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EXAMINERS REPORT ON 2004 TERTIARY ENTRANCE EXAMINATION

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EXAMINERS REPORT ON 2004 TERTIARY ENTRANCE EXAMINATION Powered By Docstoc
					EXAMINERS’ REPORT ON 2004 TERTIARY ENTRANCE EXAMINATION SUBJECT: ART STATISTICS Year 2004 2003 2002 Number Who Sat 917 1061 1076 Non-Examination Candidates 47 78 76 Did Not Sit 190 97 83

The Examiners’ Report is written by the Chief Examiner (or another Examiner on their behalf) to comment on matters relating to the Tertiary Entrance Examination in their subject. The opinions and recommendations expressed in this report are those of the Chief Examiner and not necessarily representative of or endorsed by the Curriculum Council. The Marking Guide provided at the end of this report was prepared for markers and may have been substantially amplified by discussions held in the pre-marking meeting. It is not intended as a set of model answers, and is not exhaustive as regards alternative answers. Some of the answers are less than perfect, but represent a standard of response that the examiners deemed sufficient to earn full marks. Teachers who use this guide should do so with its original purpose in mind.

SUMMARY/ABSTRACT Art History The two and one half hour paper with three sections allowed the candidates to demonstrate their visual literacy skills in response to unseen images in Section 1 (compulsory) and their knowledge and understanding of Australian Art (Section 2) and International Art (Section 3). The format of the paper was unchanged from previous years and appears to have been well received by the candidates. While Art has a major practical component, the conceptual and theoretically-based elements of the subject are not being overlooked by the State’s art teachers and their students. Markers reported that, in general, candidates handled the questions well, writing cogent answers across a wide range of themes. Analysis of the results shows that the markers were reliable and consistent, and the overall difficulty of the paper is almost exactly as recommended and consistent across sub-categories. In keeping with last year’s paper, the image-based questions required candidates to discuss contextual information to support the formal analysis of the illustrations provided in the accompanying booklet. While some students who selected these questions treated them in a purely formal way (the comparative visual analysis of composition, colour etc.), the more capable candidates were able to display their knowledge of relevant art historical contexts and theoretical ideas. Compared to last year’s paper, there was a trend away from answering the image-based questions. There has been no change in the popularity of questions, with Australian Art 1930-1960 being the most popular, and Western Australian Art and Design being the least. Visual Diaries Markers commented that generally there were more diaries in the sound to high range this year and fewer in the limited and inadequate range. This indicates that teachers and students are now clearer on the

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requirements of the Visual Diary. It was also noted that there were fewer in the outstanding range in comparison to the previous year. Overall, students scored well in the Organization criterion and many displayed a better grasp of the Discernment criterion, utilizing a range of media with considerable success.

GENERAL COMMENTS Art History The legibility of many students’ handwriting still proves a problem for markers. Although a candidate is not assessed on the presentation of written answers, illegibility hampers the marker’s ability to assess the candidate’s knowledge. Teachers should encourage students to forego individualised calligraphic styles in favour of more standardised handwriting. It was evident that many candidates planned their answers before attempting each question. Such planning enables candidates to present a more cogent, well-constructed argument and teachers should encourage their students to continue this practice. Visual Diaries Overall, the Visual Diaries this year displayed a sound standard, reflecting the general trend of improvement over the last couple of years. Markers noted that the more capable students were able to communicate a personal voice through their Visual Diaries, making them stronger, more meaningful and authentic documents. Related to this was the recognition by markers of a number of successful student briefs that encouraged experimentation and exploration. On the whole, art history interrelationships were well handled and in some studio areas, particularly Textiles, there was an increased amount of real exploration of media within the studio area. Markers noted an increase in the number of diaries in the sound to high range and fewer in the inadequate range. Markers were unanimous in their identification of a number of serious concerns in regard to using borrowed imagery, poorly written student briefs and poor quality photographs of studio work. Of greatest concern is the lack of drawing from life and the increased amount of copying from magazine images, photographs and media generated images. Students need to be supplied with project briefs predominantly specifying drawing from life as a means of investigation, exploration and development of ideas. A number of briefs provided students with little or no opportunity for drawing from life, with the result that students had very little chance of success in the project. Markers also identified that a number of briefs were overly complex in the concepts students were expected to grasp. Some were too broad, too nebulous or provided insufficient structure upon which the students might build a meaningful investigation. In some cases, projects were without briefs, therefore providing no direction for students and obviously creating problems for markers. A number of issues arose over photographs of studio works. Many students are now using digital photographs in their diaries, but these photographs vary enormously in quality. Some have very poor resolution or are printed on inferior quality paper resulting in an image that is almost impossible to view. Added to this is the fact that many photos do not show the works in context, giving no indication of size, scale or even, in the case of digital prints and particularly in the Graphic Design area, any evidence that the studio piece was actually made. Teachers are advised to recommend that students photograph their studio pieces in the context of a physical space (e.g. the school exhibition) and ensure that the images are printed onto good quality paper, clearly indicating the appearance of the work. Although the changes made to the studio requirements this year addressed some existing concerns within the Graphic Design area, there are still identifiable problems within the Interrelationships and Visual Language criteria. It is vital that Graphic Design students show clear links to their visual inquiry, design development and art history interrelationships in their final studio piece. In terms of visual language, they must clearly display the evolutionary process from drawing to final product. Markers expressed concern that whilst appropriate inquiry and design development was evident in Graphic Design diaries, in many cases the final studio piece did not reflect this investigation and often contained imagery obtained from other sources e.g. photographs and media generated images.
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The issue of multiple diaries arose again this year, particularly in the Textiles and Sculpture studio areas. The majority of these multiple diaries lacked discernment and consistency, and indicated students needed assistance with selectivity. Students need to be encouraged to include their best and most relevant work in their Visual Diaries. Markers noted the frequency of multiple photocopied pages with designs simply rendered in different colour schemes, and the appearance of multiple pages of life drawings, many of which were repetitive or irrelevant to the final studio design. Also of concern was the reappearance of inappropriate media tests in sculpture diaries (e.g. pieces of metal, clay, wood, tiles etc.) which are overly bulky and often quite undiscerning. It is recommended that teachers assist students with selectivity and encourage them to be more discerning in the final preparation of their Visual Diaries.

