综合英语

					主讲:严阵

Aims of the Course
a. Vocabulary  b. Paraphrase  c. Structure  d. Style  e. Rhetoric
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Lesson one

Objectives of Teaching
1. 2.

3.

4. 5.

To comprehend the whole text To lean and master the vocabulary and expressions To learn to paraphrase the difficult sentences To understand the structure of the text To appreciate the style and rhetoric of the passage.

Important and difficult points:
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1. The comprehension and appreciation of the words describing sound, colour, light, heat, size and smell. 2. The appreciation of the words and expressions used for stress and exaggeration. 3. Some useful expressions such as to make a point of, it is a point of honour…, and etc.

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Writing Style
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A description is painting a picture in words of a person, place, object, or scene. a description is generally developed through sensory details, or the impressions of one’s senses --- sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch. The writer chooses those that help to bring out the dominant characteristic of the person or thing described.

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1. Middle East: Southeast Asia and Northeast

Africa, including the Near East and Iran and
Afghanistan.
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*image-1* (中东地图) *image-2*(中东集市, flash)
The Middle Eastern bazaar reminds you of
things hundreds --- even thousands--- of years

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Personification: an act of personifying sth.

that is without life
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Hyperbole: overstate or exaggerate sth. in order to make it sound bigger, smaller, better, worse, etc. than it really is

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2. particular: special, single and different from others. The teacher took particular (special) notice of me. On this particular (single) day we had to be at school early.

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3. Gothic-arched: a type of architecture

Goth: one of the German tribes
arch: a curved top sometimes with a central point resting on 2 supports as above a door. *image-3*(拱型门)

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aged: a. [d] ( 此处要求用音标) My son is aged 10. a middle aged couple b. [id] ancient He is aged. her aged grandfather Medicare for the sick & aged

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4. glare: shining intensely, uncomfortably, and too strong; in a way unpleasant to the eyes 5. cavern: a large deep cave, closed roofed place. Here in the text we can see that it is a long, narrow, dark street of workshops and stores with some sort of roof over them.

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6. losing itself in the shadowy distance: In the farthest distance everything becomes obscure, unclear, only dimly visible in the dark surroundings. shadow: darkness where direct light, esp. sunlight, is blocked by sth.

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shadowy: hard to see or know about

clearly, not distinct, dim
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7. harmony: musical notes combined

together in a pleasant sounding way
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harmoniously: in a pleasant and peaceful way

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tinkle: to make a light metallic sound  The rain tinkled on the metal roof. to tinkle coins together
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8. throng: large crowd of people, a crowd

of people busy doing sth.
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Throng varies so little in meaning from crowd that the two words are often used

interchangeably without loss.

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Throng sometimes carries the

stronger implication of movement and
of pushing and the weaker

implication of density.
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The pre-Xmas sale attracted a throng of shoppers.

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10. roadway:

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a. central part used by cars, the middle part of a road where cars drive
b. a narrow piece of land over which a road passes

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11. narrow: make or become narrow In the bright sunlight she had to narrow her eyes. The river narrows at this point. 12. stall: BrE. a table or small open-fronted shop in a public place, sth. not permanent, often can be put together and taken away, on which wares are set up for sale.

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13. din: loud, confused, continuous noise. The word often suggests unpleasant, disordered mixture of confusing and disturbing sounds. The din in the theatre stopped when the curtain was raised. the din of the cheerful crowd

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14. wares (always-pl.) articles offered for sale, usu. not in a shop.  to advertise / hawk / peddle one's wares  15. would-be: likely, possible, which one wishes to be but is not  a would-be musician / football player  her would-be husband
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17. bargain: to talk about the condition of

a sale, agreement, or contract
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18. dizzy: feeling as if everything were

turning round
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The two-day journey on the bus makes

me dizzy.

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19. penetrate: to enter, pass, cut, or

force a way into or through.
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The bullet can penetrate a wall. Rainwater has penetrated through the roof of my house.

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20. fade: to lose strength, colour,

freshness, etc.
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fade away: go slowly out of hearing,

gradually disappearing
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The light faded as the sun went down.

