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STUDY OF CONSUMER MIND1

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					     Click to edit Master title style
     CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR
•   Click to edit Master text styles
•   Second level
•   Third level
•   Fourth level
•   Fifth level
          STUDY OF CONSUMER MIND



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               Let Us Learn

                                                  for
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•   Second level
•   Third level




                                                  A
•   Fourth level
•   Fifth level




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                AGENDA
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•   Second level
    INTRODUCTION

•   Third level
    INSIGHTS

•   Fourth level
    BUYING SITUATIONS

•   Fifth level
    BUYING BEHAVIOUR

    BUYING DECISION PROCESS




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 A LEADING INDIAN TV COMPANY IN THE COUNTRY IS

 FINDING IT VERY DIFFICULT TO MAINTAIN THEIR
• Click to edit Master text styles
 MARKET SHARE.
• Second level
 ITS SALES ARE GOING DOWN .
• Third level
 THEY HAVE HIRED YOU TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM.
• Fourth level
 MAKE TWO PRESENTATIONS IN NEXT 10 MINUTES
• Fifth level
 WITH TWO DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES TO SOLVE

 THE PROBLEM.



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                                              INTRODUCTION

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 A LEADING TOY COMPANY IN THE COUNTRY IS

 FINDING IT VERY DIFFICULT TO MAINTAIN THEIR
• Click to edit Master text styles
 MARKET SHARE.
• Second level
 ITS SALES ARE GOING DOWN .
• Third level
 THEY HAVE HIRED YOU TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM.
• Fourth level
 MAKE TWO PRESENTATIONS IN NEXT 10 MINUTES
• Fifth level
 WITH TWO DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES TO SOLVE

 THE PROBLEM.



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    Click to edit Master title style
    What is your wish-list ?
   Click Attendance
• A. On to edit Master text styles
  B. On lecture delivery and Taking Control
   Second level
• C. On speed and clarifications
• D. Level of Interaction
   Third level
  E. Pedagogy
   Fourth level
• F. Evaluation
   Fifth Group
• G. Onlevel formation
 H. On Group presentations
 I. Any other Issue ….??? E.g Mobile phone



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                                                    INTRODUCTION
                         PRODUCTS
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                         AND
                         SERVICES
     NEEDS, WANTS                                 VALUE, UTILITY
•    AND to edit Master
    Click DEMANDS            text styles          SATISFACTION
•   Second level
•   Third level
        MARKETS                                    QUALITY
•   Fourth level
                                                  EXCHANGE
•   Fifth level
    RELATIONSHIPS

                          TRANSACTIONS

          CORE MARKETING CONCEPTS
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                                            INTRODUCTION

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   CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR
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 • THE BEHAVIOUR THAT CONSUMERS DISPLAY
• Second level FOR, PURCHASING, USING,
   IN SEARCHING
   EVALUATING, AND DISPOSING OF PRODUCTS
• Third level
   AND SERVICES THAT THEY EXPECT WILL
• Fourth level
   SATISFY THEIR NEEDS.
• Fifth level
 • STUDY OF HOW INDIVIDUALS MAKE
   DECISIONS TO SPEND THEIR AVAILABLE
   RESOURCES <TIME… MONEY…EFFORT> ON
   CONSUMPTION RELATED ITEMS.

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                                             INTRODUCTION

   CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR
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• STUDY OF :
            * WHAT THEY BUY
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            * WHY THEY BUY IT
• Second level
            * WHEN THEY BUY IT
• Third level WHERE THEY BUY IT
            *
            * HOW OFTEN THEY BUY IT, AND,
• Fourth level
            * HOW OFTEN THEY USE IT
• Fifth level THE PROCESSES BY WHICH
• STUDY OF
  CONUMERS MAKE DECISIONS. MORE
  SPECIFICALLY, IT IS CONCERNED WITH HOW
  CONSUMERS ACQUIRE ORGANIZE AND USE
  INFORMATION TO MAKE CONSUMPTION
  CHOICE.
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                                                  INTRODUCTION
    CB : A SYNTHETIC FIELD OF STUDY
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      SOCIAL
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      PSYCHOLOGY                 PSYCHOLOGY