COMMENTS ON SPECIFIC SECTIONS/QUESTIONS ART HISTORY SECTION 1 IMAGE ANALYSIS This is the compulsory section of the paper and many students were able to display their ability to analyse the images without resorting to formulaic responses of design elements. The inclusion of an image from outside the period of study (i.e. prior to the late-eighteenth century) was unusual and was debated at some length by the examiners. However, it did not appear to prejudice students. The great majority of candidates were able to correctly identify image B as being either from the pre-modern period or correctly identify its stylistic attributes. Generally, candidates found the images easy to compare and contrast, with the better candidates discussing theoretical issues associated with portraiture, and the different notions of self and subjectivity exemplified in the artworks.

SECTION 2 AUSTRALIAN ART Australian Art 1930-1960 was again the most popular question in this section (391 attempts). However, the popularity of the Heidelberg School and its Precursors was still evident this year (361 attempts). By contrast, 107 students attempted Australian Art Since 1960, and only 14 attempted Western Australian Art and Design. Candidates who did answer these less popular themes scored above average, with those answering the latter scoring well above average. The image-based questions were, as usual, very popular. However, there seems to be a trend away from this question. This suggests that students felt more able to display their knowledge through the broader contextual fields than in the restrictions imposed by particular artists’ works. Australian Art 1930–1960 Question 2 (146 attempts, 54.3% mean) was not as popular as last year, when it was the most popular question (with 274 attempts). While the analysis of the image was relatively well handled, many candidates found difficulty contextualising their response in terms of Australian moderism. Question 3 was the most popular question in this section and the second most popular question in the paper (Q3 196 attempts, 61.77% mean). It was also relatively well handled by students. Question 4 proved the least popular question in this section (49 attempts, 60.00% mean). Australian Art Since 1960 The image-based question (5) was less popular than last year (31 attempts, 52.64% mean). Question 6 was the most popular question (59 attempts, 65.96% mean). Students interpreted the meaning of marginalisation rather widely, but answered the question well. Rapp-Brown, Bennett and Parr, it appears, are Australia’s most marginalised artists. Only 17 students attempted Question 7, but they answered it well (64.23% mean). The Heidelberg School and its Precursors Question 8 was the fourth most popular question in this section (109 attempts, 53.35% mean). This was well down from last year (314 attempts, 57% mean). Question 9 was the second most popular question of this section and the most popular of this theme (170 attempts, 61.15% mean). While students generally took up the spirit of the question, some seemed to not understand the meaning and function of myth
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(especially in regard to the Australian bush myth). Question 10 (82 attempts, 58.39% mean) was obviously seen by candidates as the most difficult question in this theme. Western Australian Art and Design With only 14 attempts in this section, the statistics are difficult to interpret (Question 11 – 1 attempt, 28%; Question 12 - 8 attempts, 74% mean; Question 13 –5 attempts, 72.8% mean). While the low number of attempts might call into the question the viability of this theme, they attracted the highest scoring answers in the whole paper. Candidates who answered this question had clearly been inspired by the opportunity to study local artists and were able to bring a depth of understanding to the subject.