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The sound of the footsteps faded away.

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The farther you push / force your way

into the bazaar, the lower and softer the
noise becomes until finally it disappears. Then you arrive at the cloth market where the sound is hardly audible.

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21. mute:

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verb: to reduce the sound of, to make a sound softer than usual
to mute a musical instrument Here in the text the word "muted" is used to suggest the compelling circumstances, forcing you to lower your sound.

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22. beaten: (of a path, track, etc.) that is given shape by the feet of those who pass along it, suggesting ancientness, timelessness. The path becomes flat because of the walking of countless people through thousands of years. We followed a well-beaten path through the forest.

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23. deaden: to cause to lose strength,

force, feeling, and brightness
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Two of these pills will deaden the pain.

24. vaulted: in the form of a vault --- a
series of arches built to form a roof

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25. measured: carefully controlled

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26. overwhelm: overcome, control

completely and usu. suddenly
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Sorrow overwhelmed the family.

She was overwhelmed with grief.
They won an overwhelming victory /

majority.

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27. sepulchral: related to grave,

gloomy, dismal
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sepulchre: old and bibl. use, a burial place; a tomb

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28. follow suit: to do the same as someone else has done, to play / to deal the cards of the same suits。 A set of cards consists of 4 suits.They are hearts, diamonds, spades and clubs. In poker, if someone deals a spade, you follow suit. When the others went swimming, I followed suit. He went to bed and I followed suit after a few minutes.

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29. peculiarity: a special feature that is different from normal or usual, strangeness.

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One of his peculiarities is that his two eyes are not of the same colour. The large fantail is a peculiarity of the peacock.

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30. deal in: sell and buy, trade in

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This merchant deals in silk goods.
Most foreign trading companies in West Africa deal in rubber, cocoa

and vegetable oils.

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31. scatter: to cause (a group) to separate

widely, to spread widely in all directions
as if by throwing
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Hearing the explosion, the frightened
people scattered about in all directions.

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One of the special features /

characteristics of the M.E. bazaar is
that shopkeepers in the same trade always gather together in the same

place to do their business.

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32. knit: to make things to wear by uniting threads into a kind of close network. Here, to unite or join closely 33. guild / gild: an association for businessmen or skilled workers who joined together in former times to help one another

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34. persecution: cruel treatment persecute: to treat cruelly, cause to suffer, esp. for religious or political beliefs Many intellectuals were persecuted in the Cultural Revolution. be persecuted by sb. for sth. suffer from political / religious persecution

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35. line: form rows along

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36. trestle: wooden beam fixed at each
end to a pair of spreading legs, used, usu. in pairs, as a removable support of a

table or other flat surface.

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37. order of the day: the characteristic

or dominant feather or activity, the
prevailing state of things
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If sth. is the order of the day, it is very
common among a particular group of

people

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Learning English is now the order of the day in China.

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Jeans and mini-skirts are no longer the order of the day now.

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38. veil: covering of fine net or other material to protect or hide a woman's face 39. leisure: time free from work, having plenty of free time, not in a hurry to do sth. 40. pace: rate or speed in walking, marching, running or developing

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41. preliminary: coming before sth.,

introducing or preparing for sth. more
important, preparatory
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There were several preliminary meetings before the general assembly. A physical examination is a preliminary to joining the army.

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42. beat down:  to reduce by argument or other influence, to persuade sb. to reduce a price  The man asked $50 for the dress, but I beat him down to $35.
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43. a point of honour: sth. considered

important for one's self-respect
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It's a point of honour with me to keep my promise = I made it a point of honour to keep my promise.

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In our country, it is a point of honour

with a boy to pay the bill when he is
dining with a girl / when he dines a girl;

but on the other hand, a western girl
would regard it a point of honour (with

her) to pay the bill herself.

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44. make a point of / make it a point to: do

sth because one considers it important or
necessary, to take particular care of, make extraordinary efforts in, regard or treat as necessary
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I always make a point of checking that all the windows are shut before I go out.

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I always made a point of being on time.

I always make a point of remembering
my wife's birthday.