•   Second level
•   Third level
                   CONSUMER
•   Fourth level BEHAVIOUR
•   Fifth level

     ANTHROPOLOGY                          SOCIOLOGY


                    ECONOMICS
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                                            INTRODUCTION

     Click STUDY OF CB style
           to edit Master title
    • PROVIDES INSIGHTS
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      WHY CONSUMERS BUY GOODS
•   Second level
      AND SERVICES
•   Third level
    • HOW THEIR PURCHASE
•   Fourth level
      DECISIONS ARE MADE, AND,
•   Fifth level
    • FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE
      THEIR DECISION-MAKING
      PROCESSES
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                                                   INSIGHTS

        to look for insights
  Clickto edit Master title style?
Where
• Click to edit Master text not brands
• Consumers buy benefitsstyles
• Second level
• You need to examine the target
  consumer’s reasons not to buy the brand
  Third competition
• vs. its level
• Fourth level
  – Current purchase barriers
     • The functional reasons not to buy the brands vs.
        level
• Fifthcompetition - today
      • The rational reasons not to buy the brand vs.
        competition today
      • The emotional reasons not to buy the brand vs.
        competition - today


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                                           INSIGHTS
    4 benefits barriers which are
     Click to edit and form the basis
 usually quoted Master title style
           of consumer insights
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• Second level
  • I don’t know
• Third level
  • I don’t want
• Fourth level
    I don’t
• •Fifth level believe
  • I have already got benefits


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                                             INTRODUCTION

          STUDY OF title
   Click to edit Master CB style
 TO MARKETERS : KNOWLEDGE OF
•      to edit Master text styles
 ClickAND HOW INDIVIDUALS MAKE
 WHY
•Second level
 THEIR CONUMPTION DECISIONS
• Third level
• Fourth level
• Fifth level IN MAKING BETTER
    HELP THEM
   STRATEGIC MARKETING DECISIONS
   AND IN PREDICTING HOW CONSUMERS ARE
   LIKEY TO REACT TO VARIOUS
   INFORMATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CUES.
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    Click to edit Master title style
     Impact of Emerging Digital
                technologies
    Consumers Master text styles
• •Click to edit have more power than ever
    before.
• Second level
  • Consumers have access to more information
    than ever
• Third levelbefore.
  • Marketers can and must offer more services
• Fourth level than ever before.
    and products
  • The exchange between marketers and
• Fifth level is increasingly interactive and
    customers
   instantaneous.
 • Marketers can gather more information about
   consumers more quickly and easily.
   “Narrowcasting’
 • Impact reaches beyond the pc based
   connection to the web.
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  Click to edit Master title style
 Challenges marketers face
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 • Technology and Innovation may throw any
• Second level
   product out of market
• Third level
 • Mobile v/s Camera
• Fourth level
 • Ipod v/s Blu ray disc
• Fifth level
 • Flash drive v/s hard disk
 • LCD V/s plasma v/s CRT

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     Click to between Marketing
    Linkage edit Master title style
          concepts and CB
• •Click to edit Master text styles
    Production concept : Ford
    Product level                    window,
• •Second concept : Mirror versustime and
                    PDA (saving on
                    efforts)
• •Third level : Insurance, Encyclopedia
    Selling concept
    Marketing : Sustainable , Societal,
• •Fourth level TESCO, TATA, Microsoft Ethical
                   Delivering desired satisfaction
• Fifth level than the competition.
              better

    “To fulfill the needs of the target audience in
    ways that improve society as a whole, while
    fulfilling the objectives of the organizations.”

