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					        JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND
Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (JMET) ISSN 2347-3924 (Print),
ISSN 2347-3932 (Online), Volume 1, Issue 1, July -December (2013)
                               TECHNOLOGY (JMET)

ISSN 2347-3924 (Print)
                                                                             JMET
ISSN 2347-3932 (Online)                                                   ©IAEME
Volume 1, Issue 1, July-December (2013), pp. 73-79
© IAEME: http://www.iaeme.com/JMET.asp




         CRYONANO PROBE DESIGN & DEVELOPMENT WITH
             CRYOGENIC TECHNIQUES APPLICATION

                                      1
                                     M.CHANDRAN,
                                    Research scholar,
               Sathyabama university, Department of mechanical engineering,
                                      Chennai, India
                                 2
                              Dr.P.SENTHIL KUMAR
                                Research Supervisor,
              PROFESSOR & HEAD, Department of mechanical engineering,
                KSR College of engineering, Thiruchengode Erode, India.



ABSTRACT

        Cryoprobe technology was used to design the cryogenic probe, and the same was
analyzed. Penne’s Bioheat equations are used to solve             heat transfer mechanism. To
optimize the freezing and to enhancement in the freezing heat transfer and to increase
freezing effects and more ice nucleation and there by minimize the surrounding healthy
tissues being frozen the nanoparticles are loaded, which are very much required for the
successes cryosurgery. This was done with the help of a device called cryospray or cryojet
with different types of cryoprobes, till ice ball is formed. Various caliber probes gives better
ice volume and surface area of heat transfer .Cryosurgery techniques and equipment was
successfully applied in the fields of engineering and and in many branches of medicine such
as Cardiology, Oncology, dermatology, gynecology, urology, neurology, pulmonary
medicine. It is also used in veterinary medicine.

1. INTRODUCTION
        Cryosurgery is an important ablation technique for tumors and destroys tumors by
cycles of freezing and thawing .Cryosurgery's destructive effects on tumors are due to two
major mechanisms, one immediate, the other delayed. Cryosurgery is low temperature
application to treat cancer and is often used to treat cancer because of its minimal pain,
scarring and cost. Cryosurgery is used to treat several types of cancer, and some precancerous
or non-cancerous conditions. Cryosurgery is also used to treat some types of low-grade

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Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (JMET) ISSN 2347-3924 (Print),
ISSN 2347-3932 (Online), Volume 1, Issue 1, July -December (2013)

cancerous and non-cancerous tumors of the bone. The mechanisms of cryosurgery are the
effect of cooling, the effect of freezing, thawing and warming .Cryo surgery is accepted and
approved by many countries. Applications of cryogenic techniques have been used in cryo
surgery

The Mechanisms of Cryosurgery

The effect of cooling.
The effect of freezing.
Thawing and warming

2. LOW TEMPERATURE SURGERY                  (FREEZING)

        Cryoabalation is a surgical technic that employs freezing at cryogenic temperatures to
destroy undesirable tumor cells. cryosurgery is effected by means of a cryosurgery device
called cryoprobes either by placing its continuously cooled tip on or into the tissues to be
destroyed . . The technique is used to treat tumors where conventional surgery would be
difficult . The Cryosurgery has a typical success rates compared to those of traditional
open surgery.

3. THE JOULE-THOMSON PRINCIPLE

       The joule-thomson principle is used in cryoprobe technology .Freezing of the
cryoprobe’s tip is achieved with the Joules- Thomson effect: liquid nitrogen during triggering
by cryogun generates immediate cooling of the tip of the probe, theoretically to -89°C.

4. NANOTECHNOLOGY

        Nanomedeicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. Nano medicine ranges
from the medical applications of nanometer’s to nonelectric biosensors, and even possible
future applications of molecular technology Nanotechnology has the potential impact to
surgical practice. Molecular nanotechnology is speculative subfield of nanotechnology.
Molecular nanotechnology is highly theoretical one. The proposed elements of molecular
nanotechnology is molecular assemblers and nano robot. Ithas wider applications in all the
field and one of its important application of nontechnology is Cryonics .

5. NANOPARTICLES

        Nanoparticles are promising tools for advancement of drug delivery, medical imaging
and as diagnostic sensors .Nanoparticles are stable, solid colloidal particles consisting of
biodegrade polymer or lipid materials Nanoparticles are sized between 100 and 1 nanometers
and they’re used to treat cancer. The small size of nanoparticles endows them with properties
that canbe very useful inoncology, particularly in imaging. Quantum dots (nanoparticles with
quantum      confinement properties, such as size-tunable light emission), when used in
conjunction with MRI (magnetic resonance imaging ) a successes of cryogenic engineering,
can produce exceptional images of tumor.



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Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (JMET) ISSN 2347-3924 (Print),
                       ,
ISSN 2347-3932 (Online), Volume 1, Issue 1, July -December (2013)

6. GOVERNING (BIO HEAT ) EQUATIONS

Cf=C ft(1- ) +C p
Cu=C ut(1- ) +Cp

Where f is frozen mixture and u is unfrozen mixture..

