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					FOOD BASED APPROACHES TO CHEMOPREVENTION

   Prescription Production Systems for Enhanced
        Health Benefits in Vegetable Crops




          Food Systems and Human Health Symposium
   College of Food, Agricultural, and Natural Resource Sciences
                        February 14, 2008

                                                   Vince Fritz, Professor
                                                   Horticultural Science
                                                   Southern Research and Outreach Ctr.
                                                   Waseca
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention




                           A Changed View of Glucosinolates



                 “… concern that the levels of natural toxicants might be inadvertently
                 raised during plant breeding to improve yields, insect resistance, or to
                 enhance other traits of horticultural crops.”

                 VanEtten, C.H. et al. 1980. Glucosinolates: Potential toxicants in cabbage
                   cultivars. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 105(5):710-714.




                 “The utility of these plants in selectively elevating Phase 2 enzymes is a
                 promising facet in the rational development of dietary strategies for
                 reducing the risk of cancer.”

                 Fahey J.W. and K.K. Stephenson. 1999. Cancer chemopreventive effects of
                    cruciferous vegetables. HortScience. 34(7):1159-1163.
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention




                          Glucosinolates and Their Function?




                • Sulphur - containing compounds

                • Distinctive flavor and aroma

                • Natural defense against insects
                  and diseases

                • Correlated with reduced incidence
                  of various forms of cancer
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention


                         Principal Glucosinolates in Crucifers



                                                               -AROMATICS-
                                                             GLUCONASTURTIIN
                                                                  PEITC




       -INDOLES-
    GLUCOBRASSICIN
           I3C




                                             -ALIPHATICS-
                                           GLUCORAPHANIN
                                           SULFORAPHANE
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention



                     Total vs. Individual Glucosinolates


                Glucosinolate composition of red cabbage (Ruby Perfection)


                Glucosinolate                          ug/g dry weight        %
                4-Hydroxybutyl                              953.1            3.73
                Progoitrin                                 2393.9            9.37
                Sinigrin                                    901.2            3.53
                Glucoalyssin                                378.8            1.48
                Gluconapolieferin                            5.8             0.02
                Gluconapin                                  439.1            1.72
                3-Methylthiopropyl                          14.6             0.06
                Glucotropaeolin                             171.1            0.67
                1-Hydroxyglucobrassicin                    2329.4            9.12
                Glucobrassicin                            15023.9          58.81     79.17%
                4-Methoxyglucobrassicin                     2265             8.87
                1-Methoxyglucobrassicin                     606.1            2.37
                Gluconasturtiin                             66.6             0.26


                Total amount of glucosinolate = 24.5 mg/g dry weight or 1.96 mg/g fresh weight
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention


                      Glucosinolate – Myrosinase System in Crucifers




                                                         (Wittstock and Halkier, 2002. TIPS 7, 263)
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention



                    Chemopreventive Acitivity of Isothiocyanates
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention




                                 Lung Tumor Induction in Rats




                                                               Number of Rats with Lung
            Treatment                      Number of Rats
                                                                    Tumors (%)
                NNK                             56                        39 (70)
          NNK + PEITC                           59                         3 (5)*
               PEITC                            19                         2 (11)

               None                             18                             1 (6)

  * P < 0.00001 compared to NNK alone.
  S.S. Hecht et al., Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers & Prev. 5:645-652 (1996).
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention




                              Formation of Indole - 3 carbinol

                                                              S         C6H11O5
                                               CH2   C

                                           N         N
                                                                                  Glucobrassicin
                                           H
                                                                   -
                                                              OSO3

                                      myrosinase

                                                               CH2OH

                                                     N
                                                     H
                                                                  I3C
                                                                                           H
                                                                                           N
                N        N
                H        H



               DIM                                   H
                                                     N                                 N
                                                                                       H       ICZ
                                                                   N
                                                                   H


                                    Ascorbigen           HN
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention




                 Glucosinolates (as whole food) Working in the Diet?




           • Determine the Effects of Feeding Cruciferous Vegetables on
             Colon Cancer Risk in Rats


           • Compare Different Cabbage Cultivars that are High or Low in
             Glucobrassicin Concentration




                                                (Plate, AY and DD Gallaher. 2006. Carcinogenesis 27(2): 287-292)
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention



                                  Aberrant Crypts of the Colon

           - Precancerous lesions                - Correlates with tumor formation




        crypt & pericryptal
        zone area

        Elliptical luminal
        opening

        Epithelial lining
        (thicker)

        Methylene blue stain
        (darker)
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention


                     Aberrant Crypt Occurrence Influenced by I3C?


