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type

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									The Joy of Typography:
An overview of typography elements and
issues




 Jennifer Bowie
Typography and Type Elements
 #1 one thing to remember:

 Typography exisits to honor content
 Typography exisits to honor content

 Typography exisits to honor content

 Typography exisits to honor content
Typography and Type Elements:
 Font Classifications
 There are four basic font classifications:
    • Serif: the oldest type, has serifs on the end of letter to guide
      reader’s eye, also has thick and thin strokes, considered
      more “readable” than sans serif. Gives a more formal and
      traditional feel to documents. Good body text or contrast
      text. Includes: Times, Garamond, Georgia, Goudy Old
      Style, Book Antiqua, and many more.

    • Sans Serif: “without serif,” only about 100 years old,
      has stokes that have little to no variation in width,
      looks more modern and technical, used a body text in
      Europe. Makes a good body text or contrast text.
      Includes: Arial, Helvetica, Verdana, Tahoma,
      Century Gothic (and other Gothics), Trebuchet, and
      many more.
Typography and Type Elements:
Font Classifications con.
  • Script: fonts that look they they are hand
    lettered, can connect or not. Should be used in
    small amounts for fancy documents (invitations),
    occasionally for headings, titles, logos, and drop
    caps. Most should never be set in long bodies of
    text. Use as a display font, or rarely a contrast.
    Includes: Comic Sans, Gigi, Brush Script (and other
    scripts), Forte, and more

  • Decorative: fun, distinctive fonts. Should never be
    used in long bodies of text. Best used as display fonts. Very
    powerful so use sparingly. Includes: Goudy
    Stout, Impact, algerian, Juice ITC, Bauhaus 93,
    and many more.
Typography and Type Elements:
  General Categories
   w   Type is used for different things. General categories
       are:
       • body text- readable in long blocks of text and smaller sizes 9-
         12 pts for print, 12-14+ for screen. Can be Sans Serif or
         Serif fonts
       • display text- less readable and not designed to be read in
         long blocks. Used in advertising, for title or logo, and other
         display uses. Can be Script or Decorative fonts
       • contrast text- meant to contrast with your body text. Good
         for headings, subheadings, titles, and smaller blocks of text.
         Normally will be Serif or Sans Serif (opposite of body font)
         but can more more legible Script or Display fonts
Typography and Type Elements:
 Type Setting
 w   Leading: (space between lines) should be at least 120%
     for serifed fonts, and 135-140% for sans serif.
     • greater is better than lesser for body text
     • display fonts can handle little or even negative leading
     • typefaces with small x-heights do not need greater leading, but
       those with large may
     • leading should increase proportionally as line length increases
     • Auto leading for most programs is ~20%
                                                        Afford, old jiggly quarrel
Leading Examples                                        panhandle that farm
Afford, old jiggly quarrel panhandle that farm          gonna.Soap hayseed her
gonna.Soap hayseed her simple showed gal
fer.If chitlins rat, lament shed jig landlord
frontporch drinkin' cold her sherrif salesmen,          simple showed gal fer.If
that.Rat, mashed city-slickers frontporch go em
knickers jiggly buckshot neighbor's
coonskin.Ain't hootch jail poor skinny shiney           chitlins rat, lament shed jig
sam-hell greasy rockinchair, rat marshal ya
come caboose.
                                                        landlord frontporch drinkin'
0.5 leading                                             cold her sherrif salesmen
                                                        that.Rat, mashed city-slickers.
1.5 leading

Afford, old jiggly quarrel panhandle that farm gonna.Soap hayseed her simple showed
gal fer.If chitlins rat, lament shed jig landlord frontporch drinkin' cold her sherrif
salesmen, that.Rat, mashed city-slickers frontporch go em knickers jiggly buckshot
neighbor's coonskin.Ain't hootch jail poor skinny shiney sam-hell greasy rockinchair,
rat marshal ya come caboose.
Typography and Type Elements:
Justification
w   Justified left: flushed left and jagged right, this is the most
    readable for long segments of body text

     w   Justified right: flush right, jagged left, highly unreadable,
                                                            use rarely.

w   Justified: flush left and right so the text forms a box. Can
    cause rivers in the text.

     w   Centered: ragged both sides. Use rarely and in small
                     amounts, very unreadable.
Rivers?
 This is an example of fully justified text. Can you find the
 rivers:

 Neo odio tation lobortis ne wisi nimis duis elit ludus ratis
 consequat.Diam et fere nulla, caecus sagaciter in abbas
 importunus ad molior.Wisi commodo aliquam iriure si eros
 duis aliquip quidem, velit reprobo letalis, volutpat
 consequat.Neque caecus enim genitus et ingenium tation,
 vereor te caecus facilisi occuro.Adipiscing cogo regula quis esse
 gemino, mauris commoveo ventosus diam praesent, nutus
 praesent comis.Mauris aliquip olim quibus ex aptent ut nullus
 foras, tation ullamcorper, ulciscor, nostrud.Enim ad voco capto
 suscipit accumsan ex.Saepius vereor vero tamen caecus melior
 mara blandit delenit.Bis, nibh adsum duis lucidus utrum
 interdico tation wisi epulae ideo, secundum.Praesent neo
 consequat damnum incassum, pneum voco.
Vocab:

w   Type family: a generic term for all the fonts in a family
     • Example: Franklin Gothic, which includes Franklin Gothic , Franklin
       Gothic Demi, Franklin Gothic Heavy, and variations like italics
w   Typeface or face: a specific category of type, includes all
    variations within that category like bold and italics. So, the
    typeface Franklin Gothic would include all variations of that
    particular face including italics and bold
w   Font: specific type in a type family with specific characteristics,
    like bolding or italic. Like Franklin Gothic Heavy Shadow
    or Franklin Gothic italics
Vocab:

w   Type size: measured in points
    • Best sizes for print & web body text?
w Point: 1/72 of an inch
w Kerning: space between letters
Anatomy Vocab:




image from: 
http://graphicdesign.spokanefalls.edu/tutorials/process/type_basics/
default.htm
More Vocab

w   Stress
                               
                                                 
                             Oblique, or angled, stress
                                                              
                                                                                
                                                            Semi-oblique stress
                                                                                     
                                                                                                       
                                                                                   Vertical stress




w   Weight
Enim ad voco capto suscipit accumsan                      Enim ad voco capto suscipit
ex.Saepius vereor vero tamen caecus melior                accumsan ex.Saepius vereor vero
mara blandit delenit.Bis, nibh adsum duis                 tamen caecus melior mara blandit
lucidus utrum interdico tation wisi epulae                delenit.Bis, nibh adsum duis
ideo, secundum.Praesent neo consequat                     lucidus utrum interdico tation
damnum incassum, pneum voco.                              wisi epulae ideo, ecundum.
                                                          Praesent neo consequat damnum
                                                          incassum, pneum voco.
Even More Vocab

w   Width: length of letter
    • Monospaced fonts: Each character (letter) has the
      same width Courier is one example
    • Proportional fonts: different letters take up different
      amounts of space– like the i and the m. Goudy Old Style is
      one example, but most fonts are like this
w   Line quality: includes thick/thinness of lines and
    whether lines vary in width or are constant
w   Clarity: legibility— “ease with which readers can pick
    up information in the text” Kostelnick & Roberts)
    • Example: good clarity poorer clarity
 Have fun and Design well
          The End

          Information from Sims 10, Guark & Lannon 8, and Web
          Typography, Kostelnic & Roberts



Jennifer Bowie

								
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