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					                                                                                                                            1
                                              Meta-Analyses of 138 Influences Relating to Achievement
Rank Domain                                   Influence                                            d          Page(s)
   1 Student       Self-report grades                                                             1.44          43-44
   2 Student       Piagetian programs                                                             1.28           43
   3 Teaching      Providing formative evaluation                                                 0.90        181--183
   4 Teacher       Micro teaching                                                                 0.88           112
   5 School        Acceleration                                                                   0.88        100-101
   6 School        Classroom behavioral                                                           0.80           167
   7 Teaching      Comprehensive interventions for learning disabled students                     0.77        217-219
   8 Teacher       Teacher clarity                                                                0.75        125-126
   9 Teaching      Reciprocal teaching                                                            0.74        203-204
  10 Teacher       Feedback                                                                       0.73        173-178
  11 Teacher       Teacher-student relationships                                                  0.72           118
  12 Teaching      Spaced vs. mass practice                                                       0.71      185-186, 242
  13 Teaching      Meta-cognative strategies                                                      0.69        188-189
  14 Student       Prior achievement                                                              0.67      32, 40, 41-42
  15 Curricula     Vocabulary programs                                                            0.67           131
  16 Curricula     Repeated reading programs                                                      0.67           135
  17 Curricula     Creativity programs                                                            0.65           155
  18 Teaching      Self-verbalization/self-questioning                                            0.64        192-193
  19 Teacher       Professional Development                                                       0.62           119
  20 Teaching      Problem-solving teaching                                                       0.61           210
  21 Teacher       Not Labeling students                                                          0.61        124-125
  22 Curricula     Phonics instruction                                                            0.60        132-134
  23 Teaching      Teaching strategies                                                            0.60        200-203
  24 Teaching      Cooperative vs. individualistic learning                                       0.59        212-214
  25 Teaching      Study skills                                                                   0.59        189-192
  26 Teaching      Direct instruction                                                             0.59        204-207
  27 Curricula     Tactile simulation programs                                                    0.58        153-154
  28 Curricula     Comprehension programs                                                         0.58        217-219
  29 Teaching      Mastery learning                                                               0.58       170-1,224
  30 Teaching      Worked examples                                                                0.57        172-173
  31 Home          Home environment                                                               0.57          61-71
  32 Home          Socioeconomic status                                                           0.57          61-63
  33 Teaching      Concept mapping                                                                0.57        168-169


                                                                                     .
Source: Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievementJohn Hattie, 2009.
                                                                                                                                 2
                                              Meta-Analyses of 138 Influences Relating to Achievement
   34   Teaching    Goals                                                                         0.56             163
   35   Curricula   Visual-perception programs                                                    0.55           130-131
   36   Teaching    Peer tutoring                                                                 0.55           186-187
   37   Teaching    Cooperative vs. competitive learning                                          0.54           212-214
   38   Student     Pre-term birth weight                                                         0.54            51-52
   39   School      Classroom cohesion                                                            0.53             103
   40   Teaching    Keller's PIS                                                                  0.53             171
   41   School      Peer influences                                                               0.53           104-105
   42   School      Classroom management                                                          0.53             102
   43   Curricula   Outdoor/adventure programs                                                    0.52           156-157
   44   Teaching    Interactive video methods                                                     0.52           228-229
   45   Home        Parental involvement                                                          0.52            68-70
   46   Curricula   Play programs                                                                 0.51           154-155
   47   Curricula   Second/third chance programs                                                  0.50           139-140
   48   School      Small group learning                                                          0.49            94-95
   49   Student     Concentration/persistence/engagement                                          0.48            49-53
   50   School      School effects                                                                0.48           72-107
   51   Student     Motivation                                                                    0.48          47-9, 175
   52   Student     Early intervention                                                            0.47            58, 68
   53   Teaching    Questioning                                                                   0.46           182-183
   54   Curricula   Mathematics                                                                   0.45           144-145
   55   Student     Preschool programs                                                            0.45            58-60
   56   Teacher     Quality of teaching                                                           0.44      34-35, 92, 115-118
   57   Curricula   Writing programs                                                              0.44           141-143
   58   Teacher     Expectations                                                                  0.43           121-124
   59   School      School size                                                                   0.43            79-80
   60   Student     Self-concept                                                                  0.43            46-47
   61   Teaching    Behavioral organizers/Adjunct questions                                       0.41           167-168
   62   Teaching    Matching style learning                                                       0.41           195-197
   63   Teaching    Cooperative learning                                                          0.41              41
   64   Curricula   Science                                                                       0.40           147-149
   65   Curricula   Social skills program                                                         0.40           149-151
   66   Student     Reducing anxiety                                                              0.40            49-50
   67   Curricula   integrated curriculum programs                                                0.39             130