     =         +   b Cb        T)+q
                          b(Tb-T)+q


7. OBJECTIVE OF DESIGNING THE CRYOPROBE

The primary objective of designing the cryoprobe is
a) To obtain a low cryogenic temperature of range -80 to-100 c at the tip of the cryoprobe
 )
b) Diameter as small as possible to have minimal invasive surgery

METHODOLOGY

        A new thermal model probe was designed and analysed to solve the problems in
                                                             ana
cryogenic surgery. To increase the tissue conductivity , significant freezing effects and more
efficient ice formation., alumina alpha (Al2 O3) nanoparticle solution is loaded for
administrating the cryonano surgery Cryosurgical treatment is performed with mini cryogun
                       196)
or cryojet (model lnc-196) liquid nitrogen storage devices adapted to different types of
cryoprobes used in the cryosurgery till ice ball is formed..




8. RESULTS &DISCUSSION

                                                                    obes
         Using various caliber probes or using different diameter probes or simultaneous
placement of moreprobes and Using different cryogen also gives better results Different
                                                                   cycle..
diameter of cryoprobes and materials minimize the freezing/thawing cycle.. cryonanosurgery
is very simple, flexible, ,indispensable and relatively comfortable and also gives better
results.



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Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (JMET) ISSN 2347-3924 (Print),
ISSN 2347-3932 (Online), Volume 1, Issue 1, July -December (2013)

            parameter                             Unit                       value
 Blood perfusionrate                            ml.s-1 ml                    ≤0.011

 Metabolic heat generation                      KWm-3                         33.8
 latenheat                                      MJ.m-3                        250
 specific heat of frozen tissue                MJ.m-3°c-1                      1.8
 specific heat of unfrozen tissue              MJ.m-3°c-1                      3.6
 Thermal conductivity of frozen                w.m-1°c-1                       0.5
 Thermal conductivity of unfrozen              w.m-1°c-1                        2
 Blood temperature                                °c                           37

9. CONCLUSION

        By increasing outputs or adding cryoprobesice ball can be expanded to kill nearly any
size of tumor any number of probes can be inserted and cooled simultaneously and the
process of cooling can be monitored with ultra sound which gives (hypo echoic) a dark
image when the tissue is frozen. It is just a beginning to investigate cryonanosurgery but a lot
of fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of tissue damage is required during
cryosurgery .many critical and complex factors still not clear are to be studied and
investigated ..Further study and investigations would be on both improved cryosurgical
device technology and mathematical cryosurgery optimization techniques Further study is to
develop improved imaging techniques It is anticipated that cryosurgery will become a
standard technique in the minimally invasive surgeon armamentarium.




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Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (JMET) ISSN 2347-3924 (Print),
ISSN 2347-3932 (Online), Volume 1, Issue 1, July -December (2013)

        120


        100


         80

                                                             EFFECTIVENESS IN %
         60
                                                             LESIONS
         40


         20


          0
              1   2   3     4   5   6   7   8   9    10 11



Lesions and Effectiveness




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Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (JMET) ISSN 2347-3924 (Print),
ISSN 2347-3932 (Online), Volume 1, Issue 1, July -December (2013)

CRYOPROBE THERMAL DESIGN




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Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (JMET) ISSN 2347-3924 (Print),
ISSN 2347-3932 (Online), Volume 1, Issue 1, July -December (2013)

10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT

       This work is partially supported by Professor of Surgery of A.C.S. Medical College
and Hospital, Director of Thai Moogambigai Dental College Hospital Chennai .we also thank
president of our DrMGR E&RI university.

11. REFERENCES

 [1] M.Chandran, DrP.Senthil Kumar ‘‘A Pilot study of cryonano surgery and cryonics’’
     in the International Conferences on Nano Science, Engineering nd Technology
     (iconset 2011 ) on 28 -30 November , 2011 held at atSathyabama University
     Jeppiaar,Nagar hennai-600119.india ISBN NO:978-1-4673-0072-8 (proceedings , page
     547-549.)
 [2] M.Chandran, DrP.SenthilKumar ‘‘ Heat transfer in cryonanosurgery’’ in the 2 nd
     International Conference on advances in mechanical , manufacturing and building
     sciences (icamb 2012) on 9 -11 January 2012 held at at VIT University Vellore Tamil
     Nadu ,India-632014. (Proceedings page 855-858).
 [3] M.Chandran, Dr.SenthilKumar Heat transfer in cryonanosurgery’’ in the International
     Conference on recent trends in advanced materials      (icram- 2012,sas) on 20 -
     22February 2012 held at at VIT University Vellore Tamil         Nadu ,India-632014
     (proceedings page 147).
 [4] M.Chandran, Dr.P. SenthilKumar A Pilot Study of Cryo Bio Remediation’’ in the
     National Conference on Marine Environmental Challenges and Coastal Zone
     Management Strategy (Marina- 2012,) on 13 -14 February
 [5] M.Chandran,DrP.senthilkumar“cryonanoprobedesign& cryogenic techniques was
     published in the, International Journal of International Journal of Mechanical
     Engineering Research And Development (IJMERD), ISSN 2248 – 9347(Print) ISSN
     2248 – 9355(Online), Volume 3, Number 2 April - May (2013), pp.01- 04
 [6] Lakhwinder Pal Singh and Jagtar Singh, “Effects of Cryogenic Treatment on the
     Cutting Tool Durability”, International Journal of Design and Manufacturing
     Technology (IJDMT), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 11 - 23, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6995,
     ISSN Online: 0976 – 7002.




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