APEC CTF OCT 24-25 2007_2.ppt - APEC-EID - home

Document Sample
APEC CTF OCT 24-25 2007_2.ppt - APEC-EID - home Powered By Docstoc
					APEC-CTF Emerging
Infectious Diseases
Technology Roadmap
Taipei, October 24-25

       Jack Smith,
 Director S&T Foresight


Office of the National Science Advisor 
Bureau du Conseiller national des sciences
      Ubiquitous Computing 
        for EID  by  2012
Key user requirement is for integrated,
 smart systems that provide powerful,
 instantaneous networked
 information;

Networks need to enable early detection
 from distributed sources, sensors and
 institutional data;

Early alert elements for bio-terror,
 pandemic and avoidance-
 management of social panic potential
 are required.
      Trends in Infotechnology &
      Ambient Intelligence (ICT)
 Progress toward ubiquitous access and embededness;
 Open source collaborative tools and deeper peer- to 
  peer functionality;
 Continued migration towards device and functional 
  convergence;
 Infobased manufacturing, claytronics for distributed 
  fabrication;
 Broader object based nodes and networks so 
  everything can be smart and connected;
 Pervasive E Science and dynamic simulation and 
  modelling;
 Gaming for personal and organizational decisions, 
  learning;
 Emerging horizons for faster, exponentially more 
  powerful encryption, quantum information
 Sustained info markets growth for surveillance, sensor 
  networks, tracking capacities,  nano-electromechanics  
 Wearable, implantable personalized micro-nano-bio 
  info sensors with data and communications 
  capabilities
        Ubiquitous Computing
        2012 Solution Elements
• Global sensing of patterns & situations;
• E Science & GRIDs for massive 
   data mining and collection;
• Distributed access & processing;
• Robust regional climate and disease 
incidence model;
• Pervasive RFID monitoring of animals;
• Review of long term climate models;
• Detection-correlation of target 
populations and climate oscillations
•  Global intelligence networks aligned 
with WHO-CDC & regional partners;
• Smart sensor systems at traffic points.
               Example: KDDI’s “Ultra-3G”
                         Vision




Source: ITU-T workshop “NGN and its Transport Networks”, April 2006
            Emerging Technology: IPv6


    • IPv6 is the Internet Protocol Version 6 designed by 
      IETF to replace current IP (IPv4)
• IPv6 Advantages                           • IPv6 deployment issues
    ØMuch larger address space (128 bits)         ØTransition takes time.
    ØTrust network: real IP address access        ØMechanisms for solving IPv4 address
    ØMore efficient header format                 problem are used
    ØImproved routing                               §Network Address Translation (NAT)
    ØEnhanced security and QoS                         –Internet becomes InterNAT!
    ØImproved support for mobile IP and mobile 
    computing devices                                  –Not for IPSec, QoS
    ØSupport Multicast and Anycast                  §Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
                                                    (DHCP).
                                                  ØNo Killer Application yet




                                                  Source: Chalermpol Charnsripinyo
              New Opportunities Created by IPv6
             Global IP address
                                                 Mobile equipment



                                             Real-time data
                                                              NW for mobile
                                                                                 Remote
                                             distribution                        Maintenance

       ×        IPv4                                              Secure End-to-End
                                                                  Communication
                 NAT
                                   Data exchange
                                                      Remote
                                                      Control
                                                                                      IPv6
                                                                     LAN



                                                     Home
    Private address                                  Network
                                       Information appliances         OA equipment
 IPv4 : one-way communication               IPv6: two-way communication
 ・ due to NAT, the business model is        ・two-way communications between information
  only client & server.                      appliance and mobile equipment
                                            ・New internet business models will be created
Source: NTT Communications
             m2m-x (Machine to Machine for
             any[thing|place|time])

    ~Provide End-to-End Secure Communications Using IPv6~

                                          m2m-x                  “Secure, Easy
                                     Management Server           and Low-priced”

            Mobile Phone
              Gateway            Signaling
                                 Channel
Non-PC devices                                 IPv6
                                             Internet            Enterprise Network


                                       Data Channel
      Home Network
 M2m-x management server functions:                         Core Technology
 - Authentication of all the devices
 - Access Control based on the security policy              = SIP & IPsec
 - Transmission of encryption keys in a way making the calculation process light-weighted
 - The existence of the device is hidden from unauthorized users
 - Transmission of Information necessary for dynamic control of Firewall devices
                             m2m-x IP Home Appliance trials
                    Multi-Media Communication                  Personal VPN
                             (Sanyo)                    (NTT Com, Fujitsu, Toshiba, DIT)