                                                                                     .
Source: Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievementJohn Hattie, 2009.
                                                                                                                                     3
                                              Meta-Analyses of 138 Influences Relating to Achievement
   68   School      Enrichment                                                                    0.39           101-102
   69   Curricula   Career interventions                                                          0.38           151-152
   70   Teaching    Time on task                                                                  0.38           184-228
   71   Teaching    Computer assisted instruction                                                 0.37           220-222
   72   Teaching    Adjunct aids                                                                  0.37           207-208
   73   Curricula   Bilingual programs                                                            0.37           158-159
   74   School      Principals/school leaders                                                     0.36            83-85
   75   Student     Attitude to mathematics/science                                               0.36            50-51
   76   Curricula   Exposure to reading                                                           0.36           138-139
   77   Curricula   Drama/arts programs                                                           0.35           143-144
   78   Curricula   Creativity                                                                    0.35              44
   79   Teaching    Frequent/effects of testing                                                   0.34           178-179
   80   School      Decreasing Disruptive Behavior                                                0.33           103-104
   81   Student     Drugs                                                                         0.33            53-54
   82   Teaching    Simulations                                                                   0.33           230-231
   83   Teaching    Inductive teaching                                                            0.32             208
   84   Student     Positive view of own ethnicity                                                0.32              57
   85   Teacher     Teacher effects                                                               0.32       16, 22-24, 34-35
   86   Teaching    Inquiry based teaching                                                        0.30           208-210
   87   School      Ability grouping for gifted Students                                          0.29            99-100
   88   Teaching    Homework                                                                      0.29 8-10, 17-20, 68-70, 234-236
   89   Home        Home visiting                                                                 0.28              70
   90   Student     Exercise/relaxation                                                           0.28              53
   91   School      Desegrgation                                                                  0.28            78-79
   92   School      Mainstreaming                                                                 0.28            95-96
   93   Curricula   Use of calculators                                                            0.27           145-147
   94   Curricula   Values/moral education programs                                               0.24             149
   95   Teaching    Programmed instruction                                                        0.24           231-232
   96   Teaching    Special college programs                                                      0.24             219
   97   Teaching    Competitive vs. individualistic learning                                      0.24             214
   98   School      Summer school                                                                 0.23              77
   99   School      Finances                                                                      0.23            73-75
  100   Teaching    Individualized instruction                                                    0.23           198, 241
  101   School      Religious Schools                                                             0.23            76-77