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              CONSUMER DECISION-MAKING
                       MODEL
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         INPUT                                PROCESS

FIRMS MARKETING EFFORTS          NEED                  PSYCHOLOGICAL

•
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    PRODUCT
                                 RECOGNITION           FIELD

•
•  • Second level
    PRICE
    PROMOTION                PRE-PURCHASE
                                                       MOTIVATION
                                                       PERCEPTION
•   DISTRIBUTION             SEARCH                    LEARNING
   • Third level                                       PERSONALITY
 SOCIO-CULTURAL                                        ATTITUDES
 ENVIRONMENTlevel            EVALUATION OF
   • Fourth                  ALTERNATIVES
• FAMILY                                               EXPERIENCE
   • Fifth level
• INFORMAL SOURCES
• OTHER NON-COMMERCIAL
 SOURCES
                                  PURCHASE
• SOCIAL CLASS
• SUB-CULTURE
                                  • TRIAL
 AND CULTURE
                                  • REPEAT PURCHASE

                                       POST-PURCHASE
                                       EVALUATION
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                                                           OUTPUT
                                                  INTRODUCTION

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•   Click to edit Master text styles
•   Second level
•   Third level
•   Fourth level
•   Fifth level



                Culture satisfies needs
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                                              INTRODUCTION
   FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYZING
                 Master title
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      CONSUMER

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                 ENVIRONMENTAL
                       AND
• Second levelINDIVIDUAL INFLUENCES
• Third level
                                                  O
• Fourth level                                    U
 TYPE
•OF
  Fifth level          BUYER                      T
                  DECISION PROCESS                C
BUYING
                                                  O
SITUATION
                                                  M
                                                  E

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                                                        INTRODUCTION
                   Lets begin our Journey
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                           AMK                        SAK       AKK
•   Click to edit Master text styles
•   Second level
    List the Brands for
•   Third level Products
    1. Personal Care
    •Soaps
•   Fourth level
    •Shampoos
    •Toothpaste
•   Fifth level
    •Shaving accessories
    •DO
    •Perfumes
    2.Clothing and shoes
    3.Food and Beverages
    4.Favorite Past times and Hobbies
    5.Education and career
    6.Shopping habits
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                                                 BUYING SITUATIONS

    [A] TYPE OF BUYING SITUATION -I
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          SIMPLE                         COMPLEX
•    * ROUTINISED text styles
    Click to edit MasterRESPONSE BEHAVIOUR
•   Second level
    • FOR LOW COST FREQUENTLY PURCHASED ITEMS
    • BUYERS AWARE OF PRODUCT CLASS
•   Third WELL
    • HAVElevel DEFINED PREFERENCE ORDER

•   Fourth
    MKTING :level
                +VE REINFORCEMENT TO CURRENT
    JOB              CUSTOMERS
•   Fifth level CQ - STOCK LEVEL - VALUE .. TO BE
                     MAINTAINED
               TO SEND STRONG CUES TO NEW
      CUSTOMERS
               <NEW FEATURES…PRICE -SPECIALS
      DISPLAY>
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                                             BUYING SITUATIONS

  Click OF BUYING SITUATION-II
[A] TYPEto edit Master title style

                PROBLEM SOLVING
 * LIMITEDMaster text styles
• Click to edit
  • NEW UNFAMILIAR BRAND IN FAMILIAR
• Second level
    PRODUCT CLASS
• •Third level
    WHEN EXISTING BRANDS DO NOT
• Fourth level
    PROVIDE ADEQUATE SITUATION
    HIGH INFORMATION SEARCH
• •Fifth level
 MARKETERS :    VERSATILE COMMUNICATION
 TO ENSURE      PROGRAM TO ENHANCE BUYER
                BRAND COMPARISON AND
                CONFIDENCE
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                                                  BUYING SITUATIONS
        [A] TYPE OF BUYING SITUATION-III
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    * EXTENSIVE PROBLEM SOLVING
•     UNFAMILIAR Master text styles
    Click to editBRAND IN UNFAMILIAR PRODUCT CLASS
    •
    •
•     BUYERS HAVE
    Second level WEAK OR NON-EXISTENT CRITERIA FOR
      EVALUATION
•   Third level
•   Fourth level
    • EXTENSIVE                        COMMERCIAL
•   Fifth level SEARCH FROM
      INFORMATION                      SOURCES

                                                  NON-COMMERCIAL
                                                  SOURCES



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                                             BUYING SITUATIONS

