Creative by huangyinggok

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									Intelligence, Creativity, and Wisdom:
Ability Assessments for the New Millennium




            Robert J. Sternberg
  Dean of the School of Arts and Sciences
         Professor of Psychology
              Tufts University

        robert.sternberg@tufts.edu
            Main Message
• Current tests used for assessing abilities
  are narrow and do an injustice to certain
  groups
• We can create and have created broader,
  more equitable, better assessments
          Organization of Talk
•   Context
•   Theory of Successful Intelligence
•   The Rainbow Project
•   The Tufts Kaleidoscope Project
•   The Aurora Project
•   Related Projects
•   Conclusions
                 Context
• How have technologies changed since
  one century ago:
  – Computing
  – Telecommunications
  – Photography
  – Medical (medicines and diagnostic
    equipment)
                Context
– Standardized tests!
        Closed Systems in Higher
               Education
•   Test scores
•   Socioeconomic status
•   Gender
•   Religion
•   Socially-defined race
•   Caste
      Closed Systems in Higher
             Education
• Height!
     Self-Fulfilling Prophecies
• Person X is a member of Group A
• People in Group A appear generally not to
  succeed
• Person X will not succeed
• Person X does not succeed
• Therefore, people in Group A really are
  losers
 Theoretical Background:
     The Augmented Theory of Successful
               Intelligence
People are SUCCESSFULLY
  INTELLIGENT, according to the theory,
  when they have the abilities to succeed in
  life according to their own standards within
  their sociocultural context, by:
1. Recognizing and capitalizing on
  strengths;
2. Recognizing and correcting or
  compensating for weaknesses.
Theoretical Background

Capitalization and compensation enable
 people to balance:

1. Adaptation to existing environments;
2. Shaping environments to improve
    them;
3. Selecting new environments.
      Theoretical Background
• To succeed, a person needs
  – Creative skills and attitudes flexibly to generate new
    ideas to adapt to a changing environment
  – Analytical skills and attitudes to ascertain whether
    his/her or others’ ideas are good ones
  – Practical skills and attitudes to implement the ideas
    and persuade others of their value
  – Wisdom-based skills and attitudes to ensure that the
    ideas help foster a common good by balancing
    intrapersonal, interpersonal, and extrapersonal
    interests over the long- and short-terms through the
    infusion of positive ethical values
    Theoretical Background
Analytical skills and attitudes are evoked when we

•   analyze
•   compare and contrast
•   evaluate
•   explain
•   critique
    Theoretical Background
Creative skills and attitudes are evoked
 when we:

•   create
•   design
•   invent
•   imagine
•   suppose
     Theoretical Background
• It is hard to think creatively because
  – We are, for the most part, socialized not to
    think creatively, or to think creatively only
    within narrow boundaries, lest we be punished
  – Creative thinking involves defying the crowd,
    which is hard to do because of
     • External pressure to conform
     • Internal pressure to conform
    Theoretical Background
Practical skills and attitudes are involved when
  we:

•   use
•   apply
•   implement
•   employ
•   contextualize
  Theoretical Background
Wisdom-based skills and attitudes are involved
  when we:
• think dialogically
• think dialectically
• judge according to our ethical values
• balance competing interests over the long-term
      as well as short-term
• seek a solution representing a common good
       The Rainbow Project:
A Plan for Augmentation of the SAT

            Robert J. Sternberg
And the Collaborators of the Rainbow Project
The Context of the Rainbow Project
  • Early Admissions Procedures—The Days of the
    “Aristocracy”
  • The New Wave in Admissions—The Days of the
    “Meritocracy”
  • What Went Wrong: What Meritocracy?
  • Some Proposed Fixes
     – Affirmative Action
     – Compensatory Scoring
     – The End of Testing
  • The Rainbow Mission
  The “Meritocracy”: Who Benefits
        and Who Doesn’t?
• A Winner: Alice
• A Loser: Barbara
• A Loser: Celia
         Overarching Goal
• To develop a battery assessing analytical,
  creative, and practical intellectual skills
  that is reliable and construct valid,
  increasing prediction of academic and life
  performance beyond that obtained from
  conventional “g-based” measures
     Specific Project Goals

