Detention Center, evaluated the facilities against Minnesota
Standards, American Correctional Associational Standards and national best practices.

Gap Analysis: Extensive input was gathered and synthesized from more than 20 focus groups including
more than 140 individuals to identify gaps throughout the juvenile justice system and in the communities
that foster crime. These individuals represented County Board of Commissioners, County Manager,
Finance Director and staff, law enforcement officials, County Attorney, Public Defender, Judiciary,
Probation Division, BTT staff, JDC staff, community treatment providers, community-based organizations,
faith-based organizations, parents, youth, community members, and Elders.

Best Practices: Research was conducted on evidence-based and promising programs rated by national
organizations. They were selected because they are culturally relevant to the ethnic and racial
characteristics of the youth served by the Department. Finally, these program options are eligible for federal
funding which defray some of the costs to the Department and the County.

Core Values that Guided the Development of the Plan

1. The Department subscribes to the value of developing an evidence-based Juvenile Division so that it
   will better address the needs of children and their families. Experience throughout the country has
   found that departments must adhere to evidence-based principles, practices and programs to receive
   future funding.
2. Place youth in the least restrictive option necessary to ensure their appearance in court and to lower
   their risk of future reoffending.

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3. Maintain youth within their families with intensive support if needed, keep them in the community where
   they will be exposed to positive community role models and where mentors and volunteers can be
   actively involved.
4. Engagement and support from juvenile justice system stakeholders as well as the broader community
   is necessary to implement change.

III.    Summary Findings

The key findings are summarized here that helped shape the development of the New Service Continuum.

Demographic Trends: Ramsey County’s overall population is predicted, by the State Demographer, to
remain flat with no growth through 2035. In 2005, the County’s minority population represented 28 percent
of the overall population, in 2035; the minority population of the County is projected to represent 48 percent
showing the growing diversity within the County. In contrast, the County’s youth population grew slightly
during 2005 and 2010. The youth population is expected to be relatively flat with a slight increase through
2025. The school age enrollments are also expected to be flat with a slight increase through 2017.

Juvenile Crime Trends Juvenile arrests went down in Ramsey County by 12.6 percent during 2006-2010
compared to a decline of 8.7 percent in the State of Minnesota and 11.1 percent throughout the U.S.
Hispanic and youth of two or more races increased while all other races declined. Juvenile arrests are
concentrated in certain neighborhoods as is common with many American cities. Arrests among Law
enforcement officials report gaps in pre-court diversion options in these neighborhoods. There are only 4
Youth Service Bureaus located throughout the County to intervene with youth and families in crisis. Police
officials report a growing trend of runaways, especially girls, inebriated and psychiatrically unstable youth. If
these youth remain on the streets, they become prey for adult criminals. There is no formal community
intervention option or crisis stabilization beds for inebriated and unstable youth outside of hospitals. Many
of these youth do not meet the criteria for a 72-hour hold in a hospital, and many do not have insurance
thus many hospitals are reluctant to serve them. Referrals to the County Attorney’s Office for petitions
declined and diversions to the County Attorney’s Diversion Programs and to Youth Service Bureaus
increased. Eight out of ten youth participating in the diversion programs successfully complete their

Court Processing: Two-thirds of the youth brought into detention who are assessed using the Risk
Assessment Instrument are detained. More than one-half (53.6 percent) of the youth referred to the County
Attorney’s Office are formally charged, which focus group interviews questioned why more of these youth
were not referred to Pre-court Diversion. Forty-five percent of the youth sent to Juvenile Court were not
adjudicated. The majority of the delinquency cases are continued without adjudication suggesting that the
judiciary believes that some petitioned youth should be handled informally. This finding compares with
national data of 39.7 percent who are not adjudicated. According to interviews, the time between the
alleged offense and the intervention by Juvenile Probation is getting longer, thus increasing the risk that
these juvenile offenders may reoffend as is the case in other jurisdictions.