                                                   Total Aberrant Crypt Foci per cm2


                                             12      a
                                                             ab      ab
                       Aberrant Crypt Foci



                                             10                              p=0.02

                                                                               bc          p=0.001
                                              8
                                                                                             c
                                              6

                                              4

                                              2

                                              0
                                                  Control   HPEITC LPEITC     HI3C         LI3C

                                                                  Groups


                                                                            (Plate , AY and DD Gallaher. 2006. Carcinogenesis 27(2): 287-292)
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention




                 Glucosinolates (as whole food) Working in the Diet?




               • Male Rats in 4 Diet Groups (15) for 16 Weeks:
                       - Control diet (AIN-93G)
                       - Broccoli diet (14.36% fresh broccoli by weight)
                       - Watercress diet (10% fresh watercress by weight)
                       - Cabbage diet (22.61% fresh cabbage by weight)

               • All vegetable diets were calculated to contain 95 mg of
                 glucosinolates / kg of diet.




                                                   (Plate, AY and DD Gallaher. 2006. Carcinogenesis 27(2): 287-292)
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention


                 Glucosinolates (as whole food) Working in the Diet?


                                                            Total Aberrant Crypt Per Cm2

                                                       16
                                                                                                          p < 0.008
                        Total Aberrant Crypt Per Cm2

                                                                 a
                                                       14
                                                       12
                                                       10
                                                                                     b           b
                                                       8                   b


                                                       6
                                                       4
                                                       2
                                                       0
                                                                  trol       coli          s
                                                                                      rcres Cabba
                                                                                                 ge
                                                               Con       Broc     Wate




                                                                                         (Plate, AY and DD Gallaher. 2006. Carcinogenesis 27(2): 287-292)
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention




Glucosinolate Variation Attributed to Genotype, Environment, and G x E



                      Aliphatic                                    Indolyl




                                           Genotype (G)

                                           Environment (E)

                                           GxE
                                                      (Kushad, M.M. et al., 1999. J. Agr. Food Chem. 47:1541-1548.)
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention




     POTENTIAL STRATEGIES


        Genotypic Variability
         Population Density

         Nitrogen x Sulfur Fertility
         Light Manipulation
         Biotic Stress Inducers
         Maturity Indexing
         Postharvest Storage
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention




   Environmental and Cultural Regulation of the Chemopreventive Constituents
                     of Cruciferous Vegetables in the Diet


          This project brings together horticulturists, plant physiologists, food
          scientists, and biomedical scientists at the University of Minnesota to
          maximize the concentrations of cancer chemopreventive agents in
          vegetables.

          Focuses primarily on the cancer chemopreventive agent phenethyl
          isothiocyanate (PEITC), measured as gluconasturtiin, its glucosinolate
          conjugate, in watercress, cabbage, and Chinese cabbage, and on indole-3-
          carbinol, measured as glucobrassicin, its glucosinolate conjugate, in
          cabbage, Chinese cabbage, and turnip.

          Supported by the Minnesota Research Fund (formerly the SOTA TEC Fund
          of the Blandin Foundation).
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention


                                                                        Growth Chamber / Greenhouse Studies

                                                                             Temperature Influence on Gluconasturtiin

                                            1200                                                                                                        80


                                                   20/20                    a a                                                                              20/20
                                                                                                                                                                                                   a               a
                                                   20/15                                                                                                     20/15
                                            1000   10/10                                                                                                     10/10
                                                   15/15                a                                                                                    15/15
  Gluconasturtiin Concentration (μg/g FW)




                                                   25/25                                  a                                                                  25/25
                                                                                                                                                        60

                                             800




                                                                                                                               Fresh Weight (g/plant)
                                                                                              b
                                                                    b


                                             600                                                                                                        40

                                                                                  c               c


                                             400                                                                                                                                                               b
                                                                                                                                                                                                       b