                                                                                     .
Source: Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievementJohn Hattie, 2009.
                                                                                                                               4
                                              Meta-Analyses of 138 Influences Relating to Achievement
  102   Student     Lack of Illness                                                               0.23             52
  103   Teaching    Teaching test taking                                                          0.22          179-181
  104   Teaching    Visual/audio-visual methods                                                   0.22           22-26
  105   Teaching    Comprehensive teaching reforms                                                0.22            215
  106   School      Class size                                                                    0.21           85-88
  107   School      Charter Schools                                                               0.21           75-76
  108   Teaching    Aptitude/treatment interactions                                               0.19          194-195
  109   Student     Personality                                                                   0.19           45-46
  110   Teaching    Learning hierarchies                                                          0.19            169
  111   Teaching    Co-/team teaching                                                             0.19            219
  112   Teaching    Web-based learning                                                            0.18          227-228
  113   Home        Family sturcture                                                              0.17           64-66
  114   Curricula   Extra-curricular programs                                                     0.17            159
  115   Teaching    Teacher immediacy                                                             0.16          183-184
  116   School      Within class grouping                                                         0.16           93-94
  117   Teaching    Home-school programs                                                          0.16          233-234
  118   Teaching    Problem-based learning                                                        0.15          210-212
  119   Curricula   Sentence combining programs                                                   0.15            134
  120   Teaching    Mentoring                                                                     0.15          187-188
  121   School      Ability grouping                                                              0.12           89-91
  122   Student     Gender                                                                        0.12       55-57, 96, 222
  123   Student     Diet                                                                          0.12           52-53
  124   Teacher     Teacher training                                                              0.11          109-112
  125   Teacher     Teacher subject matter knowledge                                              0.09            113
  126   Teaching    Distance Education                                                            0.09          232-233
  127   School      Out of school curricula experiences                                           0.09             82
  128   Curricula   Perceptual-Motor programs                                                     0.08            153
  129   Curricula   Whole Language                                                                0.06            137
  130   School      College halls of residence                                                    0.05             79
  131   School      Multi-grade/age classes                                                       0.04           91-93
  132   Teaching    Student control over learning                                                 0.04      48, 193-194, 225
  133   School      Open vs. traditional                                                          0.01           88-89
  134   School      Summer vacation                                                              -0.09           80-81
  135   Home        Welfare policies                                                             -0.12           63-64


                                                                                     .
Source: Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievementJohn Hattie, 2009.
                                                                                                                    5
                                              Meta-Analyses of 138 Influences Relating to Achievement
  136 School       Retention                                                                     -0.16      97-99
  137 Home         Television                                                                    -0.18      67-68
  138 School       Mobility                                                                      -0.34      81-82




                                                                                     .
Source: Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievementJohn Hattie, 2009.
                                                                                                            6
                                              Meta-Analyses of 138 Influences Relating to Achievement




            Key
       Desired Effects
       Teacher Effects
Developmental Effects
      Revserse Effects
1 d = approx. 2 yrs. Growth




                                                                                     .
Source: Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievementJohn Hattie, 2009.
                                                                                                                        7
                                              Meta-Analyses of 138 Influences Relating to Achievement
Rank Domain                                      Influence                                              d     Page(s)
 121 School         Ability grouping                                                                   0.12    89-91
  87 School         Ability grouping for gifted Students                                               0.29   99-100
   5 School         Acceleration                                                                       0.88   100-101
  72 Teaching       Adjunct aids                                                                       0.37   207-208
 108 Teaching       Aptitude/treatment interactions                                                    0.19   194-195
  75 Student        Attitude to mathematics/science                                                    0.36    50-51
  61 Teaching       Behavioral organizers/Adjunct questions                                            0.41   167-168
  73 Curricula      Bilingual programs                                                                 0.37   158-159
  69 Curricula      Career interventions                                                               0.38   151-152
 107 School         Charter Schools                                                                    0.21    75-76
 106 School         Class size                                                                         0.21    85-88
   6 School         Classroom behavioral                                                               0.80     167
  39 School         Classroom cohesion                                                                 0.53     103
  42 School         Classroom management                                                               0.53     102
 111 Teaching       Co-/team teaching                                                                  0.19     219
 130 School         College halls of residence                                                         0.05     79
  97 Teaching       Competitive vs. individualistic learning                                           0.24     214
  28 Curricula      Comprehension programs                                                             0.58   217-219
   7 Teaching       Comprehensive interventions for learning disabled students                         0.77   217-219
 105 Teaching       Comprehensive teaching reforms                                                     0.22     215
  71 Teaching       Computer assisted instruction                                                      0.37   220-222
  49 Student        Concentration/persistence/engagement                                               0.48    49-53
  33 Teaching       Concept mapping                                                                    0.57   168-169
  63 Teaching       Cooperative learning                                                               0.41     41
  37 Teaching       Cooperative vs. competitive learning                                               0.54   212-214
  24 Teaching       Cooperative vs. individualistic learning                                           0.59   212-214
  78 Curricula      Creativity                                                                         0.35     44
  17 Curricula      Creativity programs                                                                0.65     155
  80 School         Decreasing Disruptive Behavior                                                     0.33   103-104
  91 School         Desegrgation                                                                       0.28    78-79
 123 Student        Diet                                                                               0.12    52-53
  26 Teaching       Direct instruction                                                                 0.59   204-207
 126 Teaching       Distance Education                                                                 0.09   232-233


