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					Preventing slips, trips and falls
Objectives

• List the leading causes of slips, trips and
  falls in an office or industrial setting.
• List the leading causes of slips, trips and
  falls in a construction setting.
• List the steps in preventing slips, trips and
  falls in the workplace.
Definitions

• Slip – To slide involuntarily and lose one's
  balance or foothold
• Trip – A stumble or fall, usually at the
  same level
• Fall – To lose an upright or erect position
  suddenly; this can be to the same level or
  a different level
2007 fatalities by accident type




                 *Current numbers from Jan. 1, 2007, to July 31, 2007
The regulations
• 1910.21 - Definitions        • 1910.27 - Fixed ladders
• 1910.22 - General            • 1910.28 - Safety
  requirements                   requirements for
• 1910.23 - Guarding floor       scaffolding
  and wall openings and        • 1910.29 - Manually
  holes                          propelled mobile ladder
• 1910.24 - Fixed industrial     stands and scaffolds
  stairs                         (towers)
• 1910.25 - Portable wood      • 1910.30 - Other working
  ladders                        surfaces
• 1910.26 - Portable metal     • 1910 Subpart D -
  ladders                        Authority for 1910
                                 Subpart D
Office environments

• Floor coverings – such as rugs, mats and carpets –
  should be in good repair and lay flat on the floor.
• Close drawers when not in use.
• Securely fasten telephone, computer and extension
  cords out of the way.
• Properly store or dispose of boxes, files, papers and
  other material that can end up on the floor.
Walking and working surfaces
• Keep aisles and passageways clear and in good
  repair with no obstructions across or in aisles
  that could create a hazard.
• Mark permanent aisles and passageways
  appropriately.
• Where mechanical handling equipment is used,
  aisles should be sufficiently wide. Improper aisle
  widths coupled with poor housekeeping and
  vehicle traffic can cause injury to employees,
  damage equipment and material, and can block
  emergency pathways.
General requirements
Covers and guardrails

• Provide covers and/or guardrails to protect
  workers from the hazards of open pits,
  tanks, vats, ditches and the like.
• Protect skylights to prevent workers from
  falling through them.
General requirements
Floor loading protection