Boys Totem Town: The consultants recommend continuing the BTT within the County’s service continuum
provided that the recommendations found in Volumes 2 and 5 are implemented. However, the BTT physical

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plant should be replaced because there are urgent life safety and significant health issues for youth and
staff, and it places severe constraints on the delivery of academic, therapeutic and vocational services. The
admissions and average daily population to Boys Totem Town declined during 2006-2011. However, there
was a consistent need for 31-44 beds at BTT based on historical use by the Juvenile Court and the
Probation Department. There is no evidence that the current capacity for the BTT will be needed in the
future, thus a downsized BTT is recommended. The recidivism rate at Boys Totem Town is lower than
other long-term facilities serving delinquent males from Ramsey County at all three time periods. At six
months, BTT’s recidivism is 7.8 percent lower than the other long-term facilities serving Ramsey County
males; at 12 months, BTT’s recidivism rate is 11.4 percent lower, and at 18 months, BTT’s recidivism is 8.3
percent lower than other facilities. This finding suggests that the treatment program at BTT plus the fact
that this facility is located within the County may have resulted in greater effectiveness as evidenced by
lower recidivism than the treatment programs offered at other long-term facilities outside the County.
Nationally, BTT’s recidivism is within the range of those states that use “adjudication” as their recidivism
measure. The findings show that the youth who stayed the shortest amount of time at BTT had the highest
recidivism at 6, 12 and 18 months. This indicates that short-term punishment is not effective at changing
behavior of high risk offenders. In comparison, the youth who stayed the longest at BTT had the lowest
recidivism outcome, confirming that long-term treatment is required to change the behavior of high-risk
juvenile offenders. BTT youth have high incidences of psychiatric, addiction, trauma and thought
distortions. BTT’s programs rate favorably with the national Indicators for Success in risk assessment, case
planning, and in providing a comprehensive range of educational and therapeutic services, including the
use of evidence-based theoretical models that have proven to change behavior among delinquents.
Volumes 2 and 5 offer 24 recommendations to improve the academic, vocational, therapeutic and aftercare
services at BTT. The consultants believe that the following benefits exist for the County to continue to
operate BTT:

1. BTT provides a long-term treatment/correctional facility within the Ramsey County community to avoid
   sending a youth to Department of Corrections’ facilities and to secure residential facilities outside the
   County. Being close to families, it provides greater access to them to support the youth’s recovery and
   compliance with Conditions of Probation. When a youth is sent away from their family, the family rarely
   visits, and the family is not engaged in family therapy.
2. Enables BTT staff to facilitate the services that families need to help them obtain the skills they need to
   deal with delinquent youth.
3. Enables BTT staff to engage mentors, volunteers, treatment providers and speakers from local
   culturally-relevant community-based organizations, faith-based organizations and community-based
   treatment providers in the treatment program. Youth have greater exposure to community members
   and organizations that provides support to them once they leave the facility.
4. Increases the control over the quality of services by having a facility operated by the Ramsey County
   Community Corrections Department.
5. All focus group participants expressed support for continuing BTT, and they made recommendations for
   enhancing its services.

Because of these reasons, the consultants believe that a full service, comprehensive program such as BTT
for youth who pose a risk to public safety is needed rather than sending these youth outside the County for
services. The core value is to keep these youth close to their home rather than to send them away to

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facilities outside the County. The Juvenile Court and Juvenile Probation will continue to support the use of
BTT as an option for some youth because the core value is to maintain Ramsey County youth within their
local community rather than to send them outside the County for services. However, the physical plant is
old (built 84 years ago (in 1928), it does not meet contemporary juvenile design standards and has

Juvenile Detention Center: Since the implementation of JDAI, the number of youth detained has declined
62 percent. It remains underutilized today. These trends are projected to continue, thus a downsized JDC is
recommended. There are serious deficiencies in the Original JDC housing units, which the consultant
believes cannot be rectified. None of the dayrooms or cells meets ADA accessibility guidelines. The three
housing units (100, 200 & 300) in the Original JDC are highly inadequate and are recommended not to be
used in the long-term housing of juveniles. Even the new JDC addition does not comply with contemporary
standards for natural light and view from the cells to reduce sensory deprivation. In cells that otherwise
have windows of ample size, 90 percent of the window is obscured thus severely limiting the occupant's
view to the outside. In 15 cells that face an interior wall there is no view to the outside which is required by
contemporary ACA Standard (3JDF-2D-01; 3JDF-2C-03). The showers in the dayrooms are not completely
private thus raising the youth’s stress and anxiety.