                                                                                                                                                        20
                                                                                                                                                                                               a
                                                                                                                                                                               b
                                             200                                                                                                                                                           c
                                                                                      d                                                                                            c
                                                                                                                                                                                           c
                                                                                                      d
                                                                                                                                                                                       d
                                                                                                                                                               a
                                               0                                                                                                         0
                                                           Week-0       Week-1            Week-2                                                                     W eek-0       W eek-1             W eek-2

                                                                        Time                                                                                                       T im e




                                                                                                          (Engelen-Eigles, G, Holden G, Cohen JD, and Gardner G. 2006. J. Agric. Food Chem 54: 28-34 )
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention


                                                                         Growth Chamber / Greenhouse Studies

                                                                       Red / Far Red Light Enrichment on Gluconasturtiin


                                                1000
                                                                                                                                                           30
                                                                        a                       a
                                                       Halide                                                                                                   MH Only                            a
                                                       MH Only
                                                       Red                                                                                                      Red Only
                                                                                                                                                                MH
                                                       Red
                                                       Farred                                                                                                   Far Red
                                                                                                                                                                Red
                                                       Far Red
                                                                                                                                                           25   Far Red
                                                 800                                                                                                            Col 8
      Gluconasturtiin Concentration (μg/g FW)




                                                                              b                                                                                 Col 10
                                                                                         b            b
                                                                 b                                                                                                                                       b
                                                                                                                                                                                                                b
                                                                                                                                                           20




                                                                                                                                  Fresh Weight (g/plant)
                                                 600



                                                                                                                                                           15


                                                 400

                                                                                                                                                           10
                                                                                                                                                                           a

                                                                                                                                                                                  a     a
                                                 200
                                                                                                                                                           5




                                                   0                                                                                                       0
                                                                     Week-1                  Week-2                                                                            Week-1                  Week-2
                                                                                  Time                                                                                                      Time




                                                                                                          (Engelen-Eigles, G, Holden G, Cohen JD, and Gardner G. 2006. J. Agric. Food Chem 54: 28-34 )
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention


                                                 Growth Chamber / Greenhouse Studies

                                                      Water Stress Effect on Gluconasturtiin


                                               3500

                                               3000        Control
                                                           Wilted
                    μg gluconasturtiin/ g FW




                                               2500

                                               2000

                                               1500

                                               1000

                                                500

                                                  0
                                                               tr o l          te d                        on                      on
                                                        C on            W il                  yd   ra ti               yd   rati
                                                                                         R eh                     R eh
                                                                             rP   o st             rP       ost
                                                                        24 h                  72 h

                                                                                          Time


                                                                                                                                        Lynette Wong, Bud Markhart, Jerry Cohen
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention


                                                  Does Intrarow Spacing and Postharvest
                                               Storage Affect Glucobrassicin Concentration?

                                              500   (‘Grand Slam’)                                              Spacing (cm)


                                                                                                                       30
                                                                                                                       46
                                              400
            Glucobrassicin (ug/g fresh wt.)




                                                                                                                       61


                                              300

                                              200

                                              100

                                               0
                                                           0                  2                4
                                                                     Months in Storage (0 C)
                                                                                                   (V. Fritz, S. Hecht, CB. Tong, G. Gardner)
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention


                                                 Does Intrarow Spacing and Postharvest
                                              Storage Affect Glucobrassicin Concentration?

                                            2000
                                                    (‘Vorox’)
                                                                                                               30
                                                                                                               46
          Glucobrassicin (ug/g fresh wt.)




                                            1500                                                               61




                                            1000


                                            500


                                              0
                                                          0               2               4
                                                                Months in Storage (0 C)       (V. Fritz, S. Hecht, CB. Tong, G. Gardner)
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention


                                         Consistency in Production



                              61cm
           Intrarow Spacing




                                                                     Vorox
                              46cm
                                                                     Grand Slam

                              30cm


                                     0        20       40       60
                                      Variation in Glucobrassicin
                                          Concentration (%)
                                                                     (V. Fritz, S. Hecht, CB. Tong, G. Gardner)
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention


              Can Soil Fertility Affect Glucobrassicin Concentration?
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention


                                                Can Soil Fertility Affect Glucobrassicin?


                                             3000
                                                                                   S fertility rate: 69 kg/ha
                                                                                                                        Grand Slam
                                             2500                                                                       Augusta
                                                                                                                        Vorox
                Glucobrassicin (ug/g f.w.)