                                                                                     .
Source: Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievementJohn Hattie, 2009.
                                                                                                                                            8
                                              Meta-Analyses of 138 Influences Relating to Achievement
   77   Curricula   Drama/arts programs                                                                0.35             143-144
   81   Student     Drugs                                                                              0.33              53-54
   52   Student     Early intervention                                                                 0.47              58, 68
   68   School      Enrichment                                                                         0.39             101-102
   90   Student     Exercise/relaxation                                                                0.28                53
   58   Teacher     Expectations                                                                       0.43             121-124
   76   Curricula   Exposure to reading                                                                0.36             138-139
  114   Curricula   Extra-curricular programs                                                          0.17               159
  113   Home        Family sturcture                                                                   0.17              64-66
   10   Teacher     Feedback                                                                           0.73             173-178
   99   School      Finances                                                                           0.23              73-75
   79   Teaching    Frequent/effects of testing                                                        0.34             178-179
  122   Student     Gender                                                                             0.12          55-57, 96, 222
   34   Teaching    Goals                                                                              0.56               163
   31   Home        Home environment                                                                   0.57              61-71
   89   Home        Home visiting                                                                      0.28                70
  117   Teaching    Home-school programs                                                               0.16             233-234
   88   Teaching    Homework                                                                           0.29   8-10, 17-20, 68-70, 234-236
  100   Teaching    Individualized instruction                                                         0.23             198, 241
   83   Teaching    Inductive teaching                                                                 0.32               208
   86   Teaching    Inquiry based teaching                                                             0.30             208-210
   67   Curricula   integrated curriculum programs                                                     0.39               130
   44   Teaching    Interactive video methods                                                          0.52             228-229
   40   Teaching    Keller's PIS                                                                       0.53               171
  102   Student     Lack of Illness                                                                    0.23                52
  110   Teaching    Learning hierarchies                                                               0.19               169
   92   School      Mainstreaming                                                                      0.28              95-96
   29   Teaching    Mastery learning                                                                   0.58            170-1,224
   62   Teaching    Matching style learning                                                            0.41             195-197
   54   Curricula   Mathematics                                                                        0.45             144-145
  120   Teaching    Mentoring                                                                          0.15             187-188
   13   Teaching    Meta-cognative strategies                                                          0.69             188-189
    4   Teacher     Micro teaching                                                                     0.88               112
  138   School      Mobility                                                                          -0.34              81-82


                                                                                     .
Source: Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievementJohn Hattie, 2009.
                                                                                                                                   9
                                              Meta-Analyses of 138 Influences Relating to Achievement
   51   Student     Motivation                                                                         0.48       47-9, 175
  131   School      Multi-grade/age classes                                                            0.04         91-93
   21   Teacher     Not Labeling students                                                              0.61        124-125
  133   School      Open vs. traditional                                                               0.01         88-89
  127   School      Out of school curricula experiences                                                0.09           82
   43   Curricula   Outdoor/adventure programs                                                         0.52        156-157
   45   Home        Parental involvement                                                               0.52         68-70
   41   School      Peer influences                                                                    0.53        104-105
   36   Teaching    Peer tutoring                                                                      0.55        186-187
  128   Curricula   Perceptual-Motor programs                                                          0.08          153
  109   Student     Personality                                                                        0.19         45-46
   22   Curricula   Phonics instruction                                                                0.60        132-134
    2   Student     Piagetian programs                                                                 1.28           43
   46   Curricula   Play programs                                                                      0.51        154-155
   84   Student     Positive view of own ethnicity                                                     0.32           57
   55   Student     Preschool programs                                                                 0.45         58-60
   38   Student     Pre-term birth weight                                                              0.54         51-52
   74   School      Principals/school leaders                                                          0.36         83-85
   14   Student     Prior achievement                                                                  0.67     32, 40, 41-42
  118   Teaching    Problem-based learning                                                             0.15        210-212
   20   Teaching    Problem-solving teaching                                                           0.61          210
   19   Teacher     Professional Development                                                           0.62          119
   95   Teaching    Programmed instruction                                                             0.24        231-232
    3   Teaching    Providing formative evaluation                                                     0.90       181--183
   56   Teacher     Quality of teaching                                                                0.44   34-35, 92, 115-118
   53   Teaching    Questioning                                                                        0.46        182-183
    9   Teaching    Reciprocal teaching                                                                0.74        203-204
   66   Student     Reducing anxiety                                                                   0.40         49-50
  101   School      Religious Schools                                                                  0.23         76-77
   16   Curricula   Repeated reading programs                                                          0.67          135
  136   School      Retention                                                                         -0.16         97-99
   50   School      School effects                                                                     0.48        72-107
   59   School      School size                                                                        0.43         79-80
   64   Curricula   Science                                                                            0.40        147-149