Facility Options: The consultants examined six options for the BTT and JDC (see Volume 4), and
evaluated each of the options against core values that improves program effectiveness and operational
efficiency of the BTT and JDC. Based on this analysis, the consultants recommend the option that co-
locates BTT, JDC and shared services on a new site. This option is the most operationally efficient and has
potentially lower operational costs. This option resulted in the most Advantages: 1) It is less expensive to
co-locate these new facilities on one site than to construct and operate 2 stand-alone facilities 2) These
facilities would be more efficient if co-located as they would have lower capital and utility costs 3) The
facilities would be new and thus be fully compliant with contemporary standards and practices 4) The
facilities would fully satisfy the County's program objectives and be fully compatible with the system's
current philosophy 5) There will be no limitations caused by existing sites and existing buildings such as
they are on the current BTT and JDC sites. The Disadvantages of this option are that: 1) A new, large
site has to be identified that satisfies the interests of all stakeholders and purchased if not already owned
by the County 2) A new site may be opposed by the public 3) This option vacates the downtown JDC site
which separates the JDC from the Juvenile Court and convenient downtown public transportation, and it
abandons the BTT site. The consultants recommend that the Ramsey County Community Corrections
Facility site not be considered for location of either juvenile facility or programs in the future because
juveniles could not be completely separated by sight or sound from adult inmates.

It is projected that Ramsey County will need to build a 53-bed BTT if it fails to implement the New Service
Continuum. By implementing this New Service Continuum, it is projected that a 38-bed BTT would be
needed along with the development of less restrictive options as is described in Volume 3.
The consultants estimate that a 38-bed BTT will result in $6.9 million less capital costs than building a 53-
bed BTT in the Current Service Continuum. Operating a 38-bed BTT will result in less staff costs because it
saves approximately 2 housing pods by implementing a new staffing model. This new staffing model is also
estimated to reduce the potential for assaults, escapes and riots thus reducing potential costly litigation
against the County.

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Probation: Juvenile Probation caseloads declined 47.8 percent during 2006-2011 while the County
Community Human Services Department (CHS) Probation caseloads increased 5.1 percent. The majority
of the youth supervised by the RCCCD and CHS are medium risk to reoffend. Neither Juvenile Probation
nor the CHS Probation Unit regularly conducts functional assessments to measure change from admission
to discharge from probation. Recent organizational change has resulted in a transfer of CHS delinquent
youth to Juvenile Probation meaning that the probation officers will have more youth on their caseloads
with psychiatric, substance abuse, trauma and cognitive disorders. Juvenile Probation has transferred its
CHIPS cases to CHS.