     PS2 TV-Phone
          (Sony)
                                                                                                Ubiquitous Printing
                                                                                                          (Ricoh)




                                 Visual                               Ubiquitous
                                                                       Ubiquitous
                                  Visual
                             Communication                              Office
                                                                         Office
                              Communication    IPv6
                                                 IPv6
                                              m2m-x
                                               m2m-x
                                            (NTT Com)
                                             (NTT Com)
                                                                     Net Toy
                                                                      Net Toy
                                                                                             Cyber Conference
                                                                                                      (Pioneer)
                                             Home
                                              Home
                                            Security
                                             Security




 EMIT Home System
     (Matsushita)       Bluetooth Home Security                             Hotline w/ TOY Control Port
                                (Toshiba)                                                  (Takara)
Source: NTT Communications
                  Integration of IP Technology
                        with Real-Space
                        Aircraft / Airport




                                                                             (Mobile IPv6 RT)
                                                                                           IEEE 802.11b

                                              PHS/WCDMA
                                                              Wireless LAN
                                                    Network                                               Wireless LAN
                                                                 Network
                                                                                                               AP
                       IEEE 802.11b



                                 (Mobile IPv6 RT)
       TrainCar                                          IPv6 Network
                                                                                                IEEE 802.11b



                                 (Mobile IPv6 RT)                              Shopping Mall, Station, Airport

                                                      FA ; Factory Automation
                                                      BA ; Building Automation
        Resident
Source: WIDE project                                  HA ; Home Automation
           Emerging Technology:
                The Grid

•   Definition 1998: Ian Foster and Carl Kesselman: The Grid:
    Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure
     “A computational grid is a hardware and software 
       infrastructure that provides dependable, consistent, 
       pervasive, and inexpensive access to high-end 
       computational capabilities.” 
•   Definition 2002: Ian Foster, ANL:What is the Grid? A Three-
    Point Checklist
     “A Grid is a system that coordinates resources that are not 
       subject to centralized control using standard, open, general
       -purpose protocols and interfaces to deliver nontrivial 
       qualities of service.”
                 RFID Tag


• RFID Tag Types
  – Passive tags: no power source of 
    their own, operate within a short 
    distance (typically < 3 m.)
  – Semi-passive tags: rely on a battery 
    built into the tag to achieve better 
    performance (communication range)
  – Active tags: with their own power 
    source, can actively transmit and 
    processing data over considerable 
    distances (> 100 m.)
                                            Hitachi mu-chip tiny RFID tag


                                                                            Powder RFID chips next to
                                                                            the human hair


                                            Source: Chalermpol Charnsripinyo
GÉANT2


         International Research Networking

           • Interconnection
           network for European
           NRENs (32 countries)
           • +3500 universities and
           research sites
                       Thai National Grid Project

         •    A national project under Ministry of Information and Communication Technology
         •    Goal
               –   Building the next generation advanced computing infrastructure
               –   Stimulating the adoption of grid technology to support research, education, and industry
               –   Building up man power for future generation IT industry 




[Source: Thai National Grid Project http://www.thaigrid.or.th]
                                  ThaiGrid
           Drug Discovery Infrastructure


•   Partners:
     –   Dr. Chak Saengma, KU
     –   Somsak Sriprayoonsakul, TNGC
     –   IBM Thailand 
•   Challenges
     –   From over 10000 active compounds 
         available from Thai medicinal plants 
         database, find a smallest set of 
         compounds that has a potential to be 
         used as a drug
     –   Very compute intensive. Several month of 
         computing time
•   Solution: Use grid to increase 
    computing power to 10-100 times
     –   Distributed screening process to hundred 
         of hosts on the Grid
•   Benefit
     –   Speeding up time to results
     –   Allow scientists to spend more time 
         analyzing results
       Trends in Biotechnology