SECTION 3 INTERNATIONAL ART Impressionism and its Context still proves to be the most popular theme in this section and indeed the whole paper, with a total of 344 candidates attempting questions. However, this is down somewhat from last year (414 attempts). Dada and Surrealism was the next most popular theme (288 attempts – about the same as last year). Modern Design is still the least popular with only 28 students attempting the questions (slightly less than last year). As with last year, the image-based questions were not the most frequently attempted questions in this section. Art and Social Comment in the 19th Century As with last year, Question 14 was not answered well by candidates (26 attempts; 49.84% mean) with many finding difficulty placing the meaning of the images in a social context and reading the images too generally. Question 15 was reasonably well answered by those who attempted it (25 attempts; 61.92% mean). Not many candidates answered Question 16, probably because it dealt with abstract ideas. However it attracted the better candidates, and was very well answered (19 attempts, 69.05% mean). Art, Technology and Utopia As with last year, this theme was again one of the less popular themes (56 attempts, down from 64 last year). Question 17 attracted 9 attempts and was poorly answered (46.6% mean). Question 18 (33 attempts, 68.48% mean) was the most popular question in this section, and was well answered. Again the more abstract ideas it addressed probably attracted the better candidates. The final question in this theme, Question 19, attracted 24 candidates and was not well answered (53.42% mean). Dada and Surrealism The image-based question (20) was not well answered by candidates (76 attempts, 50.63 mean) with many failing to address the question fully. Question 21 proved the second most popular question in this section (122 attempts, 60.78% mean). Question 22 was well answered by the candidates (90 attempts, 63.3% mean). Impressionism and its Context This was by far the most popular theme in this section and indeed of the whole paper. In total, 97 candidates attempted the image-based question (23) (down from 127 last year). However, the question was not well handled (53.36% mean) with many students being too generalised in their answers. Only 16 candidates attempted Question 24, probably because it required a good knowledge of techniques. However, it was well answered (65.5% mean). Question 25 was easily the most popular in this section and the whole paper (231 attempts, 61.99% mean) and was reasonably well handled. Modern Design Question 26 attracted only 17 attempts (58.11% mean). Question 27 was the least popular in this theme (2 attempts, 68% mean) while question 28 attracted 9 attempts (61.33% mean). Pop Art This theme attracted 88 candidates. The image-based Question (29) was the most popular in this theme (38 attempts, 54.73% mean). Question 30 was the least popular in this theme, with only 17 attempts (63.76% mean). Question 31 (33 attempts 64.96% mean) was the best-answered question in this theme. As usual, it would appear that the better students avoided the image-based question.
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VISUAL DIARIES COMMENTS ON MARKING CRITERIA Organisation Markers agreed unanimously that this criterion was well handled and that students and teachers now have a clear understanding of appropriate layout and sequencing of ideas within the document. In general, diaries displayed authenticity and consistency, however, some indicated that projects had been swapped around and some displayed a very brief project 3. Some diaries displayed ‘over-presentation,’ with excessive amounts of coloured borders, framing of pages or decorating (e.g. pointless machine stitching decorating each page). Students need to be encouraged to make better use of their time and must be made aware that markers are not swayed by this ‘over-presentation.’ Teachers are reminded to discourage cutting, pasting and rearranging drawings on pages and to encourage students to utilize whole pages from the outset, developing sensitivity and a personal aesthetic. The poorly written student brief continues to be the greatest hindrance to student success in the Visual Diary. Teachers must provide briefs that are clear, achievable by all students, broad enough to encourage personal investigation, and provide plenty of opportunity for drawing from life. Briefs with themes like mythology, symbolism, witchcraft and dreams do not provide students with enough opportunity for drawing from life and leading on to meaningful personal exploration. A number of diaries contained projects with no briefs, therefore providing no direction for students and making it difficult for markers. Photographs of studio pieces need to be clear and must show the work in context. For 2005, it is suggested that students include photographs of their studio pieces in the context of the final art display/ exhibition at the conclusion of their Visual Diary to give an indication of scale, and as proof that the pieces were actually completed. Discernment In general, markers noted an overall improvement in this criterion, with many students, particularly in the Textiles area, engaging in real exploration of related media. However, there is still a problem with selectivity, as many students appear to be opting for quantity rather than quality, particularly in the cases of multiple diaries. It is of concern that many diaries, particularly in the Painting area, do not contain enough exploration of appropriate media. It is imperative that the concerns of the studio area are addressed and real exploration takes place so that students are using their Visual Diary as a site for experimentation, visual thinking and development of a personal style to communicate meaning. Studies of relevant artists and artworks can provide strong and meaningful starting points for exploration of media. Teachers are encouraged to provide students with opportunities to study techniques of artists to assist them in developing a grasp of media within their studio area. Visiting artists, artist-in-residency programmes and gallery visits can give students first hand experience with different approaches to use of media. Visual Language Markers commented that many students are still writing far too much that is unnecessary in their Visual Diaries. Written annotations should be analytical rather than descriptive and should demonstrate an understanding of art language, avoiding repetitious formulae. Annotations should highlight the visual aspects of the diary and should help to enrich the student’s visual language demonstrated. It is also evident that many annotations are written retrospectively and appear to be written to the marker. Annotations, where necessary, should be brief, succinct and should help the student to organise ideas. In addition, they should not interfere with the aesthetics of the pages. Also noted was the fact that there was little evidence of discussion of the techniques and processes associated with studio areas. Markers indicated that more capable students were able to communicate a personal voice through their design development, demonstrating a meaningful engagement with the project and its evolution of ideas.
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Stronger students displayed conceptual design development and a range of alternative design ideas in the development of their diaries. However, markers observed a tendency for many students to explore ideas only superficially and to ignore the opportunity provided by the diary to explore a range of solutions to design problems. Many stopped at the first idea arrived at, and often the resulting studio design was limited. It is recommended that teachers provide greater guidance in helping students to avoid clichés and to develop greater sophistication in their ideas. Interrelationships This criterion was handled with varying success. Better students were able to demonstrate strong links in their Visual Diaries between their inquiry, critical/historical interrelationships, design development and final studio designs. Markers observed that, while better students drew from a diverse range of artists, styles and art forms and were able to synthesise these to form a coherent and personally authentic body of work, weaker students displayed a tendency to use inappropriate, unhelpful or irrelevant artistic influences. In many cases, no real analysis of the themes, techniques or ideas behind the artworks studied took place. Markers observed a number of diaries where the students had not engaged with artists working within their studio discipline and consequently, their influences tended to be superficial. For example, it is vital that painting students study painters, textiles students study textile artists, ceramics students study ceramicists and graphic design students study graphic designers. Of concern were a number of projects in diaries that began with a large number of pages studying a range of different artistic styles in great depth with very little of this work flowing through to the students’ resulting projects. This was seen to be counter-productive and time wasting, and often the information was lifted directly from books or the Internet with very little evidence of students’ analytical responses or understanding of the artists’ work. Critical/historical interrelationships must be meaningful and must demonstrate a personal response by the student to the artist(s) studied, before they are appropriately reflected in the final studio design. It was pleasing to note that the majority of students are now engaging in personal reflection and critical response to their own artworks in progress and on completion of their studio pieces. Some final reflections, however, were overly long and tend to be simply descriptive. Students need to be guided in effectively and analytically articulating their thought processes. Drawing Markers noted unanimously that there were many concerns with this criterion and that performances varied greatly. Without exception, diaries that included teacher-directed, rigorous, well-planned and structured drawing experiences faired better than those where students were left to their own devices to complete their inquiry. Many students are still simply copying from photographs, magazines and mediagenerated imagery, and many briefs do not provide sufficient guidance for students’ drawing. Markers emphasised that teachers need to actively teach drawing to all students, particularly those with weak skills or very little art experience. As in previous years, markers strongly recommended that students draw in styles appropriate to their studio disciplines. For example, students working in the disciplines of sculpture and ceramics should display a strong understanding of form through their drawings. Markers stressed the need for teachers to revisit the elaborations of the Drawing criterion within the syllabus. Students need to be able to represent objects/people/environments using a variety of media and techniques, see and record objects/people/environments at first hand (not from reproductions or photographs), use drawings and their own photographs to explain, clarify or develop ideas and concepts, and produce personal drawings with evidence of the use of different media, techniques or contexts to produce new results. It must be emphasised that drawing predominantly from sources other than life will disadvantage students. It was suggested that teachers should aim to provide students with manageable but interesting drawing experiences, with a vital, exciting approach. Finally, it must be reiterated that still life refers to a group of objects, not simply one or two objects floating on a page with no acknowledgement of surrounding space. Students should be encouraged to
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spend longer on drawings to solve technical problems and to demonstrate their skill and learning, as this will be rewarded by markers.

