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					The Enlightenment
Chapter 18 Pages 474-512

MH Ch 18

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A New Order of Ideals
Lesson 1 P 476-479

MH Ch 18

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Focus question:

How did the Age of Enlightenment reflect a spirit of optimism?
MH Ch 18 3

Key term

ReasonThe capacity for logical thought.
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Key term

Age of Enlightenment-

A movement in Europe and America in the 1700’s that analyzed ideas and institutions using human reason.
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Key term

Philosophe

A European thinker or writer of the 1700’s from either the aristocracy or the middle class.
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Key term

Contract-

An agreement between two or more parties.

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Key term

Natural rightsRights believed by many to be guaranteed to all people by nature, including life, liberty, and the right to own property.
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Plenty, tolerance, enlightened governments

Application of reason in solving problems
Poverty, intolerance, injustice
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ReasonThe capacity for logical thought.

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Antoine Lavoisier chemistry

Charles Coulombmagnitism

Pierre Laplacesolar system

Scientific Revolution – If we can figure out science, we can solve other problems of the world!!!-----Age of Enlightenment

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Voltaire- François Marie Arouet

of censorship Rights of the individual Religious tolerance

Freedom

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Denis Diderot’s

Encyclopédie

–Many expert authors –First such collection of learning –For the common person –“Powerful voice of change”
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Encyclopédie
Locke- contract, natural rights  Baron de Montesquieulegislative, executive, judicial  Jean-Jacques Rousseau-direct participation in government by common persons.
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 John

Focus question:

How did the Age of Enlightenment reflect a spirit of optimism?
MH Ch 18 15

Ideas in Action
Lesson 2 P 480-485

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Focus question:

How did the ideas of the Enlightenment affect governments in Europe and America?
MH Ch 18 17

Key term
Enlightened despotA European ruler in the 1700’swith absolute power who tried to support the Enlightenment ideals such as

tolerance and freedom
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Enlightenment Ideals

Enlightened Despots

American Revolution

French Revolution

Legal reforms

Natural rights

Natural rights

Religious tolerance

Contract between ruler and ruled
MH Ch 18

Religious tolerance 19

Outlawed Bribing of judges

Crop rotation Planted new crops

Simplified laws

Frederick of Prussia

Friend to Voltaire

Just sentencing
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Welcomed Catholics
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Restricted cruel punishment of serfs Catherine the Great Of Russia Invited architects, musicians, intellectuals

Modernized Russia

Friend to Diderot

Allowed some Religious tolerance
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Abolished serfdom

Joseph II Of Austria
Allowed serfs to own land
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Taxed all classes equally

Allowed complete Religious tolerance
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Why an enlightened despot didn’t work

Montesquieu, “ No monarchy, no nobility; no nobility, no monarch.”
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In America

Proble m

England wanted to raise taxes to pay for the Seven Years’ War with France.
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Resul t

Declaration of Independence
are instituted among

 “governments

men”  “certain inalienable rights…life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”  Government derives power from the consent of the governed  Right to abolish and unjust government
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Encyclopédie
Locke- contract, natural rights  Baron de Montesquieulegislative, executive, judicial  Jean-Jacques Rousseau-direct participation in government by common persons.
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 John

In France

Proble m

Government wanted to raise taxes to pay for the Revolutionary War.
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In France

Proble m

Poor harvests. Unemployment. Food shortages. Nobles paid no taxes. Taxes paid by poor.
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Resul t

Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

“liberty,

property, security, and the resistance of oppression” “Sovereignty resides in the nation”
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Resul t

Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

 Louis

XVI plots to overthrow new government- Louis is beheaded.  The Reign of Terror. More than 18,000 killed.  Napoleon Bonaparte seizes control
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Focus question:

How did the ideas of the Enlightenment affect governments in Europe and America?
MH Ch 18 31

Economic Changes
Lesson 3 P 490-496

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Key term

Agricultural revolution-

A series of developments in Europe during the 1700’sthat improved farming methods and yield of the land.
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Key term

Crop rotation-

The planting of crops such as turnips, wheat, and clover in alternate years to keep soil fertile.
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Key term

EnclosureThe fencing in of common land to form larger estates in Britain during the 1700’s.
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Key term

Industrial revolution-

The improvements in industry that began occurring in Britain in the th century. 18
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Key term

Capitalistan investor of money, or capitol, in business.
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Elements Positives
Agricultural New tools Revolution and crops, enclosure Produced more food with less labor Provided jobs and made goods efficiently
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Negatives
Displaced small farmers

Industrial Revolution

New machines, division of labor

Caused poor working and living conditions
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Andrew Meikle

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Threshing_machine
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After the American Revolution
Lesson 4 P 497-500
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Key term

Checks and balancesThe system of maintaining a balance of power between various branches of government.
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Checks and Balances

Division
of Power Social contract

Constitution, Bill of Rights Freedom of Religion
MH Ch 18

Freedom of Press
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Primary Documents Magna Carta p 504 English Bill of Rights p 505 Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen p 506 Declaration of Independence p 509
MH Ch 18 45