• To develop and preliminarily validate a set
  of based instruments to augment the
  prediction of the SAT

  – Measuring analytical, creative, and practical
    thinking skills in college settings

  – Via paper-and-pencil and performance
    assessments
         Method: Materials
• Outcome Variable (the criterion)
  – College GPA
• Baseline Materials
  – SAT-Verbal
  – SAT-Math
  – SAT-Total
  – ACT or PSAT scores if SAT scores were not
    available
     Method: Materials

Analytical
 15 multiple choice items
    • Including verbal, quantitative, and figural
      content
    • 4 response options per item
        Method: Materials

Practical
 15 multiple choice items
     Including verbal, quantitative, and figural
     • 4 response options per item
 Performance tasks – Tacit-knowledge inventories
     • College Life (15 vignettes)
     • General Workplace/Common Sense (15 vignettes)
     • Everyday Situational Judgment - Movies (7 vignettes)
                   Vignette Sample Item
                  College Life Tacit-Knowledge Inventory



                  1             2          3            4          5            6          7
              Not at all                             Neither                           Extremely
            Characteristic                      Characteristic nor                  Characteristic
                                                 Uncharacteristic

You are enrolled in a large introductory lecture course. Requirements consist of three term-time exams
    and a final. Please indicate how characteristic it is of your behavior to spend time doing the
    following, if your goal is getting an A in the course.

___Attending class regularly.
___Attending optional weekly review sessions, if there are any, with the T.A.
___Reading assigned text chapters thoroughly.
___Taking comprehensive class notes.
___Speaking with the Professor after class and during office hours.
___Talking to students who took the course last year.
___Studying regularly instead of cramming in the night before exams.
___Doing the extra credit or optional reading assignments.

___Skimming the required reading in the morning before class.
                   Vignette Sample Item
        General Workplace/Common Sense Tacit-Knowledge
                            Inventory


                   1           2           3              4           5        6           7
               Extremely      Very      Somewhat     Neither Bad   Somewhat   Very      Extremely
                  Bad          Bad         Bad         Nor Good      Good     Good         Good

You’ve been assigned to work on a project for a day with a fellow employee whom you really dislike.   He
    is rude, lazy, and rarely does a proper job. What would be the best thing for you to do?

___Tell the worker that you think he is worthless.
___Warn the worker that, if he is not “on his toes” today, you will complain to the supervisor.
___Avoid all conversation and eye contact with the other worker.
___Be polite to the other worker and try to maintain as business-like a manner as possible so that
    hopefully he will follow your example for the day.
___Tell your supervisor that you refuse to work with this man.
___The project is going to be impossible to accomplish with this worker, so you may as well not even try-
    -you can always blame your bad work partner.
___See if you can convince one of your friends to take your place and work with this employee.
___Demand a raise from your supervisor; you should not have to tolerate these conditions.
        Everyday Situational
         Judgment - Movies
• Examinees see seven digitized movies
  depicting various real-life situations that
  college students confront or may confront:
  • The Party: Entering a party where one does not know
    anyone
  • A Fair Portion: Discussing shares of rental payments
    for a flat
  • Professor’s Dilemma: Asking for a letter of
    recommendation from a professor who does not know
    you very well
   Everyday Situational
Judgment – Movies, Contd.
• No Free Lunch: Having eaten a lunch and discovering
  that you do not have the money to pay for it
• The Unwanted Guest: Dealing with a friend in need of
  help at a time when you are just seeing your significant
  other for the first time in a long time
• Pressing Corporate Matter: Making a decision
  regarding proactive actions that can be taken before a
  wave of firings commences in your company
• Jerry’s “Beauty-rest Sleeper”: Organizing your friends
  to move your furniture to a new flat
     Method: Materials

Creative
 15 multiple choice items (STAT – Level H)
    • Including verbal, quantitative, and figural
    • 4 response options per item
 Performance tasks
    • 2 written stories
    • 2 oral stories
    • 3 cartoon captions
          Written Stories

             SHORT STORY TASK: TITLES


•   “A Fifth Chance”
•   ”2983“
•   “Beyond the Edge”
•   “The Octopus’s Sneakers”
•   “It’s Moving Backwards”
•   “Not Enough Time”
                    Oral Stories
                         SHORT STORY TASK