POINTS FOR CONSIDERATION BY THE SYLLABUS COMMITTEE As in previous years, the low number of students attempting Western Australian Art and Design and Modern Design doesn’t warrant the time and energy spent of preparing the questions. However, it is noted that the few who did attempt the former theme performed exceptionally well, with the answers indicating that candidates benefited from studying local artists and issues. We wish to acknowledge the hard work and commitment of the examining panel and markers for this year’s paper and visual diaries. It is an additional commitment on top of people’s workload at the end of the year and all markers should be commended for their commitment to the discipline.

Dr Ian McLean and Ms Lisa Young December 2004

2004 Examining Panel Chief Examiner: Dr Ian McLean Deputy: Dr Ann Schilo Third Member: Ms Lisa Young Chief Markers: Art History – Mr Tad Bak Art Visual Diaries –Ms Lisa Young

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Art TEE 2004 Marking Guide
Markers are reminded that the overall objective of the TEE is to rank candidates. The main objective of the art history examination is to test candidates’ knowledge and understanding of visual culture and their critical analysis skills. References to personal experiences in the use of techniques and/or media should be rewarded, as should evidence of broad purposeful reading around a topic. Well expressed and original critical responses to works of art or particular topics should be rewarded. In marking answers based on the analysis of art works (see Illustration Booklet), it should be remembered that candidates are not required to date or title art works. If a candidate provides dates and titles, it may be considered as either evidence of sound contextual knowledge, or as rote learning. Markers will have to make a judgement about this. Markers should penalise evidence of rote learning by awarding less than best marks however ‘successfully’ the candidate has dealt with the question in other respects. Answers which provide evidence that a candidate has undertaken the course from a limited reference base (use of inappropriate or very common examples) should receive careful attention. Markers are encouraged to use positive methods of controlling the range of marks (e.g. by concurrently marking several answers to the same question). It is essential that the whole marks range from 1 to 25 be used. A full spread of marks allows the art history examination to play its full part in the overall ranking of TEE candidates.

DISCLAIMER The following information provides a basis for discussion at markers’ meetings and training workshops at which the questions and expectations of candidates will be discussed. It is not possible to provide a simple model of a successful ‘right’ answer for examination questions as there are several ways to successfully answer each question. It is therefore the responsibility of the marker to assess the overall achievement of each candidate using this information as a guide.

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Art TEE 2004 Marking Guide
GENERAL INFORMATION Image analysis Objective: - Demonstrate the use of critical language skills for describing, interpreting and evaluating works of art. Strategy: - Compare works to describe similarities/differences in subject, style, technique, content and to judge the success or otherwise of the works. Analysis and synthesis of elements to interpret and judge the works. Outcome: - An individual response using critical language to interpret and make judgements which are supported by visual evidence from the works under consideration. Essay (Images Provided) Objective: - Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of both Australian and International art related to the themes selected for study. Strategy: - Compare works to identify similarities/differences in subject, style, technique, content. Art historical and contextual knowledge is applied in the analysis of works. Analysis of organisational principles which are historically/contextually influenced. Outcome: - An individual response using the language of art history and criticism which draws on knowledge and understanding of the selected themes. Essay Objective: - Synthesise knowledge and understanding in both Australian and International art in the discussion of general art historical/contextual concerns related to selected themes. Strategy: - Discuss, or explain the production and reception of art works. Make connections and see relationships between art, artists and society. Recognise how the social and historical contexts of the visual arts. - Analysis and synthesis of relationships, knowledge and understanding to construct an argument or express a point of view. Outcome: - A fluent and well considered response which relates artists and artworks to relevant artistic, historical, social, political or economic contexts.