            CONTINUED...
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 MKTR :      TO GENERATE PRIMARY NEED
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             FOR PRODUCT CLASS
  Second level
• PRODUCT CLASS                BRAND CATEGORY
• Third level
• Fourth levelBOTH NEEDS CAN SIMULTANEOU-
• Fifth level SLY GENERATED WHEN
           COMPETITION IS INTENSE
 •         RADIO PAGER
           • CELLULAR TELEPHONES


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                 BUYING BEHAVIOUR                     BUYING BEHAVIOUR

             to INVOLVEMENT        style
       Click HIGHedit Master title INVOLVEMENT
              HENRY ASSEL 2X2 MATRIX
                               LOW

SIGNIFICANT
   • Click to edit Master text styles IMPULSE
DIFFERENCES
                 COMPLEX
                 DECISION MAKING      PURCHASING
BETWEEN
   • Second level
BRANDS
                MEDICAL SERVICES      CEREALS
   • Third levelAUTO,FINANCIAL        SNACKS
                PLANNING SERVICES
   • Fourth level
FEW
   • Fifth level BRAND
DIFFERENCES      LOYALTY
                                        INERTIA

BETWEEN
BRANDS                                              LIGHT BULBES
                 PERFUMES
                 CIGARETTE                          SOAPS
                 BEVERAGES
                TYPES OF PURCHASE DECISION
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                                                 BUYING BEHAVIOUR

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   FOUR TYPES OF BUYER title style

• COMPLEX DECISION MAKING
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  • MEDICAL SERVICES        * DECISION COMPLEX
• • Second level
     FINANCIAL PLANNING     * HIGH UNCERTAINITY LEVEL
• • Third level
     ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES * HIGH INFO SEARCH
                            * FOCUSSED COMMUNICATION
• Fourth level                NEEDED
                     * COMPREHENSIVE POSITIONING
• Fifth level        * STRATEGIES … STRESSING
                    * MULTIPLE ATTRIBUTES OF BRANDS




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                                           BUYING BEHAVIOUR

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 FOUR TYPES OF BUYER BEHAVIOUR
• Click to edit Master text styles
• BRAND LOYALTY
   Second level
    POSITIONING IMPORTANT *
• •Third level
    DECISION-MAKING COMPLEX
• Fourth level
    USP OR
• •Fifth level BRAND IMAGE CREATION
    BUT LOYALTY DEVELOPS
  AFTER +VE USE EXPERIENCE

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                                                   BUYING BEHAVIOUR

     Click to edit Master title style
        FOUR TYPES OF BUYER BEHAVIOUR
IMPULSE PURCHASING
•   INFO, SEARCH LIMITED * LOW-INVLOVEMENT OF
• Click to edit Master text styles
                           CONSUMERS
 •  FAVOURABLE EXPERIENCE * DECISION-MAKING PROCESS..
• Second level              SIMPLE
• Third level
    REPURCHASE           * MODERATE BRAND
                           EVALUATION
• Fourth level           * VARIETY SEEKING
                           BEHAVIOUR
• Fifth level
 INERTIA               * BRAND-CHOICE HABITUAL
•   +VE EXPERIENCE             * INFO-SEARCH NON-EXISTENT
                               * BUYERS PREFER TO STAY
    REPURCHASE                   WITH FAMILIAR BRANDS


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                                      BUYING DECISION PROCESS

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  CONSUMER BUYING DECISION PROCESS

 • Click to edit Master text styles
 • Second level
PROBLEM               INFO.
 • Third level
RECOGNITION           SEARCH
                                                EVALUATION
                                                BEHAVIOUR
 • Fourth level
 • Fifth level
                   POST-PURCHASE                PURCHASE
                   BEHAVIOUR                    DECISION



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                   NEED DRIVE MOTIVE
      Click to edit Master title style
•   Click to edit Master text styles
•   Second level
•   Third level
•   Fourth level
•   Fifth level




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                   NEED DRIVE MOTIVE CONTD/--
      Click to edit Master title style
•   Click to edit Master text styles
•   Second level
•   Third level
•   Fourth level
•   Fifth level