The following task may at first seem somewhat novel; however, I am
confident that you will have no difficulty doing it. You will be presented
with several sheets of paper, each containing several images. You are
to choose two of these pages and to formulate a short story for each. In
order to expedite the process, rather than write out each of the stories,
you will dictate them to a cassette recorder. When recording: please
speak clearly; state your name; spell your name; and state the page
number of each story. There is no limitation in the content of the story
or the manner in which you decide to present it.
Do you have any questions?….
So, if there are no [more] questions as to what we are asking you to do,
please get started.
      Cartoon Titles


Examinees see five cartoons and need to
provide titles for three of the five.
 
________________________________________________________________________


________________________________________________________________________
      Method: Participants

• Total sample
 –Collected: n = 1013
 –Available for analyses: n = 990
 –Included in this presentation: n =
  777
   • From 13 colleges and universities
     around the country
College Sample Composition
            Method: Design
•   Incomplete randomized design (McArdle,
    1994)

• Two forms:
1. Web-based (59% of students)
2. Paper-Pencil (41% of students)

All tests were proctored by university
    officials.
Exploratory Factor Analysis: Rainbow Tasks




Promax rotation: 62.8% variance explained
 Predicting GPA: SAT + Analytical
Step 1:
SAT-Verbal, SAT-Math


Step 2:
Analytic (STAT)
 Predicting GPA: SAT + Practical

Step 1:
SAT-Verbal, SAT-Math


Step 2:
Practical (STAT + Separate Tasks)
 Predicting GPA: SAT + Creative

Step 1:
SAT-Verbal, SAT-Math

Step 2:
Creative (STAT + Separate Tasks)
                   Predicting GPA:
      SAT + Analytic, Creative, Practical
Step 1:
SAT-Verbal, SAT-Math

Step 2:
All Rainbow Project Items
(STAT Analytic, Practical, Creative,
Practical Tasks,
Creative Tasks)
                 Predicting GPA:
 All measures (practical before creative)*
Step 1:       SAT-M
              SAT-V
              HSGPA


Step 2: + Analytic
Step 3: + Practical
Step 4: + Creative

*Controlling for school quality in
dependent variable
        Regressions: In sum
• In the Rainbow sample,
  – Adding Rainbow measures over SAT roughly
    doubles prediction of college success
  – Adding Rainbow measures over SAT + High
    School GPA increases prediction by roughly
    half
Amount of Each Measure That Is Predicted
   by Racial / Ethnic Differences (ω²)
    Effect Sizes: Cohen’s d with
    Whites as Reference Group

        Blacks Latinos Asians Nat.Am.
• SAT-M -0.7    -1.0     0.5  -1.0
• SAT-V  -0.7   -1.1    -0.2  -0.6
• SAT-T  -0.7   -1.1     0.0  -0.8
   Effect Sizes: Cohen’s d with
   Whites as Reference Group

           Blacks Latinos Asians Nat.Am.
• STAT-A    -0.2 -0.4      0.3   -0.3
• STAT-C    -0.7 -0.5     -0.0   -1.2
• STAT-P    -0.5 -0.5      0.1   -0.7
   Effect Sizes: Cohen’s d with
   Whites as Reference Group

         Blacks Latinos Asians Nat.Am.
• Movies -0.5 -0.4     0.0    -0.8
• Common
  Sense   -0.9 -0.2     0.2   -0.4
• College
  Life    -0.7 -0.2    -0.2    0.2
    Effect Sizes: Cohen’s d with
    Whites as Reference Group

           Blacks Latinos Asians Nat.Am.
• Cartoons -0.2   -0.5    -0.2   -0.4
• Oral
  Stories  -0.1   -0.5    -0.5   0.5
• Written
  Stories  -0.3   -0.1    -0.2   0.0
    Group Difference Analyses:
              In Sum
• In the Rainbow sample:
  – Rainbow measures reduce ethnic-group
    differences relative to the SAT alone
  – The new measures reduce differences
    because different ethnic groups show different
    average patterns
  – Differences are not eliminated, however
The Tufts Kaleidoscope Project
 Preliminary Results (’06-’08)
        Robert J. Sternberg
 and the Kaleidoscope Collaborators
           Class of 2011