•   Control, improvements in living organisms
•   Bio-sensing at the micro and nano level, micro and 
    nano electromechanics
•   Integration with wireless, RFID, photonics-molecular 
    level cameras
•   Tissue engineering, artificial organs, implants and 
    protheses
•   Targeted drug delivery and use of in vitro capacities
•   Rapid scaleable bio-assays for molecule ID, medical 
    diagnosis and forensics
•   Personalized medicine using large data sets of patient 
    information, disease statistics, gene sequences and 
    genotypes
•   Genetically modified insects to counter pathogen 
    carriers
•   In silico- computer testing and comprehensive 
    modelling for drug characteristics, side effects and 
    receptor simulation – lab on chip
•   Molecular recognition –targeted drug delivery to 
    organs, tumours
                           In-silico Mutagenesis of
                           H5N1 Hemagglutinin
Principle Investigator
CHAK  SANGMA, Cheminformatics Research Unit, Chemistry
Department, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, THAILAND
Problem
Up to now, HA of H5 prefers avian receptor to human receptor but mutated HA 
      found. Can mutation on HA cause the pandemic outbreak? 
Objective
Structure and binding affinity prediction of mutated HA by molecular dynamic 
      simulation using 
Benefit
•     Need for H5 mutation monitoring and provide a high throughput prediction 
Challenges
Estimated 240 selected mutations on 24 residues. Estimated computing time: one 
      month per mutant (AMBER9 on 8 nodes cluster)   Or 60 months for 240 
      mutations (32 nodes) 
Reference: 1.Sangma C., Nunrium P., Hannongbua S. (2006) J. Theor. and Comp. 
     Chem. 5, 1–16. 
Sponsor
•    The National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA)
•    The National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
•    The Thailand Research Fund
•    Kasetsart University Research and Development Institute
            CCUC: Biomolecular modeling
                  and simulations
                                                                Bird Flu
 • Computer-aided molecular modeling on                              Neuraminidase
   Influenza virus H5N1 and HIV-1                                    (NA)
   enzymes.                                                          Hemaglutinin
                                                                     (HA)
             – To study the structural properties of the             M2 channel
               enzyme.
             – To explore the dynamical behavior of the 
               enzyme as well as the inhibitors/drugs.
             – To investigate the interaction between enzyme 
               and inhibitor.

               .....Understand basic properties of
                known drug-target interaction.....
             ......design new compounds which fit
             better to the catalytic site of both Wild
             and Mutant types..... 
Put your material in and we’ll serve the calculation
  Trends in Nanotechnology

 Smart materials with nano films, structures
 Integration of functions and structure in membranes, 
  fabrics, fibers, self powered entities, biomimetic 
  materials
 New environmental leaps in performance: e.g water 
  filtration and purification, biocidals, bioremediation 
  and decontamination
 Nano sensor networks, tracking capacities – nano-
  electro-mechanics  (eg HVAC embedded)
 Wearable personalized nano sensors with data and 
  communications capabilities
 Energy and power efficiencies improvements, battery 
  power management
 Smart dust capability for widespread human , 
  environments surveillance
 Computational devices embedded in consumer, 
  commercial goods
 Functional, programmable nanostructures for 
  controlled drug delivery, performance of implants, 
  protheses
 New devices, building materials and fabrics that 
  incorporate nano film solar power and are climate 
  responsive
          Technology 
     Application Needs 2012
• Affordable RFID tagging for wild animals;
• Very small aperture terminals, simple
  mobile data collection & entry systems;
• EID consistent, easy, multilingual KM
  systems for diverse user interfaces;
• Automated easy reporting systems using cell
  phones or similar;
• Regional EID go data system maps and
  resource call networks;
• 911 type alert system for hospitals to
  manage loads and sort emergency cases.
      2018  Needs for Ambient 
      Intelligence – Ubiquitous 
              Computing

• LAMP –SMAP –RAPID type 
  solutions for developing countries;
• Real time network and data analysis  
  disease spread models and patterns;
• Border-arrivals smart detection 
  devices connected to networks;
• Prediction models from long term 
  data analyses & climate;
• Real time RFID systems, linked to 
  global analysis capacities.
            2018 Technology 
           Solutions – AIS-UC
• Vector pattern migration analyses;
• Pervasive marking delivery for sensors;
• Cheap & easy diagnostic kits;
• Traditional herb-remedies solutions for
  rural users;
• Advanced gaming, a-life models and
  simulations;
• Open access data base for easy access to
  relevant information-continuous update;
• Traceability systems widely deployed.
            2025 Plausible EID & 
            Ubiquitous Computing 
                 Horizons…
• Smart dust for easy tracking and analysis;
• Globally integrated modeling-gaming and risk
  models, including genomic health profiles;
• Rapid characterization of pathogens and
  automated alerts diagnosed for threats;
• Context-aware KM, linked to human response
  models;
• Emergency societal communications and
  control if required for containment.
Convergent Technologies for 
Health and Life Sciences 2020
        Anticipated Market Size




                                  Anticipated Feasibility
   New Technologies
     for Diagnosis

• Simple, inexpensive and quick
  – LAMP


• Useful to monitor point mutations
  – SMAP


• Useful to identify unknown pathogens
  – RAPID
                      Comparison of Three
                      Methods for Diagnosis