Detention and Community Based Alternatives: Detention alternatives (Release without Conditions, 36-
Hour Shelter, Shelter +, House Arrest, Conditional Release) have expanded dramatically since JDAI, but
the number and type of alternatives could be expanded to reduce unnecessary detention. Detention
alternatives and community-based alternatives combined were up 69.7 percent from 2010, but they
operated lower than their total capacity. The County Board Approved Detention Alternatives which
includes: Evening Learning Centers, Community Coaches, the Weekend Learning Center, The
Employment Readiness Program and Shelter Plus operate at 58 percent of their capacity. Juvenile
Probation has taken measures to address the low utilization rate. During January 2011-June 2012, a total
of 294 youth were referred to detention on status offenses (CHIPS), some of which were in violation of the
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDP Act) and JDAI principles. Using the Risk
Assessment Instrument (RAI), 99 percent of these youth scored as either eligible for release to their
parent/guardian or release to an alternative to detention. If the court case processing continues to lengthen
as others have suggested, more youth should be considered for Conditional Release and Evening Learning
Centers (ELCs) instead of remaining in detention; however, the ELCs do not routinely serve pre-
adjudicated youth. Only 3.0-4.3 percent of the youth on 36-hour ATDs fail to appear in court and 80.8
percent of the youth involved in all alternatives successfully complete confirming that these are valuable
alternatives to detention. There are three options to keep youth out of placement (Intensive Supervision,
Juvenile Sex Offender Outpatient and Day Treatment). The recidivism rate for the Intensive Supervision
Unit was only 19.4 percent at 6 months and 36.3 percent at 12 months demonstrating the value of intensive
supervision with support services. This is lower than the recidivism rate of youth supervised by the
Community Support Program operated by Ramsey County Community Human Services.

Detention: Detention admissions declined 69.5 percent since 2006 and the number of youth detained
declined 62 percent. The facility is designed at 85, but its capped capacity is 44 beds. In 2011, the facility
was operating at 45.5 percent of its capacity. During 2011, 32.3 percent of the youth brought to detention
was released within 2-24 hours (one quarter during 2006-2011), and 67 percent of the CHIPS were
admitted to detention on a hold warrant thus making them ineligible for an ATD (Section 1.3.6). Most go
home but 5 percent require a crisis stabilization bed rather than a detention bed or a hospital bed. This
option does not exist within the County.

Shelter: There are 25 shelter beds in the County to serve 964 youth on probation representing 2.6 percent
of the total youth on probation. Current shelters mix non-delinquent youth in with delinquent youth which is
not desirable. They exclude inebriated, unstable youth and self-referred youth. Current shelters remain

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underutilized because of these restrictions and because of concerns for the safety of the youth. Overall, in
the opinion of the consultants, shelters can be successful alternatives to detention or to a hospital.

Foster Care/Group Homes: There are four types of foster homes in the County but the consultants could
not locate a sufficient number of therapeutic foster homes available. There are no therapeutic group homes
located within the County for probation violators with emotional and addiction problems. The number of
youth referred to group homes and foster care combined grew almost 60 percent between 2006 and 2011.
Overall, these small placement options remain successful alternatives to detention, to BTT and to a secure
residential placement. Therapeutic group homes located in the County and therapeutic foster homes are
missing in the service continuum.

New Service Continuum: The New Service Continuum is recommended that redirects more non-violent
youth to intensive in-home options instead of being confined in detention, BTT and sent to secure facilities
outside the County thus resulting in fewer non-violent youth in secure confinement. See Figure 1.1. The
consultants found sufficient number of youth housed in BTT and in secure facilities that would be eligible for
less restrictive options. These community-based options are preferred for non-violent youth instead of
                                                Figure 1.1
                         Current Service Continuum vs. New Service Continuum
                  80                                                                        Youth Confined
                  60                                                     51
                                                                                            Youth in Community
                  40                      30                                                Based Programs
                             Current Service          New Service Continuum
Note: Current Service Continuum: includes 53-youth in Boys Totem Town, 32 youth in juvenile detention, and 32 youth in secure
residential facilities outside the county. 30 in community based youth include day treatment, foster home, shelter, group home
outside the county, other.

New Service Continuum: includes 38 youth in Boys Totem Town, 29 youth in juvenile detention, and 17 youth in secure
residential facilities outside the county. An additional 51 youth per day in community based programs (day treatment, intensive
wraparound, foster home, shelter, group home, other).