 With special thanks to Tzur Karelitz
                    Goal
• Insert analytical, creative, practical as well
  as wisdom-based essays as part of the
  Tufts-specific admissions application in
  order to broaden the way we think about
  applicants
• Change categories for rating system of
  applicants
              Tufts Admissions
• Tufts applicants complete the Common
  Application and (if they choose to) the
  Supplemental Application.
• Applications are rated on 4 dimensions:
  –   Academic (AC),
  –   Personal Quality (PQ),
  –   Extracurricular (EX), and
  –   Overall (OV).
• Final admission decision is made by a
  committee based on multiple criteria.
 The Kaleidoscope Framework
• Kaleidoscope (Kscope) is a framework for
  evaluating applicants’
  – Creative (C),
  – Practical (P), and
  – Wisdom (W) skills.


• Applicants submitted optional essays.
• Admission officers were trained and asked to
  use a Kscope rubric to evaluate applicants.
            Essay prompts (Year 1)
1. The late scholar James O. Freedman referred to libraries as "essential 
    harbors on the voyage toward understanding ourselves." What work of 
    fiction or non-fiction would you include in a personal library? Why?
2. An American adage states that "curiosity killed the cat." If that is correct, 
   why do we celebrate people like Galileo, Lincoln, and Gandhi, individuals 
   who thought about longstanding problems in new ways or who defied 
   conventional thinking to achieve great results?
3. History's great events often turn on small moments. For example, what if
   Rosa Parks had given up her seat on that Montgomery bus in 1955? What if 
   Pope John Paul I had not died in 1978 after a month in office? What if 
   Gore had beaten Bush in Florida and won the 2000 U.S. Presidential 
   Election? Using your knowledge of American or world history, choose a 
   defining moment and imagine an alternative historical scenario if that key 
   event had played out differently.
              Essay prompts (cont.)
4. Create a short story using one of the following topics: 
a. The end of MTV                            c. The Professor Disappeared
b. Confessions of a Middle School Bully  d. The Mysterious Lab
5. Describe a moment in which you took a risk and achieved an unexpected 
   goal. How did you persuade others to follow your lead? What lessons do 
   you draw from this experience? You may reflect on examples from your 
   academic, extracurricular or athletic experiences.
6. A high school curriculum does not always afford much intellectual
   freedom. Describe one of your unsatisfied intellectual passions. How 
   might you apply this interest to serve the common good and make a 
   difference in society?
7. Using an 8.5x11 inch sheet of paper, create an ad for a movie, design a 
   house, make an object better, illustrate an ad for an object. 
     Creative Essay: “What if…”
• If the Trojans had heeded Laocoon’s advice and thrown
  Odysseus’ wooden horse into the sea, they would have
  defeated the Greeks at Troy. Aeneas would then never
  have had reason to flee the city, and he would never have
  ventured to Italy to found Rome. Without Rome, neither the
  Roman Republic nor a Roman Empire would have existed.
  Concrete, the arch, plumbing, and the sauna might never
  have been invented. The modern implications of Rome
  never having existed are indeed drastic. Lacking even
  concrete floors, people would resort to sleeping in the mud,
  and, without plumbing or saunas, they would be perpetually
  filthy and, generally, quite chilly. France could not have
  built the base of the Eiffel Tower without arches, so tourists
  would be unable to purchase miniature collectible Towers
  in Parisian convenience stores.
      Good but Uncreative Essay:
             “What if…”
• What if the ratification of the nineteenth amendment did
  not pass and women were never given the right to vote?
  What would life for women, like me, be like in the United
  States? For one thing, I probably would not be writing
  this essay. If women were not given their right to vote, I
  probably would stop going to school after this year and it
  would be unlikely that I would receive a college
  education. Without suffrage, my career options would be
  limited, if a career were a possibility at all. My accepted
  practices would be limited to staying home and taking
  care of the family. Rather than being equals, women
  would be subservient to men. I might not drive, I might
  not dress in the way in which I choose to, and I might not
  be able to live my life the way that I can in the twenty-
  first century.
    Kscope Pilot Study : Research Questions