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He made a point of thanking his hostess before he left the party.

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45. what it is: used to stress

What is it she really likes?
What is it you do?

What is it you really want?
46. protest: to express one's disagreement, feeling of unfairness Here: insist firmly

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47. deprive of: take away from

The judge deprived him of his political
rights.

The accident deprived him of his sight /
hearing.

Detailed Study of the Text 48. sacrifice: to give up or lose, esp. for some good purpose or belief The ancient Greeks sacrificed lambs or calves before engaging in a battle.

(infml) to sell sth. at less than its cost or value I need the money and I have to sacrifice (on the price of) my car.

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49. regard: respect Regard is colourless and formal. It usu. requires a modifier to reinforce its meaning I hold her in high / low / the greatest regard. to have a high / low regard for sb's opinion.

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Steve was not highly regarded in his hometown.

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50. the customer coming and going at

intervals.
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at intervals: happening regularly after

equal periods of time
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Trains leave at short intervals.

The trees were planted beside the road at
50-meters intervals.

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51. picturesque: charming or interesting enough to be made into a picture, striking, vivid

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52. -smith: a worker in metal, a maker copper- / gold- / tin- / black- / gunsmith

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53. bang: to hit violently, to make a loud noise  The door banged open / shut.  He banged the window shut.  a noisy, usu. metallic sound of collision, swords clash  The dustbins clashed as the men emptied them.
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54. impinge on (upon): to have

influence on, (Here: to strike)
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The strong light impinges on his eyes. The noise of the aeroplane overhead

impinged on our ears.

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55. distinct: clearly seen, heard,

understood, etc.
Anything clearly noticed is distinct. There is a distinct smell of cigarette

smoke in this room.

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56. round: to go round

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Please round your lips to say "oo".
Stones rounded by the action of water are called cobbles. 57. burnish: to polish, esp. metal, usu. with sth. hard and smooth, to make smooth and shiny

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58. brazier: open metal framework like a

basket, usu. on legs, for holding a charcoal
or coal fire (see picture in ALD)
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*image-4* (此处要一brazier的图,在ALD中 可找到。)

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60. incredible: too strange to be believed, unbelievable

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credible: deserving or worthy of belief, trustworthy Is the witness's story credible?

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61. hammer away at:
away: continuously, constantly

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He was laughing away all afternoon.

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62. vessel: a round container, such as a

glass, a pot, or a bottle, used for holding
liquids
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63. bellows: an instrument for blowing air into a fire to make it burn quickly
*image-5* (此处要一风箱图)

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64. the red of the live…

The light of the burning coal becomes
alternately bright and dim (by turns, one

follows the other) as the charcoal burns
and dies down, burns again, along with the

repeated movements of the bellows.

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65. glow: send out brightness or

warmth, heat or light without flame
or smoke
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When you draw a deep mouthful, the
cigarette tip glows.

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66. rhythmically: happening at regular periods of time, alternately; by turns, at intervals 67. stroke: single movement, which is repeated (esp. in a sport or game) She can't swim but has made a few strokes with her arms.

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68. engrave: to cut (words, pictures, etc.) on wood, stone, or metal The terrible memory was engraved on his mind. as delicate as silk

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69. delicate: finely made and easily broken
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the delicate skin of a baby
delicate feelings

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70. intricate: containing many detailed

parts and thus difficult to understand.
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71. functional: completely and exactly of

practical use. Not ornamental, without
many decorations
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a multi-functional machine

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72. profusion: plenty, great or too great amount, abundance to make promises in profusion Seldom have I seen food and drink served in such profusion. 73. rich: (of colour) deep, strong, beautiful

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74. texture: the arrangement of the threads in a textile fabric  a carpet of loose / firm texture  75. bold: clearly formed, strongly formed  words printed in bold type / printed in bold letters
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76. pungent: (often neg.) having a strong, sharp, stinging, burning taste or smell Onions and garlic give out pungent smell. 77. exotic: (always positive, sth. pleasing) not native to the place where found, strikingly or excitingly different or unusual The smell and taste of kebab is exotic.