                             PCR               LAMP                 SMAP
                                           (Loop-Mediated
                          (Polymerase          Isothermal     (Smart Amplification
                               Chain         Amplification)          Process)
                             Reaction)
       Developed by          Roche         Eiken Chem. Co.    RIKEN and Dnaform
                            Diagnostics,           Ltd.              Co. Ltd.
                              Co. Ltd.
     Amplification       Thermal cycling      Isothermal          Isothermal
     temperature           (4℃~95℃)             (65℃ )              (60℃ )
        Sensitivity           High              High                  High

         Cost for             High            Very Low                Low
          Equipme
             nts
          Feature         Conventional       Low cost          Fastest detection
                              method       Fast detection     High fidelity (useful
                                                                      for SNPs
                                                                      analysis)
       Disadvantage       Time (1.5hr)     Difficult primer     Difficult primer
                                                  design               design
Source: Yoshiyuki Nagai and Yoshiko Okamoto
                              SNP (Single Nucleotide
                              Polymorphism) typing
                                                                                        Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2)
                                                                                                           Blood 3μl
     Needle                                                                                                 +
                                                                                    M
                                                                                             (98℃,3 min)     DNA extraction
                                                                                    o
                                                                                    n
                                                                                                             reagent
     Pipetman                                                                       g
                                Alcohol                                             o
                                               The rate classified by race of an    l
     Genotyp       ALDH2        Sensitivit                   Cau
                                                             appearance             o              (60℃,30 min)
                                              Neg                   c
           e       Activity            y            r               a
                                                                                    i
                                (flushing                                           d
                                experience)
                                                    o
                                                    i
                                                                    s
                                                                    i
                                                                           (
                                                                                    J
                                                                                         Wild primer   Mutant primer
                                                    d               a
                                                                                    a
                                   Non-                             n
                                                                                    p
                                              10             10
      Wild                            flu                                      56   a
                    High                            0               0               n
     2*1/2*1                          she                                           %
                                                    %               %               e
                                        r                                           s
                                                                                    e
                                                                                    )

      Hetero                      Light       0              0                 40
                    Low
     2*1/2*2                     flusher            %               %               %



     Mutant         Very                      0              0
                                 Flusher                                    4%
     2*2/2*2        Low                             %               %



  Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2)                       Genome : -ACACTGAAGTG-  -ACACTAAAGTG-
                                                                            ↓          ↓
                                                         Amino acid:   Glutamic acid      Lysine
By Yoshiyuki Nagai and Yoshiko Okamoto                                ↓                     ↓
                                                                                        Y.Hayashizaki
                                                         Enzyme activity:   High           Low
           Features of SMAP 
       •      Fastest detection within15-30 min
       •      Amplification = detection (No background)
       •      Sensitivity
       •      Low energy requirements (isothermal amplification)



                                                     Real-time detection by measuring
 Templates                                           fluorescence intensity of SYBR Green I
6000 copies
 600 copies                                               SYBR Green I     →
  60 copies
   6 copies
   0 copies
 No primers




More compact (mobile) device is under developing
                               RAPID
        Robotics-Assisted Pathogen Identification

                                                                           Database
An outbreak!                             454 sequencer




               Extract nucleic acids      Determine nucleotide       Search their homologies with
What is the     from blood, airway
               swab, feces etc, and
                                       sequences (20 Mb in 24hrs)    registered, known sequences.
                                       with a high throughput 454
causative         subtract cellular            sequencer.
                   nucleic acids.
 agent?
                                                  ~1 Week
   Question: Is it a
  known pathogen,                                                   Answer:It is smallpox;
unknown but related                                                 completely unknown;
to some known one,                 Identify the agent               related to human/
                                   or narrow the                    animal corona viruses
 or completely new
                                   candidates down                  but new.
       one?
                RAPID: New DNA
              sequencing technology
                (454 life sciences)

       • Features
           – 20Mb sequencing within 24 hr
           – No need of specific primer nor probe
           – No need of pathogen containment facility


       • Problems to be solved
           – Elimination of DNA/RNA from human materials
           – High cost (machine; appx.$1 million, running cost; $8300 per run)
           – Speed up information processing




Source: Yoshiyuki Nagai and Yoshiko Okamoto
List of EID Projects using ICT
and Emerging Technologies



 BioSense

 Electronic Laboratory Exchange Network
 (eLEXNET)
 A geographic information system

 Electronic Surveillance System for the Early
 Notification of Community-based
 Epidemics (ESSENCE)

 Epidemic Information Exchange (Epi-X)
List of EID Projects using ICT and
Emerging Technologies


  Foodborne Disease Active Surveillance Network
  (FoodNet)
  Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN)

  Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN)

  Health Alert Network(HAN)

  Infectious Diseases Society of America Emerging
  Infections Network (IDSA-EIN)
  Laboratory Response Network (LRN)
  PulseNet

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:3
posted:10/5/2013
language:English
pages:32