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   PROBLEM RECOGNITION
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 - NEED RECOGNITION                                   EXTERNAL
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 - FELT NEED                                          STIMULUS
• Second level
                                                 - TRIGGERING CUES
• Third level                                       •ADVERTISING
                                                    •PUBLICITY
          level
• -FourthBE ACTIVATED BY
    CAN
• Fifth level                                   INTERNAL
                                                STIMULUS
                  DRIVES
                                                 • HUNGER
                                                 •THIRST
  NEEDS
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     The Process and Factors of Problem Recognition
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      Existing                                                    Desired
      Consumer                                                    Consumer
•   Click to edit Master text styles
      Position                                                    Position


•   Second level Perceived Gap/Discrepancy
                   Tension (threshold level)
•   Third level Problem Recognition
•   Fourth level
         *   Stock out
                                                                    *
                                                                        Recognition of new
                                                                        need situation

•   Fifth level
         *
             Dissatisfaction with
             present stock
                                                                    *   Generation of new
                                                                        wants


         *   Decrease in Funds
                                                                        Availability of New
                                                                    *   Products Offerings


                                                                    *   Effect of Synergy
         *   Enhancement in Funds
                                                                        Products


         *   Marketing Efforts                                          New Marketing Efforts
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        Types of Information
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                 Sought
      Utility Function                                       Product attributes

•   Click to edit Master text styles
•   Second level
•   Third level
•   Fourth level      Search Process
                      Internal
                      External
•   Fifth level




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                          marketingteacher@gmail.comImportance weights      35
      MARKETERS :
     Click to edit Master title style
    • TO UNDERSTAND THE DRIVES /
•     MOTIVES RELATED styles
    Click to edit Master textTO ULTIMATE
•     PURCHASE
    Second level DECISION
    • TO UNCOVER THE LATENT NEED
•   Third level
      STRUCTURE SORROUNDING A
•   Fourth level
      PARTICULAR PRODUCT
•   • TO ARRAGNE CUES TO MATCH WITH
    Fifth level
      TIMINGS OF NEED AROUSAL
    • TO PROVIDE INFORMATION IN ORDER
      TO PUSH NEEDS ABOVE THE
      THRESHOLD LEVEL
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                 INFORMATION SEARCH
         Click to edit Master title style
NEED PRODUCES TWO STATES :

A. •   Click to edit Master text styles
       HEIGHTENED ATTENTION                               CONSUMER GETS
   •   Second level                                       ALERT TO INFO.
         <PASSIVE-ALERT>
   •   Third level                                        REGARDING KEY
B. •      ACTIVE INFO. SEARCH                             POT. ATTRIBUTE
       Fourth level

                                                      {
                                                          MOTIVATION
   •          level PSYCHOLOGICAL
       FifthFROM                                          PERCEPTION
                                                          LEARNING
                        FIELD
                                                          PERSONALITY
                                                          ATTITUDES
              GREATER IS RELEVANT PAST EXPERIENCE

              LESS EXT. INFO. NEEDED



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        An overview of the communication process
      Click to edit Master title style                Problem/
                                                      Need
                                                      Recognition


•      Marketing edit
    Click to Mix Master text styles
                           External                   Information
       elements and        search                     Search
•   Second level
       other Communication
       elements

•   Third level                                                     Internal
                                                                    Search
       Exposure
•   Fourth level
                                                       Memory
•   Fifth level
       Attention