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Art TEE 2004 Marking Guide
CRITERIA FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF ART HISTORY

ART HISTORY - Analysis /Synthesis - Knowledge/Understanding - Use of Appropriate Art language - Literacy Skills Analysis/Synthesis Analysis refers to the ability to separate the whole art work into its parts and to explain the way in which the elements or parts are related or ordered to create form, content, meaning and expression. Synthesis refers to the ability to bring several elements into a new and meaningful whole. Analysis and synthesis tend to happen simultaneously in responding to art works. Knowledge/Understanding Refers to the candidate’s understanding of the ideas and issues embodied in the question and their ability to transfer relevant information to an answer which addresses the question which has been asked. Use of Appropriate Art Language The use of appropriate terms and concepts related to art making, aesthetics, art history and art criticism to describe and analyse art works and discuss broader contextual and critical concerns. Literary Skills Candidates’ written answers should reflect their ability to understand and use the conventions of standard English to convey meaning.

SCORING GUIDE Excellent High Sound Limited Inadequate 21 16 11 6 1 22 17 12 7 2 23 18 13 8 3 24 19 14 9 4 25 20 15 10 5

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Art TEE 2004 Marking Guide
SECTION 1 Question 1 Image A Image B Stelarc, Prosthetic Head, 2003 Albrecht Durer, Self portrait, 1500 IMAGE ANALYSIS

Compare the paintings (A) and (B) which suggest and reflect cultural, social and gender based issues. In your analysis of the works, give attention to the ways in which meaning is communicated to the viewer. A marking framework will be determined at the marker’s meeting/training workshop.

SECTION 2 Image C Image D

ESSAY Grace Cossington-Smith, The Bridge in-Curve, 1930 Margaret Preston, The Spit Bridge, 1927

Compare Images C (Cossington-Smith) and D (Preston), considering subject matter, style, composition and technique. Discuss the extent to which these images are representative of Modernism. Syllabus Statement: The development of styles based on artists’ encounters with abstract, expressionist and surrealist ideas …. While each movement embraced overseas trends and influences they did so in the context of local idioms by which they were able to construct unique variations of style. The study of the art of this period should be of interest to students because of the manner in which a new vision about the nature and idea of Australia was forged by artists. Students should be encouraged to investigate how the art of this period attempted to identify the ‘essential’ Australia through the adaptation of overseas styles, the use of symbols from the environment and the use of stories and myth to elaborate this vision. Key Content Points: The artists: - the demise of Arcadia and Romantic idealism - national identity (originality) - the universal and the regional (provincial) - emergence of significant women artists - influences of art from Europe, exhibitions, reproductions, migrants Key Arts and Movements: Grace Cossington-Smith, Margaret Preston Question 3 During this period, artists were motivated more by moral, psychological and political concerns than by composition and style. Discuss this statement in relation to two of the following artists: Sidney Nolan, John Perceval, Albert Tucker, Arthur Boyd Syllabus Statement: The development of styles based on artists' encounters with abstract, expressionist and surrealist ideas and the parallel development of social realism based on the experience of the Depression and consequent social and political change. While each movement embraced overseas trends and influences they did so in the context of local idioms by which they were able to construct unique variations of style.

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Art TEE 2004 Marking Guide
The study of the art of this period should be of interest to students because of the manner in which a new vision about the nature and idea of Australia was forged by artists. Students should be encouraged to investigate how the art of this period attempted to identify the "essential" Australia through the adaptation of overseas styles, the use of symbols from the environment and the use of stories and myth to elaborate this vision. Key Content Points: The elemental landscape; isolation and distance (the Outback, the Dead Heart, the Never Never) the imposition of the mythical and the visionary on the landscape national identity (originality) - the universal and the regional (provincial) Melbourne in the 1940s; the avant garde and intellectuals, the CAS and Herald Exhibition, the Angry Penguins; the rise of figurative expressionism and a "national" school influences of art from Europe, exhibitions, reproductions, migrants the effect of social and political unrest in Europe Freud, Surrealism and Expressionism Key Artists Movements: Sidney Nolan, Albert Tucker, Russell Drysdale, Noel Counihan, Josl Bergner, Arthur Boyd

Question 4 In what ways did artists in Australia use a local idiom to respond to modernist ideas from Europe? Refer to the works of two artists you have studied in this unit. Syllabus Statement: The development of styles based on artists' encounters with abstract, expressionist and surrealist ideas and the parallel development of social realism based on the experience of the Depression and consequent social and political change. While each movement embraced overseas trends and influences they did so in the context of local idioms by which they were able to construct unique variations of style. Key Content Points: Melbourne in the 1940s; the avant garde and intellectuals, the CAS and Herald Exhibition, the Angry Penguins; the rise of figurative expressionism and a "national" school The emergence of Sydney in the 1950s and the rise of modern abstraction; looking outwards to the world Nolan and Boyd; use of narrative of history, myths and legend and religious subjects; the place of humans in the landscape and folklore the urban response; John Brack, Clifton Pugh, Robert Dickerson The abstractionists; John Olsen, John Passmore and lan Fairweather influences of art from Europe, exhibitions, reproductions, migrants the effect of social and political unrest in Europe Freud, Surrealism and Expressionism Key Artists Movements: Sidney Nolan, Albert Tucker, Russell Drysdale, Noel Counihan, Josl Bergner, Arthur Boyd, Margaret Preston, Grace Cossington – Smith, Grace Crowley, The Procter, Elise Blumann