                                             2000

                                             1500

                                             1000

                                             500

                                               0
                                                          0              77             154             231
                                                                     Nitrogen Rate (kg/ha)

                                                    (Rosen, CJ, VA Fritz, SS Hecht, GM Gardner, SG Carmella, and PM Kenney. 2005. HortScience 40(5):1493-1498.)
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention




                                               Can Soil Fertility Affect Glucobrassicin?


                                                                                                                      S rate (kg/ha)
                                               600
                                                          (‘Grand Slam’)                                                    0
                                                                                                                            55
                                               500                                                                          110
                  Glucobrassicin (µg/g f.w.)




                                               400

                                               300

                                               200

                                               100

                                                 0
                                                 0
                                                                  121                         242
                                                                     Nitrogen Rate (kg/ha)

                                                     (Rosen, CJ, VA Fritz, SS Hecht, GM Gardner, SG Carmella, and PM Kenney. 2005. HortScience 40(5):1493-1498.)
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention




                                              Can Soil Fertility Affect Glucobrassicin?


                                              1600                                                                           S rate (kg/ha)
                                                        (‘Vorox’)                                                                   0
                                              1400                                                                                  55

                                                                                                                                    110
                 Glucobrassicin (ug/g f.w.)




                                              1200

                                              1000

                                              800

                                              600

                                              400

                                              200

                                                0
                                                                    121                          242
                                                                      Nitrogen Rate (kg/ha)
                                                     (Rosen, CJ, VA Fritz, SS Hecht, GM Gardner, SG Carmella, and PM Kenney. 2005. HortScience 40(5):1493-1498.)
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention




                  Chinese Cabbage Controlled Feeding Study
                           (Post-Stress Retention)




        Determine if there is a cabbage looper feeding induction effect
        on GN concentration in Chinese cabbage

        Follow GN concentration after cabbage looper larvae removal




                                           (De Villena F., V. Fritz, J Cohen, W. Hutchison. 2007. HortScience 42(6): 1337-1340)
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention




                       Cabbage Looper (Trichoplusia ni Huebner)




         egg                                 larvae                                  pupa                Adult
       (2-3 days)         1st instar       ~ 4 weeks           5th instar         (~ 7 days)


    - Native to North America (CA, USA, & MEX)
    - Highly dispersive
    - Crucifers, cucurbits, Solanaceae, cotton, tobacco,
     dandelion, lambsquarters, etc.
    - Extensively used in feeding trials
    - Cabbage plants tolerate moderate defoliation


                                                      (De Villena F., V. Fritz, J Cohen, W. Hutchison. 2007. HortScience 42(6): 1337-1340)
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention



                                           Larvae




                                            (De Villena F., V. Fritz, J Cohen, W. Hutchison. 2007. HortScience 42(6): 1337-1340)
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention

                                                    Change in Gluconasturtiin Concentration with
                                                              Cabbage Looper Feeding


                                                   250
         Mean gluconasturtiin content (ugGN/gFW)




                                                                                               (after 10 days of feeding)
                                                           Non - covered
                                                   200     Covered




                                                   150




                                                   100




                                                    50




                                                    0
                                                                Control         3 larvae              5 larvae

                                                                    Cabbage looper infestation level

                                                                                   (De Villena F., V. Fritz, J Cohen, W. Hutchison. 2007. HortScience 42(6): 1337-1340)
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention




                     Glucosinolate Concentration and Distribution
                        In Turnip Phenotypes on Colored Mulch




                                                   (V. Justen, V. Fritz, M. Wang, J. Cohen, and G. Gardner,)
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention


                                Colored Mulches Can Enhance
                                Glucosinolate Concentration
                                                      4

                                                     3.5                                      Glucosinolates
                                                      3

        Amount of Blue light and ratio               2.5


        of Far-red to Red light                       2


        reflected onto turnip leaves                 1.5

                                                      1
        alters total glucosinolates in               0.5

        the roots of ‘Purple Top’                     0
                                                                Blue                Green           White
        turnip.                                                              MULCH COLOR



                                                  Light characteristic                  Mulch surface color
                                                                               Blue         Green       White
        Blue and green mulch                      PPF (400-700 nm) (%)         13           12          42
        enhanced glucosinolates the
                                                  Blue (450 nm)(%)             25            7          41
        most and resulted in a higher
                                                  Green (550 nm) (%)           10           24          42
        shoot to root ratio.
                                                  Red (645 nm) (%)              8            9          43

                                                  Far-red (735 nm)(%)          12           13          43

                                                  Far-red/Red (ratio)          1.5          1.4         1.0

                                                           (Antonious et al., 1996. Photochem. Photobiol. 64:605-610)
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention




                    Is There a Correlation Between Pigmentation
                           and Glucosinolate Production?