       Interpretation


       Acceptance


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            INFORMATION SEARCH
 •
            to EXTERNAL SOURCES
      ClickFROMedit Master title style
     SEARCH
     IN HIGH RISK SITUATION                COMPLEX INFO. SEARCH
• Click to edit Master text styles         AND EVALUATION
     IN LOW RISK SITUATION                 SIMPLE SEARCH AND
• Second level                             INFO. TACTICS
     UNIT OF INFO.
• •Third level SEARCH DEPENDS ON
  • EXPERIENCE          : FIRST TIME EXPERIENCE
• Fourth level             UNSATISFACTORY PAST EXP.
                                 WITHIN PRODUCT CATEGORY
• • Fifth level
     SOCIAL ACCEPTABILITY : FOR GIFT !
 •   PRODUCT FACTORS               :    LONGER INTER-PURCHASE
                                         TIME MANY ALTERNATIVE
                                         BRANDS
 •   PERSONAL FACTORS          :       DEMOGRAPHIC CHC.
                                          PERSONALITY
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      EVALUATION BEHAVIOUR
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    • EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL ALTERNATIVES
•    Click to edit Master text styles
    A. LIST OF BRANDS TO BE USED “ EVOKED SET ”
    B. CRITERIA TO BE USED FOR BRAND EVALUATION
•    Second level
        PRODUCT ATTRIBUTES        “ PUF ” “100% FAT FREE”
•    Third level
       – SELECTION OF RELEVANT ATTRIBUTES
       – DIFFERENT WEIGHTS TO DIFFERENT ATTRIBUTES
•    Fourth level
       – DEVELOPMENT OF BRAND BELIEFS
       – UTILITY FUNCTIONS FOR EACH ATTRIBUTES
•    Fifth level
       – CONSUMER ARRIVES AT AN ATTITUDE
       JUDGEMENT OR PREFERENCE




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            How many brands to consider ?
       I  Click to edit Master title style
    Total set
                              II
                         Awareness Set
                                                       III
                                                    Inept Set
                                                                       Iv
                                                                Consideration set
     ACN
                                                     ACN
     Godrej                ACN
•    Click to edit Master text styles
    Network                Facit
                                                    Aurelec         Facit
                                                                   Network
    Aurelec               Network                                  Gestetner
•    Second level
    Gestener
      PCL
                          Gestener
                           Wipro
                                                                    Wipro

      Facit               Aurelec
•    Third level
     Wipro
       0
•    Fourth level
       0
       0
•    Fifth level
    V             Vi
Choice Set      Choice



                ?
Network
Gestener
 Wipro

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      Basic Choice Heuristics
      Click to edit Master title style
•   Click to edit Master text styles
                   Choice Rules
•   Second level
•   Third level
•   Fourth level
•   Fifth level
 Affect                                             Lexicographic   Linear
             Conjunctive
Referral                            Disjunctive                     Compensatory




                            Non Compensatory
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            Click to edit Master title style
                              Nikon            Canon   Pentax




•   Click to edit Master text styles
    Mega Pixels               9                9       9



•   Second level
    Weight
    Dimensions
                              7
                              6
                                               6
                                               8
                                                       8
                                                       8


•   Third level
    Lens focal length
    View finder
                              9
                              4
                                               9
                                               8
                                                       9
                                                       9
    LCD Screen size           9                8       6
•   Fourth level
    LCD resolution            8                9       5


•   Fifth level
    Media                     9                9       9
    Manual Control            5                9       9
    Battery/Charger           5                9       5


    Price                     8                8       8


    Total                     79               92      84

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    Click to edit Master title style
          Decision Rules
• Click to edit Master text styles
  • Compensatory decision rule Canon
• Second level
  • Conjunctive decision rule minimally
• Third level cutoff for each attribute.
    acceptable
    Canon and
• Fourth level Pentax for 5 or under 5.
    Disjunctive decision rule : canon for 6
• •Fifth level
   or more than 6.
 • Lexicographic : Pentax for highest on
   viewfinder.

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    Click to edit Master title style
      PURCHASE DECISION
   Click to edit Master text styles OF PREFERENCE
•AFTER EVALUATION        A. RANKED SET
                            CREATED
• Second level
                         B. PURCHASE INTENTION IS
• Third level               DEVELOPED

   Fourth level
•ADDITIONAL FACTORS
•A.Fifth level OTHERS
   ATTITUDE OF

B. UNANTICIPATED SITUATIONAL FACTORS

C. PERCIEVED RISKS


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                 PURCHASE EVALUATION

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•   Click to edit Master text styles
•   Second level
•   Third level
•   Fourth level
•   Fifth level