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Art TEE 2004 Marking Guide
Australian Art Since 1960 Question 5 Image E Image F Imants Tillers, The Nine Shots, 1985 Fred Williams, Red landscape, 1981

Discuss the different ways in which these two paintings E (Tillers) and F (Williams) contributed to Australia’s sense of place in the world and at home in the 1980s. You should consider each artist’s choice of subject matter and style, and the extent to which he has drawn on works by other artists. Syllabus Statements: The way that contemporary Australian artists describe the world provides valuable insights into life in Australia in the late twentieth century. In particular, the way that artists have addressed the issues of being Australian is an important part of how we view ourselves. During the period of post war economic boom Australians felt the impact of American culture and power through mass communications and marketing. In addition, the effect of a more open and diverse society since that time has created shifts in Australian identity which are presently evident in our community. The major focus of the study will be the way in which ideas and artistic styles have reached Australia and the ways in which they have been modified to suit local conditions. Students who undertake this option will be required to understand the influence and reception of international modernism and American post war art that developed in Australia after 1960. The work of American Abstract Expressionist and Pop artists should be contrasted with Australian artists working with similar styles. The manner in which these ideas were grafted onto the Australian landscape tradition by artists such as Fred Williams, John Olsen, Brett Whitely and Howard Taylor will be explored. Students should also be aware of the successive emergence of divergent styles and practices by artists such as Imants Tillers and Mike Parr who in recent years have challenged the role of the artist and the nature of art itself. Key Content Points: - the debate over Regionalism versus Internationalism - Re- conceiving the landscape: Fred Williams - Imants Tillers: How art arrives in Australia and is exported again Key Artists Fred Williams, Imants Tillers

Question 6 Over the past thirty years, marginal groups have had more of a voice in Australian art. Identify at least two artists you have studied this year who speak from a marginal position through their work. Discuss their themes and concerns and the way in which they communicate their messages, using specific examples of their artwork to support your answer. Syllabus Statements: The way that contemporary Australian artists describe the world provides valuable insights into life in Australia in the late twentieth century. In particular, the way that artists have addressed the issues of being Australian is an important part of how we view ourselves. During the period of post war economic boom Australians felt the impact of American culture and power through mass communications and marketing. In addition, the effect of a more open and diverse society since that time has created shifts in Australian identity which are presently evident in our community.
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Art TEE 2004 Marking Guide
Students should also be aware of the contribution of women and other groups in making a contribution to these changing attitudes through the appropriation of subject matter and techniques. In addition some reference to the re-emergence of the crafts and their importance to changing practices should be considered. Key Content Points: Male dominance in the national and international art scene of the sixties Feminist perspectives in the work of Jenny Watson, Julie Brown-Rrap and Miriam Stannage Multi - culturalism and the arts: working at the mar gins; the political art of Juan Davila; the emergence of Aboriginal artists, e.g Gordon Bennett,Trevor Nickolls. Key Artists Imants Tillers, Julie Brown-Rrap, Joan Campbell, Juan Davila, Gordon Bennett.

Question 7 Discuss the impact of globalisation and internationalism on Australian art in the last forty years. Your answer should refer to the work of at least two Australian artists. Syllabus Statement: The way that contemporary Australian artists describe the world provides valuable insights into life in Australia in the late twentieth century. In particular, the way that artists have addressed the issues of being Australian is an important part of how we view ourselves. During the period of post war economic boom Australians felt the impact of American culture and power through mass communications and marketing. In addition, the effect of a more open and diverse society since that time has created shifts in Australian identity which are presently evident in our community. The major focus of the study will be the way in which ideas and artistic styles have reached Australia and the ways in which they have been modified to suit local conditions. Students who undertake this option will be required to understand the influence and reception of international modernism and American post war art that developed in Australia after 1960. The work of American Abstract Expressionist and Pop artists should be contrasted with Australian artists working with similar styles. The manner in which these ideas were grafted onto the Australian landscape tradition by artists such as Fred Williams, John Olsen, Brett Whitely and Howard Taylor will be explored. Students should also be aware of the successive emergence of divergent styles and practices by artists such as Imants Tillers and Mike Parr who in recent years have challenged the role of the artist and the nature of art itself. Key Content Points: British Pop and the emerging American influence Australian Pop, (Colin Lanceley and the Annandale Imitation Realists) the impact of visiting exhibitions and critics Abstract Expressionism and field painting the debate over Regionalism versus Internationalism - e.g. "Blue Poles" controversy lan Bum: Conceptual artist in New York and London Mike Parr: Performance art on an International stage Imants Tillers: How art arrives in Australia and is exported again Multi - culturalism and the arts: working at the mar gins; the political art of Juan Davila; the emergence of Aboriginal artists, e.g Gordon Bennett,Trevor Nickolls The changing role and revival of the crafts (the hand made object) Internationalism, overseas influences and new technologies

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Key Artists/Movements/Schools John Olsen, Fred Williams, Guy Grey-Smith, Robert Juniper, Mike Parr, Imants Tillers, Julie BrownRrap, Brett Whiteley, Marea Gazzard, Joan Campbell, Juan Davila, Gordon Bennett, Brian Blanchflower.