        Purple Top              Just Right   Scarlet Queen              Royal Crown




                                                     (V. Justen, V. Fritz, M. Wang, J. Cohen, and G. Gardner,)
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention




                                 100
                                                    Red                Reflectance Properties of Soil
                                                    Yellow                  and Plastic Mulches
                                                    Blue
          Reflectance (% Transmission)



                                         80         White
                                                    Silver
                                                    Soil
                                         60



                                         40



                                         20



                                          0
                                              400            500        600          700           800
                                                                   Wavelength (nm)
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention

                                                              GLUCOSINOLATE LEVELS VARY
                                       1800
                                                          BY VARIETY, TISSUE, AND PLANTING DATE

                                       1600    Control
                                               Blue
                                       1400    Red
   umol glucosinolate/100g fresh wt.




                                               Yellow
                                               White
                                       1200
                                               Silver
                                                              Just Right                                            Scarlet Queen
                                       1000



                                       800



                                       600



                                       400



                                       200



                                         0
                                              SPRING          FALL   SPRING           FALL   SPRING          FALL         SPRING            FALL
                                                       Root                   Shoot                   Root                          Shoot
                                                                                                  (V. Justen, V. Fritz, M. Wang, J. Cohen, and G. Gardner)
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention

                                                                              PRELIMINARY HPLC DATA: ROOTS
                                     1800


                                     1600             4Hydroxy GB
                                                      Gluconapin
                                                      Glucoraphanin
 umol glucosinolate/100g fresh wt.




                                     1400
                                                      Gluconasturtiin
                                                      Glucobrassicin
                                     1200
                                                      4 MethoxyGB
                                                      1 MethoxyGB                               Just Right                                                                                                Scarlet Queen
                                     1000


                                      800


                                      600


                                      400


                                      200


                                        0
                                                               Red




                                                                                                                 Red




                                                                                                                                                                    Red




                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Red
                                                        Blue




                                                                                                          Blue




                                                                                                                                                           Blue




                                                                                                                                                                                                              Blue
                                                                     Yellow




                                                                                                                       Yellow




                                                                                                                                                                          Yellow




                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Yellow
                                            Control




                                                                                                Control




                                                                                                                                                 Control




                                                                                                                                                                                                    Control
                                                                              White




                                                                                                                                White




                                                                                                                                                                                   White




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    White
                                                                                       Silver




                                                                                                                                        Silver




                                                                                                                                                                                           Silver




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Silver
                                                               SPRING                                             FALL                                             SPRING                                             FALL
                                                                                      Just Right                                                                                     Scarlet Q ueen
                                                                                                                                                                  (V. Justen, V. Fritz, M. Wang, J. Cohen, and G. Gardner)
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention

                                                                               PRELIMINARY HPLC DATA: SHOOTS
                                       1800


                                                        4Hydroxy GB
                                       1600
                                                        Gluconapin
                                                        Glucoraphanin
   umol glucosinolate/100g fresh wt.




                                       1400
                                                        Gluconasturtiin
                                                        Glucobrassicin
                                       1200
                                                        4 MethoxyGB
                                                        1 MethoxyGB                             Just Right                                                                                Scarlet Queen
                                       1000


                                       800


                                       600


                                       400


                                       200


                                         0
                                                                Red




                                                                                                                 Red




                                                                                                                                                                   Red




                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Red
                                                                      Yellow




                                                                                                                       Yellow




                                                                                                                                                                         Yellow
                                                         Blue




                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Yellow
                                              Control




                                                                                                Control

                                                                                                          Blue




                                                                                                                                                 Control

                                                                                                                                                           Blue




                                                                                                                                                                                                    Control

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Blue
                                                                               White




                                                                                                                                White




                                                                                                                                                                                  White




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    White
                                                                                       Silver