•    How do Kscope measures relate to other
     application information?
    –   Academic, personal quality, extracurricular activity
•    How do Kscope measure relate to admissions
     decision?
          Data - Class of 2011
• 22% of the applicants received at least
  one Kscope rating (Creative, Practical and Wisdom)
• K Group- combined C, P, W scores
   ØC = only low scores
   ØB = only medium scores
   ØA = one high score
   ØA+ = two or three high scores
Correlations between admission measures

                  Creative   Practical   Wisdom   K Group
Practical          0.41*
Wisdom             0.34*      0.32*
Academic           0.17*       0.06       0.11     0.10*
Personal           0.18*      0.22*       0.21*    0.25*
Extracurricular    0.45*      0.44*       0.41*    0.49*
SAT-V              0.14*       0.04       0.08     0.07*
SAT-M              0.05       -0.02       0.00     0.00
GPA                0.03        0.01       0.02     0.00
Post-hoc Prediction of Admission Decision

• Academics explain 28% of the variance in
  admission.
• Kscope explains an additional 6%.
• Kscope significantly improves prediction over
  Personal Quality score.
           Pilot Study Data
• Kscope correlates with extracurricular and
  personal quality, but not with conventional
  academic measures.
• Kscope significantly improves post-hoc
  prediction of admission decisions over
  academic and personal quality measures.
• Interviewed admission officers and
  students supported the Kscope
  framework.
           Pilot Study Data
• Number of applications rose
• Bottom third of old application pool greatly
  diminished; many more top applicants
• Average SATs rose slightly
• African-American applications up 25%,
  acceptances up 30%
• Hispanic-American applications and
  acceptances up 15%
            Pilot Study Data
• There were no significant ethnic-group
  differences on Kaleidoscope
• Kaleidoscope correlated weakly with a
  composite academic rating (.11)
• Kaleidoscope correlated moderately with rated
  leadership/extracurricular activities (.44)
• First-semester GPAs did not differ significantly
  between Kaleidoscope A’s and academically
  comparable students admitted for other
  reasons
           Pilot Study Data
• Greater customer satisfaction
• Message to students, parents, teachers,
  and counselors that Tufts is looking for
  more than just the high-SAT, high-GPA
  student
    Larger Program at Tufts
• WICS
 – Admissions
 – Instruction and Course Assessment
 – Value Added
 – Leadership Minor
  The Aurora Project



Exploring the Entire Spectrum of Giftedness
              Collaborators
•   Hilary Chart
•   Elena Grigorenko
•   Linda Jarvin
•   Bob Sternberg
          Acknowledgment
• Work on the Aurora Project has been
  funded by a private donation from Karen
  Jensen.
           Why Aurora?
    The Need for a Closer Look…
§ Traditional overemphasis on analytical skills

§ Under-representation of minority students in
  gifted programming

§ 99.9% of special-education funding allocated to
  the lower end of the ability spectrum
FAMOUS “FAILURES”
                                Albert Einstein
                                *Got poor grades and failed
                                his entrance exams to Zurich’s
                                Polytechnic Institute
 Leonardo da Vinci
 *Lack of aptitude for
 learning languages, a
 horrible speller with
 poor grammar




                                                  Winston Churchill
        Thomas Edison
                                                  *Twice failed the entrance exam to
        *Of himself:                              Sandhurst British military college
            “I have not failed.
            I’ve just found 10,000
            ways that won’t work.”
      FAMOUS “FAILURES”
                                           Sydney Poitier
                                           *Dropped out of his
                                           elementary school



                     Walt Disney
                 *Fired by a newspaper editor
                 because he “had no good ideas”




Agatha Christie

*Thought to have had a
learning disability                                              Steven Spielberg
                                                                 *Dropped out of high school
                                                                 after being placed in a learning-
                                                                 disabled class
Capturing ALL the Variables…
  *With SENSITIVITY and SPECIFICITY*

                         Memory   Analytic   Creative Practical


  Images    Reception


            Production


  Words     Reception


            Production


  Numbers   Reception


            Production
          The Aurora Project,
                      at a glance




• A standardized paper-and-pencil test, with analytical,
  creative, and practical components

• A parent interview for further qualification

• An observation schedule for use by clinicians
Analytical Skills using Words
     Homonym Fill-in-the-Blanks:

Each sentence below is missing two words which sound the same but
different meanings, and sometimes different spellings too. Fill in the bl
with the same-sounding words that make the sentence make sense!