                                                                                     .
Source: Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievementJohn Hattie, 2009.
                                                                                                                                 10
                                              Meta-Analyses of 138 Influences Relating to Achievement
   47   Curricula   Second/third chance programs                                                       0.50       139-140
   60   Student     Self-concept                                                                       0.43        46-47
    1   Student     Self-report grades                                                                 1.44        43-44
   18   Teaching    Self-verbalization/self-questioning                                                0.64       192-193
  119   Curricula   Sentence combining programs                                                        0.15         134
   82   Teaching    Simulations                                                                        0.33       230-231
   48   School      Small group learning                                                               0.49        94-95
   65   Curricula   Social skills program                                                              0.40       149-151
   32   Home        Socioeconomic status                                                               0.57        61-63
   12   Teaching    Spaced vs. mass practice                                                           0.71    185-186, 242
   96   Teaching    Special college programs                                                           0.24         219
  132   Teaching    Student control over learning                                                      0.04   48, 193-194, 225
   25   Teaching    Study skills                                                                       0.59       189-192
   98   School      Summer school                                                                      0.23          77
  134   School      Summer vacation                                                                   -0.09        80-81
   27   Curricula   Tactile simulation programs                                                        0.58       153-154
    8   Teacher     Teacher clarity                                                                    0.75       125-126
   85   Teacher     Teacher effects                                                                    0.32   16, 22-24, 34-35
  115   Teaching    Teacher immediacy                                                                  0.16       183-184
  125   Teacher     Teacher subject matter knowledge                                                   0.09         113
  124   Teacher     Teacher training                                                                   0.11       109-112
   11   Teacher     Teacher-student relationships                                                      0.72         118
   23   Teaching    Teaching strategies                                                                0.60       200-203
  103   Teaching    Teaching test taking                                                               0.22       179-181
  137   Home        Television                                                                        -0.18        67-68
   70   Teaching    Time on task                                                                       0.38       184-228
   93   Curricula   Use of calculators                                                                 0.27       145-147
   94   Curricula   Values/moral education programs                                                    0.24         149
  104   Teaching    Visual/audio-visual methods                                                        0.22        22-26
   35   Curricula   Visual-perception programs                                                         0.55       130-131
   15   Curricula   Vocabulary programs                                                                0.67         131
  112   Teaching    Web-based learning                                                                 0.18       227-228
  135   Home        Welfare policies                                                                  -0.12        63-64
  129   Curricula   Whole Language                                                                     0.06         137


                                                                                     .
Source: Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievementJohn Hattie, 2009.
                                                                                                                        11
                                              Meta-Analyses of 138 Influences Relating to Achievement
  116 School    Within class grouping                                                                  0.16    93-94
   30 Teaching Worked examples                                                                         0.57   172-173
   57 Curricula Writing programs                                                                       0.44   141-143




                                                                                     .
Source: Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievementJohn Hattie, 2009.
                                                                                                            12
                                              Meta-Analyses of 138 Influences Relating to Achievement
            Key
       Desired Effects
       Teacher Effects
   Developmental Effects
      Revserse Effects
1 d = approx. 2 yrs. Growth




                                                                                     .
Source: Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievementJohn Hattie, 2009.

				
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