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The Department currently receives reimbursements from one federal funding source—Title IV-E. The
consultants estimated an expansion of Title IV-E since more youth will be eligible. The consultants also
recommend examining reimbursements from new federal funding sources such as Medicaid, Title IV-B,
Early Periodic Screening Diagnostic Treatment (EPSDT), Targeted Case Management, Medicaid
Rehabilitation, just to name a few that other jurisdictions have used. It assumes that Ramsey County will
work with the County’s Community Human Service Department and the state Department of Human
Services to modify the State Plan to capture greater funding for juvenile offenders from these funding

In summary, the components of the recommended New Service Continuum are:

1. The following new programs are recommended for pre-adjudicated youth to reduce the number of youth
   who would otherwise be brought to detention or confined in detention:
     a. Community Intervention Center (CIC)
     b. Crisis Stabilization Beds (CHIPS only and Delinquent only)
     c. Conditional Release Caseload
     d. Evening Learning Centers
     e. Weekend Learning Centers

2. The following new programs are recommended to reduce the number of youth who would otherwise be
   confined in BTT and in secure residential facilities outside the County:
      a. Day Treatment
      b. Intensive Wraparound
      c. Multi-dimensional Treatment Foster Care
      d. Therapeutic Group Home.

Culturally-competent Family-Based Interventions are recommended as risk-reduction services (Functional
Family Therapy, Brief Strategic Family Therapy, Family Centered Treatment, Positive Adolescent Choices
Training (PACT), and Family Effectiveness Training (FET) which are tailored to African American/Black
youth, Hispanic youth, Asian youth, and American Indian youth). These are just a few notable examples.

3. The following new reentry programs are recommended to reduce the youth’s length of stay in BTT and
   in secure facilities outside the County:
       a. Family Integrated Transitions
       b. Evening Learning Centers

ART and Thinking for a Change (T4C) are recommended to be continued in aftercare programming if it was
offered while in residence.

4. RCCCD should facilitate the expansion of services, programs and residential treatment beds for

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5. Establish the following Specialized Caseloads that assign special need youth on probation to specially
   trained probation officers: Note: Each unit is recommended as an Intensive Supervision Unit involving
   25-30 youth per 1 Probation Officer).
       a. Emotionally Disturbed/Trauma Survivors Unit
       b. Substance Abuse Unit
       c. Pregnant Girls/New Mothers Unit
       d. Transition Age Youth (17 ½)
       e. Sex Offender Treatment Unit

To be successful in this transition, the consultants recommend that the job descriptions of future probation
officers be updated to place a higher emphasis on degrees from the helping field (social work, marriage
and family, psychology, counseling, liberal arts, etc.) instead of law enforcement and criminal justice. We
understand that the RCCCD is currently reviewing its job descriptions. We recommend hiring individuals
with the core values that support the evidence-based service delivery model, and staff that have an
understanding of working with various diverse populations so they are culturally competent to deal with
their caseloads.

While the RCCCD has focused on training its staff on evidence-based practices, this training will become
even more important in the future as the Department expands its continuum of services for youth and
families. Even with this radical change, the Department will still need to provide specialized training to this
new staff in evidence-based practices because many colleges and universities do not adequately prepare
staff with the knowledge and skills needed to implement the evidence-based service delivery model. These
probation officers will need to be specially trained in the holistic model. This model is based on the findings
of research, it examines the underlying criminogenic risk and need factors that research has found to
contribute to the youth’s delinquency, including trauma, and it actively collaborates with the family, school,
peers, community members/Elders and community organizations in the delivery of services. For those
assigned to specialized caseloads, they will require special training in the unique needs of special need
youth in order to seek out from the community the most effective treatment interventions that will lower their
rate of reoffending. Because probation officers will not deliver therapies themselves, they will need to more
closely collaborate with community-based treatment providers to coordinate the treatment of these special
need youth.