1. Go to the ___________ for some money and meet me by the river ___________.


2. I have a cut on my ___________ and will wear a bandage to help it ___________.


3. You may use an __________ to row across the lake, ___________ take a motorboa


4. She __________________ heavily and rolled onto her ________________.



 Answers:       bank/bank        heel/heal       oar/or      sighed/side
Analytical Skills using Numbers
     Thinking Math!

• I am a three digit number. My tens digit is five more than my ones d
My hundreds digit is eight less than my tens digit. What number am I?

              ___ ___ ___
                                                Answer: 194


2. Jordan is twice as old as Kaya. Kaya is three years older than Max
Is ten years younger than Jordan. How old is each of them?

  Jordan’s Age:           Kaya’s Age:             Max’s Age:



                                              Answer: 14, 7, 4
 Analytical Skills using Images
 Geometry Boats:
Pattern A and Pattern B show two ways to Identical to Pattern B:
tie four boats together with four strings.
Can you find three brand new ways to do
this? Remember, just moving boats, or
crossing or moving strings does not create
a new pattern (all three examples to the right
are identical to Pattern B, NOT new patterns).



                                              Answers:




      Pattern A       Pattern B
         Judging Creativity:
(Rated Scales using Criteria
 set from Pilot Study Results)       Originality

                   Cleverness
   Humor
                                   Complexity
       Descriptiveness

Task
                                 Emotional
Appropriateness
                                 Expressiveness
Make room for Creativity!
         Cartoons:
   Make room for Creativity!
Sticker Task Examples:
Make room for Creativity!
Math Stories and Mystery Paintings:
    Creativity using Words
      Impossible Conversations:

Imagine that the world has changed so that almost everything can speak.
a little conversation describing what the two things listed might say to eac
other if they could talk. Each thing must say at least one thing. Before yo
what they will say, circle who is speaking. Be creative!

  A Tree and the Tree-House that is in it


   Tree    Tree-House :




    Tree    Tree-House :
    Creativity using Numbers                    3 -->
     Math Stories:                                     3/4ths
Tell a short and interesting story about how the number 3 became the n
3/4ths. Be as creative as you can, but in your story you must include a
piece of paper and an ice cream cone! Add a picture if you like!


 _________________________________
 _________________________________
 _________________________________
 _________________________________
 _________________________________
 _________________________________
 _________________________________
 Creative Skills using Images
    Children’s Book Covers:
Imagine that each of the following pictures is the cover of a children’s bo
In a couple of sentences, tell what the story in each book might be abou
as creative as you can be!
     Making room for Practicality
Tacit-Knowledge Examples:
Concrete Problem Solving:

Alex lost his cat two weeks ago and he is desperately trying to find her.

Which of the following is the smartest thing to do?

1)   Ask his parents if they have seen the cat.
2)   Wait for the cat in the last place he has seen her.
3)   Take out an ad asking for people that have seen her to call him.
4)   Wait for the cat to come home on its own.


                               Intuitive Comprehension:

                               The teacher said, “We will go on the trip tomorrow
                               only if the weather permits.”

                               The teacher meant that the trip will take place only if the weather:

                               1)    is perfect.
                               2)    improves.
                               3)    does not change.
                               4)    is good for traveling.
  Practicality using Words
       Applied Riddles:

•   You are standing in a room with three light switches that
can be turned either on or off. In another room, which you cannot see, is a single
bulb. The light bulb is controlled by one of the switches in your room, and you mu
out which one. You may flick the switches however you like, but you may leave t
room and go to the other room only once. How will you find the right switch?
Answer: Turn switch 1 on for a few minutes, then off. Turn switch 2 on, leave swi
      off. If the light is on, it’s 2; if it’s off and cold, it’s 3; if it’s off and warm, it’s 1

2. Laurie and Mariko want to go to the movies. The only way
for them to get to the theater is to drive, and they want to take only
one car, so Laurie must drive and pick up Mariko, or Mariko must
drive and pick up Laurie. They are each at their own houses.
Decide which person should drive if they want to get to the theater
as quickly as possible and you know that: It takes more time to drive to the theat
Laurie’s house than it takes to drive to the theater from Mariko’s house. It takes l
to drive between the two houses than from Laurie’s house to the theater.