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78. sumptuous: costly, rich, showing great value  A sumptuous meal was served to the visiting guests.  The king wore sumptuous robes.  79. humble: (of things) poor  Here, cheap
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80. pottery: earthenware

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81. maze: a confusing intricate
network of passages a system of twisted passages which is very difficult to pass through

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82. honeycomb: A honeycomb is a

wax structure made by bees, which
contains lots of six-sided holes where

they store the honey that they make
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v. to fill with holes, tunnels, hollow passages like a honeycomb

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The streets cut the bazaar from all directions and lead towards all directions

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The streets cut the bazaar into many small sections, thus making it like a honeycomb.

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83. glimpse: a quick, incomplete look of sth. out of the corner of one's eye  Commonly glimpse means a brief view of a thing  get a glimpse of  You can get a glimpse of the tower when you drive past the square.
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84. mosque: Moslem temple or place of worship (where there are wells, fountains, and space for assemble)

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85. caravanserai: an inn surrounding a court in eastern countries where caravans rest at night caravan: a company of travellers on a journey through deserts of hostile regions

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86. disdainful: contemptuous, showing

lack of respect, regard sb. or sth. as low
and worthless
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Here, arrogant, in a superior manner, suggesting that the camels are all stately, strong, heads holding high

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87. bale: large bundle of goods  A Bale is a large bundle of goods bound up for storage or transportation and esp. one composed of materials (as hay, straw, cotton or wool) which are closely pressed together so as to form a mass, usu. tightly bound with cord or wire
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89. merchandise: (fml) things that you buy, sell or trade with
90. vast, sombre cavern of a room sombre: dark-coloured, gloomy, dismal, solemn, very serious atmosphere When sb. dies, there is a sombre mood.

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She was dressed in sombre black for the funeral.

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cavern of a room:

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her tyrant of a father
a palace of a house

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Before him stood a little shrimp of a fellow.

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91. revolve: to (cause to) spin round

(on a central point), to go around in a
circle
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a revolving door / stage

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cf: turn, revolve, rotate, spin, and circle Turn is a general, rather colourless word implying movement in circle after circle, or in a single full circle or through an arc of a circle a wheel turning on its axle He turned to speak to his friend.

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Revolve may suggest regular circular motion on an orbit around sth. outside to it.  The earth revolves around the sun.  Rotate is likely to suggest a circular motion on an interior axis (the imaginary axle)  The earth rotates on its axis while it revolves in its orbit.
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Spin implies rapid, sustained, continuous, & constant rotation on an inner axis or fast circling around an exterior point a wheel spinning on its axle The dancer spun on her toes. To spin strands of cotton or wool, etc, is to twist them into thread.

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Circle basically applies to a movement

around in a more or less circular pattern,
but it can also be used to convey a lack of straight directness in a winding course.
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Our plane circled the airport for an hour before landing. The fence circles the yard.

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93. circular: round, not direct, being

shaped like or nearly like a circle
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94. channel: the bed of a stream of water, narrow passage, passage for liquid

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96. attendant: a person who attends another to perform a service  a museum / parking lot / library attendant;  97. crush: to press with great power so as to break, destroy, the natural shape into powder
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The machine crushes wheat grain to make flour. The sugar cane is taken to the factory where the juice is crushed out. 98. pulp: the soft almost liquid mass of plant or animal material, such as the soft inside part of many fruits or vegetable

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99. extract: to pull or take out, often with difficulty  to extract one tooth  The policemen extracted secret information from a criminal.  100. superb: perfect in form, quality, etc.  This word describes sth. that reaches the highest conceivable point.
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101. muscular: having well-developed muscles, strong, implying great physical strength 102. stately: grand in style, noble, dignified. Here implies that the camels walk in a constant, unhurried way with their heads holding high, seemingly dignified.

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103. ramshackle: shaky, unsteady,

likely to go to pieces
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a ramshackle house a ramshackle bike, which produces a

sound at every part except the bell.