II.     Description of Organization of Report

This report is organized into five volumes for ease of reviewing the findings from the extensive analysis:

Volume 1:        Analysis of Demographic, Juvenile Crime and Program Trends
Volume 2:        Facility Assessment (Boys Totem Town and Juvenile Detention Center)
Volume 3:        Projections for the New Service Continuum
Volume 4:        Facility Options Analysis
Volume 5:        Recommendations and the 10 Year Plan

*The Full Report (containing all 5 Volumes) can be found on the Ramsey County Website at:

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                                                                Exhibit 2
                                                  Ramsey County Juvenile Justice Redesign
                                                         Focus Group Participants

County Board of Commissioners                    BTT Supervisors                                 BTT Line Staff

Toni Carter, Ramsey County Commissioner,         Bill Merritt, Shift Supervisor/Administrative   Jayme Brisch, Caseworker
   District 4                                         Supervisor                                 Jason Mereness, Caseworker
Jim McDonough, Ramsey County                     Robin Perist, Chief Engineer
   Commissioner, District 6                      Stephanie Price, Shift Supervisor/Program       BTT Nurse
Jan Parker, Ramsey County Commissioner,               Supervisor                                 Carie Lynch
   District 2                                    Gerald Settles, Shift Supervisor/Community
                                                      Supervisor                                 BTT Mental Health, Cognitive Behavioral
County Manager’s Office                          Kim Stubblefield, Shift Supervisor/Program
Julie Kleinschmidt, County Manager                    Supervisor                                 Bobby Brown, BTT Mental Health
                                                 Mark Elliot                                     William Halmon,BTT Mental Health
Juvenile Court Judges                            Reggie Prince                                   Jayme Brisch, Case Manager CBT
                                                                                                 Kelly Streitz, BTT Mental Health
Judge William Leary                              BTT Therapists
Judge Marybeth Dorn                                                                              BTT School Orientation
Judge Robert Awsumb                              Toinette Battle, Mental Health Practitioner
Judge Mark Ireland                               Bobby Brown III, Therapist                      Theresa Neal, Principal, Correctional Schools
Judge Kathleen Gearin                            Jeremy Dax, Caseworker – C3                     Gail Pederson, School Social Worker
Judge Gail Chang Bohr                            Mary Jo Dupre, Caseworker – CCW III Kohler
                                                 William Halman, Mental Health Practitioner      RCCCD Vendors/ Community Partner
Orientation to Boys Totem Town                                                                   Organizations
                                                 BTT Teachers, St. Paul Public Schools           Model Cities
Brian Portzen, Superintendent, BTT                                                               180 Degrees
Theresa Neal, Principal, Correctional Schools    Amy Dutton, LLC Coach
Reginald Prince, Administration                  Reni Huyen
Neerja Singh, Treatment Director, BTT            Rhonda McGinley
Michael Steward, Program Specialist              Michelle Nickeson
                                                 Margaret Schultz
                                                 Chris Voeller
                                                 Ron Bergee

Huskey & Associates in association with Kimme & Associates                                                                               1.13
                                                                                                              Juvenile Justice Redesign Report

Evening Learning Center / 180 Degrees              Juvenile Detention Center Staff                 Community Corrections Juvenile Probation