    Answer: Laurie should drive Mariko (longest route + shortest route).
Practicality using Numbers
   Applied Math:
• Which is a better deal. In other words, if you had
to buy a lot of chocolate for a party, would you spend less money buying
the first kind, or even more of the second kind? Circle the better deal:

12 ounces of chocolate for $3.60                  5 ounces of chocolate fo
Answer: 5 ounces for $1.25 because here each ounce is .25 (rather tha



2. The ages of a father and son add up to 55. If you
reverse the two digits in the father’s age, you have the
age of the son. How old is each of them?

Father’s Age:_______________              Son’s Age:______________

          Answer: The father is 41, and the son is 14.
 Practicality using Images
   Real-World Thinking:

Below are pictures of a girl sitting in her airplane seat and holding a bottl
Of grape juice. The first picture shows what she looks like when the plan
Is still on the ground. In the second, the plane is either taking off (and go
Up), or about to land (going down). Which is it? Circle the answer.

Plane on the ground:                         Taking Off      About to Land




                            Answer:
                               Taking Off
Social Problem Solving:

Mother baked a cake for her children, Eric and Kathy. The children are looking
for a way to split the cake between them, such that each receives the same amount of cake.

Which of the following arrangements is most likely to result in a fair split of the cake between
Eric and Kathy?

1)    Eric cuts the cake, then Kathy chooses her piece.
2)    Eric cuts the cake, then he chooses his piece.
3)    A friend cuts the cake and Kathy chooses Eric’s piece.
4)    Eric and Kathy eat whatever they want.




                           Logical Comprehension:

                           Aaron found a note from his mother saying: “You should not watch TV
                           until you have eaten dinner, or it is after 8 PM.”

                           It is 8:35 PM. Can Aaron watch TV now?

                           1)    Yes, but only if he has eaten dinner.
                           2)    Yes, he definitely can.
                           3)    No, he definitely can not.
                           4)    Yes, but only if he will have dinner later.
Capturing ALL the Variables…
  *With SENSITIVITY and SPECIFICITY*

                         Memory   Analytic   Creative Practical


  Images    Reception


            Production


  Words     Reception


            Production


  Numbers   Reception


            Production
Aurora-a & Conventional Abilities



                           P, 16%
          A, 25%
                   CogAT

                           C, 4%
               Comments
• Aurora-g appears to act just like a
  conventional test of abilities
• Aurora-a appears to be different from a
  conventional test of abilities
• Practical “facet” of Aurora-a appears to be
  particularly relevant to school
  achievements
                 Comments
• Years of practice taught teachers to pay
  attention to conventional indicators of abilities
• It is important for teachers to consider and pay
  attention to “other” (non-conventional?) abilities
• For creativity to develop in classrooms teachers
  need to “see” it and know how to develop it
                To Conclude
• Aurora-a/g are designed to be “laboring” in
  academic settings
• They are expected to relate to things that matter
  in school
• They are also expected, however, to provide
  new information NOT discernable either through
  conventional tests of abilities or through tests of
  achievement
• Aurora is looking good…. (cautious optimism)
          Related Projects
• University of Michigan Business School
• Choate Rosemary Hall
• Advanced Placement
  – Statistics
  – Psychology
  – Physics
               Conclusions
• Traditional abilities tests are narrow and
  limited
• Our new measures can
  – Broaden the range of skills tested for
    educational purposes
  – Increase predictive validity
  – Decrease ethnic-group differences
  – Increase customer satisfaction
              Conclusions
• WICS can serve as a basis for an
  integrated program of transformation in
  university admissions, instruction, and
  assessment, as well as a sharpening or
  clarification of the purpose of university
  educatoin

								
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