• Mark load-rating limits on plates and post
  conspicuously.
• It is unlawful to place, or cause, or permit
  to be placed, on any floor or roof of a
  building or other structure, a load greater
  than that for which the floor or roof is
  approved.
Determining an opening
• Floor hole: An opening measuring less than 12 inches but more
  than 1 inch in its smallest dimension – in any floor, platform,
  pavement or yard – through which materials but not workers
  may fall.
• Floor opening: An opening measuring 12 inches or more in its
  smallest dimension – in any floor, platform, pavement or yard –
  through which workers may fall.
• Platform: A working space elevated above the surrounding floor
  or ground for workers.
• Wall hole: An opening less than 30 inches but more than
  1 inch high, of unrestricted width, in any wall or partition.
• Wall opening: An opening at least 30 inches high and 18 inches
  wide, in any wall or partition, through which workers may fall.
Protection for floor openings
• Provide standard railings on all exposed sides of
  a stairway opening, except at the stairway
  entrance.
• For infrequently used stairways, where traffic
  across the opening prevents the use of a fixed
  standard railing, the guard shall consist of a
  hinged floor opening cover of standard strength
  and construction along with removable standard
  railings on all exposed sides, except at the
  stairway entrance.
Protection for floor openings
• A standard railing consists of a top rail, mid rail
  and posts. It should have a vertical height of 42
  inches nominal from the upper surface of the top
  rail to the floor, platform, runway or ramp level.
  The nominal height of a mid rail is 21 inches.
• A standard toeboard is 4 inches nominal in
  vertical height, with not more than ¼-inch
  clearance above floor level.
Protection for floor openings
• Floor openings may be covered rather than
  guarded with rails.
• When the floor opening cover is removed:
  – Put a temporary guardrail in place, or;
  – Station an attendant at the opening to warn
    personnel.
• Guard every floor hole into which workers can
  accidentally walk by either:
  – A standard railing with toeboard, or;
  – A floor hole cover of standard strength and
    construction.
Protection of open-sided floors
and platforms
• Guard every open-sided floor or platform 4 feet
  or more above adjacent floor/ground level by a
  standard railing on all open sides.
• Except where there is an entrance to a ramp,
  stairway or fixed ladder
• Provide the railing with a toeboard wherever,
  beneath the open sides:
  – Persons can pass;
  – There is moving machinery;
  – There is equipment with which falling materials could
    create a hazard.
Protection of open-sided floors
and platforms
• Regardless of height, open-sided floors,
  walkways, platforms or runways above or
  adjacent to dangerous equipment, guard
  pickling or galvanizing tanks, degreasing
  units and similar hazards with a standard
  railing and toeboard.
Stairway railings and guards
• Every flight of stairs with four or more risers will have standard stair
  railings or standard handrails.
    • On stairways less than 44 inches wide having both sides
      enclosed, affix at least one handrail, preferably on the right side
      descending.
    • On stairways less than 44 inches wide with one open side, affix
      at least one stair rail on the open side.
    • On stairways less than 44 inches wide having both sides open,
      provide two stair rails, one for each side.
    • On stairways more than 44 inches wide, but less than 88 inches,
      provide one handrail on each enclosed side and one stair rail on
      each open side.
    • On stairways 88 inches or more in width, provide one handrail on
      each enclosed side, one stair rail on each open side and one
      intermediate stair rail placed approximately in the middle of the
      stairs.
Standard stair railing
• The vertical height will be no more than 34 inches nor less
  than 30 inches from the upper surface of the top rail to the
  surface of the tread.
• Mount the lengthwise member directly on a wall or partition by
  means of brackets attached to the lower side of the handrail to
  keep a smooth, unobstructed surface along the top and both
  sides of the handrail.
• The supports for the rail will be 3 inches from the wall and be
  no more than 8 feet apart.
• The height of handrails will be no more than 34 inches nor
  less than 30 inches from the upper surface of the handrail to
  the surface of the tread
Fixed industrial stairs
• Provide fixed industrial stairs for access to and from
  places of work where operations necessitate regular
  travel between levels.
• OSHA requirements include:
   – Fixed industrial stairs strong enough to carry five times the
     normal anticipated live load;
   – At the very minimum, any fixed stairway will safely carry a
     moving concentrated load of 1,000 pounds;
   – All fixed stairways will have a minimum width of 22 inches;
   – Fixed stairs will be installed at angles to the horizontal of
     between 30 degrees and 50 degrees;
   – Vertical clearance above any stair tread to an overhead
     obstruction will be at least 7 feet measured from the leading
     edge of the tread.
Inspecting stairs
• Handrails and stair rails
     A. Lack of
     B. Placement
     C. Smoothness of surface
     D. Strength
     E. Clearance between rail and wall or other object
• Treads:
      A. Strength
      B. Slip resistance
      C. Dimensions
      D. Evenness of surface
      E. Visibility of leading edge
Inspecting stairs
• Improper/inadequate design, construction or
  location of staircases
• Wet, slippery, or damaged walking or grasping
  surfaces
• Improper illumination ... there is no general
  OSHA standard for illumination levels. Consult
  the Illuminating Engineering Society’s
  publications for recommendations.
• Poor housekeeping
Use of ladders
• Place ladders with a secure footing, or lash/hold
  them in position.
• Extend ladders used to gain access to a roof or
  other area at least 3 feet above the point of
  support.
• Do not use the top of a regular stepladder as a
  step.
• Use both hands when climbing or descending
  ladders.
• Never use metal ladders near electrical
  equipment.
 Use of ladders
• Use the foot of a ladder, where
  possible, at such a pitch that the
  horizontal distance from the top
  support to the foot of the ladder
  is one-quarter of the working
  length of the ladder (the length
  along the ladder between the
  foot and the support).
Use of ladders
• Always face the ladder when climbing up
  or down.
• Do not splice short ladders together to
  make long ladders.
• Never work on ladders placed in the
  horizontal position as scaffolds or work
  platforms.
Introduction to fall protection




               A basic introduction
                 to fall protection
Fall protection standards in general
industry

• 1910.23: Guarding floor and wall openings and holes
• 1910.66: Powered platforms for building maintenance
         • App. A: Guidelines (advisory)
         • App. C: Personal fall-arrest system (Section I - mandatory; Sections II
           and III - non-mandatory)