Nikki Conway                                       Valen Ademodi                                   Pete Jessen-Howard, Assistant Director of
Angela Kapaun                                      Tara Eisenmenger                                  Juvenile Probation Services
Haywood W. Kemp                                    Terry McFarland, RAI/Operations Coordinator     Mary Pat Dunlap, Supervisor, JFJC 300
Lauren Morrissette                                 Mark Kroll, DOC                                 Carol Geraghty, Supervisor, Court
Carl Young                                         Heather Peterson                                  Intake/IU/Placement
                                                   Angel Rodriguez, RAI/Operations Coordinator     Rashad Hameed, JDAI / DMC Supervisor
Evening Learning Center/ Model Cities                                                              Jim Loye, Supervisor of Intensive Supervision
                                                   Probation Supervisors                              Unit - Probation
Sean Burns, JDAI Case Manager                                                                      Cathy Smith, Supervisor, JFJC 300
Jamar Esaw, Youth Enrichment Services              Pete Jessen-Howard, Assistant Director of       Rick Bradshaw, ISP, Juvenile
Rashad Hameed, Supervisor RCCC                       Juvenile Probation Services                   Steve Horgan, Enhanced Probation
Andre Isabell, Community Coach                     Carol Geraghty, Supervisor, Court               Laurie Lehman, Enhanced Probation
    Contract/Model Cities                            Intake/IU/Placement                           Marshall Little, Enhanced Probation
Shennika Sudduth, Program Manager                  Rashad Hameed, JDAI / DMC Supervisor            Tim Martin, Enhanced Probation
Juliette Mitchell, Life Skills Coach/Facilitator   Jim Loye, Supervisor of Intensive Supervision   Karen Moelter, Community Corrections Aide
                                                      Unit – Probation                             Chris Montbriand, Enhanced Probation
Orientation to Juvenile Detention Center           Cathy Smith, Supervisor, JFJC 300               Michael Shypulski, Community Corrections
Steve Poynter, Superintendent                      JFJC Probation & Parole Officers
Dr. Neerja Singh, Treatment Director                                                               Probation Supervisors
Theresa Neal, Principal, Correctional Schools      Delores Grant
John Chitty, Property Management                   Jim Hawkins                                     Pete Jessen-Howard, Assistant Director of
                                                   Tim Henrichs, Probation                           Juvenile Services
JDC Supervisors                                    Dan Laiho, Probation                            Mary Pat Dunlap, Supervisor, JFJC 300
                                                   Yvonne Lee, Probation                           Carol Geraghty, Supervisor, Court
Tony Vang                                          Sara Martin, Probation                            Intake/IU/Placement
Michael Aiken                                      Karen Moelter, Probation                        Rashad Hameed, JDAI / DMC Supervisor
Keith Lattimore                                    Fred Stephens Jr. III                           Jim Loye, Supervisor of Intensive Supervision
Demetrius Garrett                                  Cheryl Walden                                      Unit - Probation
Jodi Bond                                          Kao Xiong                                       MJ Sheehan, Office Manager
Terry McFarland                                                                                    Cathy Smith, Supervisor, JFJC 300
Angel Rodriguez

Huskey & Associates in association with Kimme & Associates                                                                                   1.14
                                                                                                           Juvenile Justice Redesign Report

Juvenile Probation-ISP/Conditional               Nathaniel Tesfalidat, Community Coach, Model   Community Human Services
Release/Enhanced Probation                          Cities
                                                 Thad Wilderson, Thad Wilderson & Associates    Alex Cleaveland, Supervisor, Human Services
Tim Martin                                       Nikki Conway, 180 Degrees                         Probation
David Nelson                                     Jeremiah Ellis, YWCA St. Paul                  Linda Hall, Manager, Children’s Mental
Ted Brown                                        Talli Jordan, Workforce Solutions                 Health/Delinquency
Sara Jahnke                                      Haywood Kemp, 180 Degrees                      Carolyn Larson, Supervisor Project Assist
Steve Horgan                                     Christina McCoy, YWCA St. Paul                 Heather Provo, RCHS/180 Degrees/Juvenile
Rick Bradshaw                                    Gloria Roach Thomas, Camphor Memorial             Delinquency Unit
Chris Montbriand                                    United Memorial Church
                                                 Sarah Walker, 180 Degrees                      Public Defender’s Office
HealthEast                                       Thad Wilderson, Thad Wilderson & Associates
                                                 Carl Young, 180 Degrees                        Patrick Kittridge, Chief Public Defender
Joe Clubb, MSW, LICSW, Group Director,                                                          Sharon Thompson-Carter, Managing Attorney
   Mental Health & Addiction Care                Aftercare                                      Amanda Weitekamp, Assistant Public Defender
David Frenz, M.D., H.E. Behavioral Care Clinic
Andrea Kofoed, LADC Manager                      Toinette Battle, Mental Health Practitioner    County Attorney’s Office
                                                 Brian Burns, BTT Aftercare
Community Partners                               Greg Magee, Mental Health, BTT                 John Choi, Ramsey County Attorney
                                                 Jennifer Miller, BTT                           David Pinto, Assistant County Attorney, Office
Sean Burns, Model Cities                         Cha Vang, BTT Aftercare                           of Ramsey County Attorney
Damon Drake, Youth Advisory                      Jennifer Williams, HeathEast CD                Kate Richtman, Director, Juvenile Probation,
Jamar Esaw, Model Cities                                                                           Office of Ramsey County Attorney
Joel Franklin, St. Paul Youth Services           Budgeting & Accounting
                                                                                                Ramsey County Correctional Facility
Community Partners                               Kathy Kapoun, Budgeting & Accounting
                                                 Sue Kuss, Budgeting & Accounting               Al Carlson, Superintendent
Mary Sue Hansen, Suburban Ramsey Family          Lee Mehrkens, Budgeting & Accounting           Tim Thielman, Lieutenant/Kitchen Manager
   Collaborative                                                                                Ron Bergee, Assistant Superintendent
Andre Isabell, Community Coach, Model Cities     St. Paul Police Department                     Steve Marah, Chief Engineer
Angelique Kedem, Wilder Foundation
Mark Robinson, Black Launch Consulting           Eugene Polyak, Commander, Juvenile Division
Shennika Sudduth, Model Cities                      St. Paul P.D.
Lisa Tabor, CultureBrokers LLC                   Kenneth Reed, Executive Commander, St. Paul