                                                                                                                                        Silver




                                                                                                                                                                                           Silver




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Silver
                                                                SPRING                                           FALL                                             SPRING                                             FALL
                                                                                                                                                                  (V. Justen, V. Fritz, M. Wang, J. Cohen, and G. Gardner)
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention




       Goal: Foster interdisciplinary collaboration in research in
             whole foods or plant products that may have
             preventive and/or curative properties
           Steering Committee:
           •Jerry Cohen, Horticultural Science
           •Vincent Fritz, Hort. Science, Southern Res. and Outreach Center
           •Stephen Hecht, Cancer Center
           •Rick Kingston, Coll. of Pharmacy, Center for Dietary Suppl. Safety
           •Allen Levine, Food Science and Nutrition, Minn. Obesity Center
           •Greg Plotnikoff, Medicine, Center for Spirituality and Healing
           •Mindy Kurzer, Food Science and Nutrition
           •Gary Gardner (Center Director), Horticultural Science



 Supported by: Graduate School; Medical School; College of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences;
 School of Public Health, College of Pharmacy, College of Human Ecology; College of Biological Sciences
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention




                                    Accomplishments / Impact


                          Forums - 21 (first one in December, 2001)

                   Symposia - 3 (brought in experts from outside the U)

                 Grad. Student / Junior Faculty Research Travel Grants

           Research Focus Groups Leading to Grant Proposals in 7 Areas

                           ASHS Colloquium, 2005, Las Vegas, NV

                              IHC Symposium, 2006, Seoul, Korea


                                           http://cphh.cfans.umn.edu
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention




                                  CPHH Research Initiatives


                     Propolis for HIV Infection

                     Effects of Soy Consumption on Blood Lipids

                     Isothiocyanates for Chemoprevention of Lung Cancer

                     Regulation of the Chemopreventive Constituents of
                     Vegetables in the Diet

                     Whole Grains and Diabetes

                     Mushrooms and Cancer Prevention

                     Botanicals Used as Hepatoprotectants
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention



                                   New Interdisciplinary Initiatives



      Integrating Medicine, Agriculture, and the Environment
                             (IMAGE)


        Mission Statement

        Science-based discovery and development of plants
        and their components to benefit society
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention




                                    New Interdisciplinary Initiatives



                                  Participating Institutions

                       University of Minnesota
                          Hormel Institute
                          Southern Research and Outreach Center
                       Mayo Clinic
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention




                                    New Interdisciplinary Initiatives


               The Minnesota Chemoprevention Consortium
                                (MC2)


            Mission Statement

            To facilitate and implement interdisciplinary agent
            development and delivery for cancer prevention.
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention


                                    New Interdisciplinary Initiatives



                                  Participating Institutions

                       University of Minnesota
                          The Cancer Center
                          Hormel Institute
                          Southern Research and Outreach Center
                          Other university colleges and departments
                       Mayo Clinic
                       Hormel Foods Corp.
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention



                                    New Interdisciplinary Initiatives


              The Minnesota Chemoprevention Consortium
                               (MC2)

                                           Specific Goals

                 Evaluate and criticize research proposals
                 Form new collaborations for research
                 Design and implement clinical trials for chemoprevention
                 Integrate specific agent and food based approaches
                 Address translational issues
                     FDA IND process
                     GMP preparation of agents
                     GLP toxicity studies
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention




                                MC2 Executive Committee


           Stephen S. Hecht, Ph.D.             Max A. Pecht II, M.S.
           Paul Limburg, M.D., M.PH.           Richard M. Herreid, M.S.
           Zigang Dong, M.D., Dr PH            Phil Minerich, Ph.D.
           Dorothy Hatsukami, Ph.D.            Ann M. Bode, Ph.D.
           Mimi Yu, Ph.D.                      D. Joshua Liao, Ph.D.
           Jian-Min Yuan, Ph.D.                Johnny Lu, Ph.D.
           Vincent A. Fritz, Ph.D.             Margot Cleary, Ph.D.
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention

                                    New Interdisciplinary Initiatives
Food Based Approaches to Chemoprevention




                Future Needs in the Development of Nutraceuticals




                                   • Production Consistency

                                           • Sensory Acceptance

                                              •Optimal Dosage

                                              • Drug Interaction

                                              • Quantification /Certification

                                                   • Real /Perceived Value
Harvesting Cabbage at the Southern Research and Outreach Center

				
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