• 1910.132: General requirements (personal protective
  equipment)
• 1910.269: Electric power generation, transmission and
  distribution
• References 1926 subpart M and contains additional
  requirements for fall protection
Frequently cited violations
• Failure to protect workers from falls of 6 feet or
  more off unprotected sides or edges, e.g. floors
  and roofs. (1926.501(b)(1); (b)(10); and (b)(11))
• Failure to protect workers from falling into or
  through holes and openings in floors and walls.
  (1926.501(b)(4) and (b)(14))
• Failure to provide guardrails on runways and
  ramps where workers are exposed to falls of 6
  feet or more to a lower level. (1926.501(b)(6))
Work positioning systems
• These systems are designed to hold and
  sustain the user at a work location and limit
  the free fall to 2 feet or less, as in rebar work
  or tree trimming. Below are examples of
  typical components of a work positioning
  system.
• Body support: Full-body harness
• Connecting component: Chain or web
  rebar assembly, rope or web lanyard
• Anchorage connector: Carabiner or snap
  hook
• Anchorage: Rebar or support structure
Restraint systems
• These are systems designed to prevent
  the user from reaching an area where
  free fall could occur so no free fall is
  possible, as in leading edge roof work.
  Below are elements and examples of
  restraint systems.
• Body support: Full-body harness or
  body belt
• Connecting component: Rope or web
  lanyard
• Anchorage connector: Carabiner, tie-off
  adapter, roof anchor
• Anchorage: Beam or support structure
Rescue systems
• These systems are designed to raise or
  lower a user to safety in the event of an
  emergency, so no free fall is possible (i.e.
  confined space work). Below are the four
  elements of a rescue system and examples:
• Body support: Full-body harness
• Connecting component: Lifeline (winch,
  self-retracting lifeline) and Y-lanyard
• Anchorage connector: Tripod, davit arm
• Anchorage: Support structure or surface
Fall arrest
• These systems are designed to stop a free fall
  of up to 6 feet, and limit the maximum forces of
  a user to 1,800 pounds or less, as in steel
  erection or elevated maintenance work. Below
  are the four elements of a fall-arrest system and
  examples.
• Body support: Full-body harness
• Connecting component: Shock-absorbing
  lanyard, self-retracting lifeline, rope grab
• Anchorage connector: Carabiner, tie-off
  adapter, trolley, roof anchor
• Anchorage: Beam or support structure
Suspension system
• These systems support and suspend the user
  while being transported up or down vertically
  and will not allow a free fall. Below are
  elements and examples of suspension
  systems.
• Body support: Full-body harness and a
  boatswain's chair
• Connecting component: Lifeline (rope,
  rescue positioning device) rope or web lanyard
• Anchorage connector: Carabiner, tripod,
  davit arm tie-off adapter
• Anchorage: Beam or support structure or
  surface
A typical fall-arrest
arrangement
• A typical system consists of:
  – An anchorage connector;
  – A shock-absorbing lanyard;
  – A full-body harness.
• You must attach the
  anchorage connector must
  to a suitable and strong
  attachment point.
Requirements for personal fall-
arrest system
• Limit maximum arresting force on a worker to 900 pounds (4
  KiloNewtons) when used with a body belt.
• Limit maximum arresting force on an employee to 1,800
  pounds (8 KiloNewtons) when used with a body harness.
• Be rigged so that an employee can neither free fall more than 6
  feet (1.8 meters) nor contact any lower level.
• Bring an employee to a complete stop and limit maximum
  deceleration distance an employee travels to 3.5 feet (1.07
  meters).
• Have sufficient strength to withstand twice the potential impact
  energy of an employee free falling a distance of 6 feet (1.8
  meters) or the free fall distance permitted by the system,
  whichever is less.
  Common pieces of equipment




                                       Rope and cable
                     Self-retracting       grabs
Shock-absorbing
                        lifelines
    lanyard


        Carabiners
                       Cross-arm                        Full-body
                         strap                          harness
Use of body belts
• Effective Jan. 1, 1998, body belts are
  prohibited as a fall-arrest device.
• You can use body belts as a positioning
  device.
Dee-rings and snap hooks
• Dee-rings and snaphooks must have a minimum
  tensile strength of 5,000 pounds (22.2
  KiloNewtons).
• Proof-test dee-rings and snaphooks to a
  minimum tensile load of 3,600 pounds (16
  KiloNewtons) without cracking, breaking or
  suffering permanent deformation.
Personal protective equipment
• Proper shoes are a major consideration in many
  operations.
• The nature of the walking surface should dictate
  the type of footwear needed to increase traction
  and reduce the potential for slips, trips and falls.
• Oil, water and other liquids, as well as dusts,
  pellets and other small solids may require
  special footwear as well as special
  housekeeping and engineering design to reduce
  the potential for slips, trips and falls.
Additional training
• Extensive training is needed to fully
  understand and use much of the fall-
  protection equipment available.
• A competent person must evaluate work
  conditions to ensure safety when working
  in elevated locations.
• Most manufacturers provide very
  extensive programs in fall protection.
General requirements
housekeeping
• Keep all places of employment, passageways,
  storerooms and service rooms clean and orderly, and in
  a sanitary condition.
• Maintain the floor of every workroom in a clean and (so
  far as possible) dry condition. Where wet processes are
  used, maintain drainage and gratings, and provide mats
  or raised platforms.
• Keep every floor, working place and passageway free
  from protruding nails, splinters, holes or loose boards.
General requirements
housekeeping
• Place equipment needed for housekeeping,
  such as mops, absorbents, brooms and trash
  containers, in locations where they are
  frequently used and kept available.
• All levels of the organization should practice
  good housekeeping measures whenever a
  condition is noted that could results in a slip,
  trip or fall.
Human factors

• Eyesight
• Age
• Balance
• Medications, alcohol and drug effects
Summary
• It is important to properly engineer walking and working
  surfaces to avoid the potential for slips, trips and falls.
• Use proper fall-protection systems when working on
  elevated surfaces.
• Obtain and use proper personal protective equipment to
  reduce the potential for falls.
• Management should implement good housekeeping
  practices and ensure its done on a regular basis.
• Train employees in the prevention of slips, trips and falls.
Questions?

				
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posted:10/8/2013
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