The Heidelberg School and its Precursors 1860 – 1900 Question 8 Image G Image H Charles Conder, Under a Southern Sun, 1890 Eugene Von Guerard, Tower Hill, 1855

Throughout the colonial period native flora and fauna fascinated European artists working in Australia. However approaches varied between artists and over time. Discuss the different approaches in depicting nature in Australia as evident in these two paintings G (Conder) and H (Von Guerard). Focus on the content of each painting, and how each artist has used his depiction of Australian native flora to say something about the Australian colonies at the time. Syllabus Statements: The study of this period of Australian art has always had a popular appeal for students because of the themes developed, the subjects portrayed and the representational style of the artists. It is also deeply rooted in some of the ideas which are instrumental in developing a sense of individual and national identity and which may have a contemporary relevance. It provides for students a sense of the impact of the natural environment and an understanding of the importance of art on Australian culture and society. This unit examines the study of Australia painting from 1860 to 1900 with particular emphasis on the “Heidelberg School” but inclusive of the precursors of this group. The study also provides a context for the social and cultural forces that were evident and describes how they were represented in the artworks produced. Key Content Points: The pre-eminence of landscape European artists response to a new country - The Romantic landscape specific locations - Box Hill, Mentone, Coogee, Sydney Harbour etc. - the study of nature (the pastoral and lyric landscape) Australian Impressionism; atmosphere and light, tone and value the dignity of labour, mateship and egalitarianism the emergence of a national style the literary context and history painting the "Heidelberg School" the new world (paradise or prison) the place of women, others (outsiders) landscape, the narrative and epic; portraiture and genre "on the spot" sketches and studios the influence of Paris and London - English genre painting, plein air and comparisons with French Impressionism Key Artists Charles Conder, Eugene Von Guerard

Question 9 How successful were the Heidelberg School artists in their use of myth to establish a national identity? Refer to the work of at least two of the following artists in your answer: Tom Roberts, Arthur Streeton, Frederick McCubbin.

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Syllabus Statements: This unit examines the study of Australia painting from 1860 to 1900 with particular emphasis on the “Heidelberg School” but inclusive of the precursors of this group. The course includes the work of significant artists such as Sir Arthur Streeton, Tom Roberts and Fredrick McCubbin and looks at the various locations and places from which they worked. The study also provides a context for the social and cultural forces that were evident and describes how they were represented in the artworks produced. It is also deeply rooted in some ideas which are instrumental in developing a sense of individual and national identity and which may have contemporary relevance. Key Content Points: Naturalism and urban experience - specific locations – the study of nature ( the pastoral and lyric landscape) - the city urban roots of artists and their training - Australian Impressionism, atmosphere and light, tone and value Nationalism - the dignity of labour, mateship and egalitarianism - the artist as hero/rebel - the emergence of a national style - the literary context and history painting Australian ‘myths’ - the “Heidelberg School” - the relationship of bush and city - the new world ( paradise or prison) Subjects, Exhibitions and techniques - differences in techniques and subject matter ( the bush and the city – landscapes of labour, recreation, habitation and ‘tamed’) - landscape, the narrative and epic, portraiture and genre Influences - the influence of Paris and London – English genre painting, plein air and comparisons with French Impressionism

Question 10 Discuss the impact of plein air painting on Australian art in the period 1860 – 1900. In your answer refer to the work of at least two artists. Syllabus Statements: This unit examines the study of Australia painting from 1860 to 1900 with particular emphasis on the “Heidelberg School” but inclusive of the precursors of this group. The study also provides a context for the social and cultural forces that were evident and describes how they were represented in the artworks produced. Key Content Points: The pre-eminence of landscape European artists response to a new country - The Romantic landscape specific locations - Box Hill, Mentone, Coogee, Sydney Harbour etc. - the study of nature (the pastoral and lyric landscape) Australian Impressionism; atmosphere and light, tone and value the "Heidelberg School" the new world (paradise or prison) "on the spot" sketches and studios the influence of Paris and London - English genre painting, plein air and comparisons with French Impressionism Key Artists Tom Roberts, Frederick McCubbin, Charles Conder, Arthur Streeton, Jane Sutherland, David Davies, Clara Southern, Louis Buvelot, Conrad Martens.
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Western Australian Art and Design Question 11 Image I Image J Pippin Drysdale, Concealed Ritual Ubirr: North Series 1; 1999 Elsje King (Van Keppel), Regeneration, 1995

These object makers work from what is known, building upon traditional forms and techniques to create a new understanding of the Western Australian environment. Compare and contrast image I (Drysdale) and image J (King) in response to this statement. Syllabus Statements: Knowledge of our cultural heritage provides us with a sense of place. Western Australia has a rich and interesting visual culture which surrounds us and enriches our lives. The over-riding theme is one which explores artistic responses to the environment by adaptation of traditions and materials to form distinctive regional expression and through questioning of international artistic trends. Key Content Points: the interpretation of international trends and styles, regional expression, the use of local materials and processes, the quality of the light, the availability of art journals (from the 1890s - 1914 and 1960s to the present) enabling local artists to feel part of international movements, the impact of immigrant cultures, travel and TV (the global village), the influence of indigenous cultures. international movements such as the post-war Craft Revival, Pop Art, Minimalism, Conceptualism and the return to figuration as interpreted by Western Australian artists, contemporary artists responses to the physical and social environment, regional character in specific artforms such as painting, sculpture, wood and jewellery.