Huskey & Associates in association with Kimme & Associates                                                                                1.15
                                                                                                         Juvenile Justice Redesign Report

Arlington House                                  Community Organizations Serving as Sites   Other Ramsey County Staff
                                                 for the Focus Groups
Gary Gulbrandson, Executive Director                                                        Kelli Hall, Contract Manager Ramsey County
Tiffany Allbee, Program Director                 Wilder Foundation                          Lynn McClung, Planning and Evaluation
Maureen McFarland, Clinical Therapist            YWCA St. Paul                              Analyst
                                                 Hmong American Partnership                 Cheryl Gaul, Juvenile Probation
Thomas House                                     Rondo Library                              Dan Merth, Computer Project Analyst
                                                 Hallie Q. Brown Community Center           Judith Franklin, Computer Project Analyst
Kenneth Thomas                                                                              Laurie Werner, Support Services Coordinator
Dee Thomas                                       Food Service Vendors used for Focus        Tania Harris, Administrative Services Division
                                                 Groups                                     Kay Kwang, Contract Unit - Admin Services
Department of Public Safety
                                                 TST Creative Catering                      RiverPrint
Maurice Nins, Senior Planner                     Thai Cafe
Office of Justice Programs                                                                  Frank Klecker
Minnesota Department of Public Safety            Community Professionals and Elders
                                                                                            Leah Bower – Research and Evaluation Unit
Focus Group Facilitators                         Billy Collins
                                                 Steven Randall                             Ed Hauck
Mark Robinson, Black Launch Consulting           Carol Dawson                               Laurie Alexander
Robin Hickman, SoulTouch Productions             Benjamin Roberts                           Mary Shoua-Moua
Juliet Mitchell, Eagles Wings Career Prep LLC    Russell Ballenger                          Jacob Chin
Lee Yang, Hmong American Partnership             Mary K. Boyd
Vangneng Xiong, Hmong American Partnership       Reverend Bradley Jones                     Other Focus Groups
Laura LaBlanc, FullThought                       Devin Miller
Tou Thai Lee                                     Colin J. Moore                             BTT Youth: 12
                                                 Dwayne Billups                             JDC Youth: 3
Hmong Professionals and Elders                   Lawrence Daniels                           BTT Parents: 6
Foung Hawj                                       Barron Chapman Sr.                         Probation Parents: 15
Goaxxe Yang                                      Jim Bransford                              Parents/Community Members/Elders: 18
Sarina Yang                                      Mark Robinson                              RAI Focus Group: 2
Chou Jim Yang

Huskey & Associates in association with Kimme & Associates                                                                             1.16

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