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     POST PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR
                                 styles
• SClick )to edit Master textDISSONANCE IS UNCOMFORTABLE
     = f (E , P                 STRATEGIES BY CONSUMERS
     Second ElevelV E
• IF IF =\= P.> DISCONFIRMATION
   •
        E
            P       +T I
                                TO RATIONALISE DECISION
                                A. CHANGE EVALUATION OF AN
• •• Third <levelTIVE
       IF P     E -
       POST PURCHASE ANXIETYDUE
                                      ALTERNATIVE
                                B. SEEKING NEW + VE INFORMATION
• Fourth level ATTITUDE
       TO BUYER’S VARIOUS
       COGNITIONS, BELIEFS,
                                    - SEARCHING FOR SUUPORTING ADS/INFO
                                      RMATION
       ABOUT THE
• • Fifth level
                                   -MAY DEMAND SYMPATHY FROM
       PRODUCT PURCHASED              SATISFIED OWNERS FOR ASSURANCE
 •   FOREGONE ALTERNATIVES              C. CHANGING ATTITUDE
 •   MAGNITUDE OF DISSONANCE              MAY PERSUADE FRIENDS/
     DEPENDS UPON                           NEIGHBOURS TO TRY SAME BRAND
 A. IMPORTANCE OF DECISION              MARKETING IMPLICATION
 B.ATTRACTIVENESS OF UNCHOSEN           A. CONFIRMING EXPECTATIONS
     ALTERNATIVE                        B. INDUCING ATTITUDE CHANGE
                                        C. REINFORCING BUYERS
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                  The Influencer
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•   Click to edit Master text styles
•   Second level
•   Third level
•   Fourth level
•   Fifth level




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       Responses of a Dissatisfied
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                Customer
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                     Dissatisfaction
                      may lead to
•   Second level
•   Third level
•   Fourth level
•   Fifth level
discontinuing   negative        formal            seeking     legal
purchase and    word of         complaint         redress     action
patronage       mouth           to intervention   from the
                                agencies          dependent



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           E X P E C T A T I O N


 P
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         HIGH        LOW


 E
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• Click toSTABLE             UNSTABLE
  R                                               GOOD
• FSecond level
          EXCELLENT        LUCK, UNUSUALLY
          PRODUCT          GOOD PERFORMANCE
• OThird level
• MFourth level
           UNSTABLE          STABLE
• Fifth level
  A
                                                  BAD
 N       UNLUCKY,
         GRAPE                   POOR PRODUCT
 C

 E
     ZALTMAN AND WALLENDARF 2 X 2 MATRIX
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                                         ATTITUDE OF
                                         OTHERS
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EVALUATION OF         PURCHASE                           PURCHASE
ALTERNATIVES          INTENTION                          DECISION
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 •   Second level              UNANTICIPATED
                               SITUATIONAL
            PRODUCT
 •   Third level
            EXPECTATION
                               FACTORS


 •   Fourth level
 •   Fifth level CONFIRMATION
                      OR                               PRODUCT
                 DISCONFIRMATION                       PERFORMANCE




       SATISFACTION              DISSATISFACTION
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      CONSUMER DECISION-MAKING
                 MODEL
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      INPUT                                      PROCESS

FIRMS MARKETING EFFORTS              NEED                  PSYCHOLOGICAL
   • Click to edit Master text stylesRECOGNITION           FIELD
• PRODUCT
   • Second level
• PRICE
                             PRE-PURCHASE
                                                           MOTIVATION
• PROMOTION                                                PERCEPTION
   • Third level
• DISTRIBUTION               SEARCH                        LEARNING
                                                           PERSONALITY
   • Fourth level
  SOCIO-CULTURAL
  ENVIRONMENT                EVALUATION OF
                                                           ATTITUDES

                             ALTERNATIVES                  EXPERIENCE
   • Fifth level
• FAMILY
• INFORMAL SOURCES
• OTHER NON-COMMERCIAL                 PURCHASE
  SOURCES
• SOCIAL CLASS                         • TRIAL
• SUB-CULTURE                          • REPEAT PURCHASE
  AND CULTURE
                                           POST-PURCHASE
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                                       EVALUATION              OUTPUT

				
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