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104. apparatus: a set of machines, instruments, tools, etc. that work together for a particular purpose  107. tower: to be very tall, esp. in relation to the height of the surroundings.  The monument to the People's Heroes towers aloft on Tian’anmen.  He towers above his contemporaries.
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108. dwarf: to cause to appear small by comparison Snow-white & the 7 Dwarfs Most basketball players dwarf other men. 109. shovel: tool used for moving or lifting loose material such as sand, snow, coal v. to remove sth. with a shovel

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110. nimble: quick-moving, moving or

acting quickly and lightly; agile
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as nimble as a monkey She knitted with nimble fingers.

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111. trickle: a slow, small flow of liquid

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112. ooze: (of thick liquids) pass slowly through small openings If you squeeze the tube of toothpaste, it oozes out of the tube. Tiny drops of oil are pressed out to form a small flow down the runnel.

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113. runnel: a small, narrow channel

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114. glisten: shine brightly, sparkle
His eyes glistened with tears. Her hair glistens with oil.

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115. taut: tightly drawn

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116. girder: large horizontal beam,

usu. made of iron or steel, which
supports the smaller beams in a floor

or room
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I-shaped girder

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117. blend: mixture

Structural analysis
Part I. (para.1) (The Middle Eastern takes you back …) General atmosphere ancient & primitive harmonious lively, active, vigorous, & healthy

Structural analysis
Part II. (paras 2 - 4) (Then as you … at intervals.) The cloth market muted sepulchral Bargaining is the order of the day.

Structural analysis
Part III: (paras. 5 – 7) (One of the most picturesque… lie beside them.) The coppersmith market and other markets sound and light smell varied characters harmonious

Structural analysis
Part IV: (paras: 8-9) (Perhaps the most unforgettable…) the mill where linseed oil is extracted the description of the mill Words describing sound
I.

Style

TYPE of Writing:

Description: A description is
painting a picture in words of a person, place, object, or scene.

Style
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a descriptive essay is generally developed through sensory details, or the impressions of one’s senses --- sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch. The writer generally chooses those that help to bring out the dominant characteristic or outstanding quality of the person or thing described.

Writing Technique:
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1. From Macro to Micro

2. Words appealing to senses: light & heat,
sound & movement, and smell & colour and taste. 3. nouns, adjectives and even adverbs used as verbs: thread, round, narrow, price, live,

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tower and dwarf.

Writing Technique:
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4. words imitating sounds:

onomatopoeia
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5. stressful and impressive sentence

structures:
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one of the peculiarities…,

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one of the most picturesque...

Rhetoric Onomatopoeia: words imitating the sounds associated with the thing concerned  creak: (to make) the sound of a badly-oiled door when it opens  When you move in a wooden bed, it creaks.  The hinge of the door needs oiling, it creaks every time it is opened.
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Rhetoric
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squeak: (to make) a short very high but
not loud sound the squeak of a mouse

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rumble: (to make) a deep continuous
rolling sound The thunder / the big guns rumbled in the distance. I am hungry, my stomach is rumbling.

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Rhetoric
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grunt: (of certain animals, to make) short deep rough sounds in the throat, as if the nose were closed, such as the deep short sound characteristic of a hog, or a man making a similar sound expressing disagreement, boredom, irritation

Rhetoric
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sigh: (to let out) a deep breath slowly

and with a sound, usu. expressing
tiredness, sadness, or satisfaction
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We all heaved a sigh of relief when
the work was done.

Rhetoric
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groan: (to make) a sound caused by the movement of wood or metal parts heavily loaded, (to make) a deep sound forced out by pain, or expressing despair The patient groaned as he was lifted on to the stretcher. The ancient chair gave a groan when the fat woman sat down on it. The roof creaked and groaned under the weight of the snow.

Rhetoric:
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Personification: a figure that endows objects,

animals, ideas, or abstractions with human
form, character, or sensibility,
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The Middle Easter bazaar takes you...
dancing flashes The beam sinks…taut and protesting

Rhetoric Hyperbole: a device of comparison using exaggeration or obvious overstatement for comic or dramatic effect.  takes you ...hundreds even thousands of years  every conceivable  innumerable lamps  incredibly young  with the dust of centuries:
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posted:11/14/2009
language:English
pages:114