Question 12 Western Australian art is merely derivative of more important international concerns. Discuss with reference to two artists. Syllabus Statements: Knowledge of our cultural heritage provides us with a sense of place. Western Australia has a rich and interesting visual culture which surrounds us and enriches our lives. The over-riding theme is one which explores artistic responses to the environment by adaptation of traditions and materials to form distinctive regional expression and through questioning of international artistic trends. Key Content Points: principles and concepts underlying the major successive art and design styles and movements to enable local work to be placed in context, the interpretation of international trends and styles, regional expression, the use of local materials and processes, the major issues which have affected Western Australian art, craft and architecture since the early nineteenth century such as the small population of the early years in a colony for 'gentlefolk' and the number of artistic people sent to the colony for their health, the attraction to the unusual flora of Western Australia, the quality of the light, the effect of wealth through mining (the gold rushes of the 1890s; Nickel Boom 1960s) and the flowering of local art, the availability of art journals (from the 1890s - 1914 and 1960s to the present) enabling local artists to feel part of international movements, shortages of materials and information in the Depression and the wars, the impact of immigrant cultures, travel and TV (the global village),
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the influence of indigenous cultures. the influence of European traditions on the topographic artist in recording and interpreting colonial landscape, the colonial artists response to the environment and adaptation to it, the artistic interpretation of the human and physical environment, the role of the 'amateur' in recording their surroundings and the interest in natural sciences, crafts of the leisured classes, the use of local materials in object making, crafts as livelihood or necessity, architecture as practised in the colony, the invention of photography and its use in WA. the development of a 'plein air' painting school in the late nineteenth century in Western Australia, the Aesthetic Movement in Western Australia at the turn of the century - the role of the WA Society of Arts, and the Museum and Art Gallery, the 'will to be modern'- the role of Perth Technical Art School - variations on Art Nouveau, the Glasgow School and Viennese Secession, Federation architecture in WA, the influence of the Heidelberg School and the dominance of a few key artists, the problems for sculptors attempting to practice in Perth, Art Deco - the continental style of' 25 - in WA between the wars, the relative strength of graphic and commercial arts between the wars, the University of WA buildings, the influence of revival styles [English and Californian Arts and Crafts], the centenary celebrations of 1929 and nostalgia the introduction of Modernism and its interpretation in the 1930s - regional expressions - the local practitioners responses, American Art Deco - ‘Style Moderne’ in the urban landscape, Modernism in the fine arts, studio ceramics and photography, Modernism as a mainstream element in Western Australian art and design in the 1950s through galleries and commercial outlets and public buildings, The role of the Skinner Galleries, Claude Hotchin and David Foulkes Taylor's Triangle Gallery, The Womens’ Fine art and craft Societies, Scandinavian Modern in the crafts. international movements such as the post-war Craft Revival, Pop Art, Minimalism, Conceptualism and the return to figuration as interpreted by Western Australian artists, contemporary artists responses to the physical and social environment, regional character in specific artforms such as painting, sculpture, wood and jewellery.

Question 13 Have women artists and designers made a different contribution to the development of Western Australian visual culture than their male counterparts? In your answer, refer to the work of at least two artists and/or designers from the module you have studied this year. Syllabus Statements: Knowledge of our cultural heritage provides a sense of place. Western Australia has a rich and interesting visual culture which surrounds us and enriches our lives. Investigation of the physical, social and artistic environment contribute to a confident sense of identity leading to cultural and economic benefits and neglect of our heritage leads to a loss of that sense of place which comes with pride in belonging. The unit examines Western Australian visual culture through paintings, sculpture, prints, drawings, photographs, craftworks and architecture. The over-riding theme is one which explores artistic responses to the environment by adaptation of traditions and materials to form a distinctive regional expression and through the interpretation or questioning of international artistic trends.

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Art TEE 2004 Marking Guide
Key Content Points: principles and concepts underlying the major successive art and design styles and movements to enable local work to be placed in context, the interpretation of international trends and styles, regional expression, the use of local materials and processes, the major issues which have affected Western Australian art, craft and architecture since the early nineteenth century such as the small population of the early years in a colony for 'gentlefolk' and the number of artistic people sent to the colony for their health, the attraction to the unusual flora of Western Australia, the quality of the light, the effect of wealth through mining (the gold rushes of the 1890s; Nickel Boom 1960s) and the flowering of local art, the availability of art journals (from the 1890s - 1914 and 1960s to the present) enabling local artists to feel part of international movements, shortages of materials and information in the Depression and the wars, the impact of immigrant cultures, travel and TV (the global village), the influence of indigenous cultures. the influence of European traditions on the topographic artist in recording and interpreting colonial landscape, the colonial artists response to the environment and adaptation to it, the artistic interpretation of the human and physical environment, the role of the 'amateur' in recording their surroundings and the interest in natural sciences, crafts of the leisured classes, the use of local materials in object making, crafts as livelihood or necessity, architecture as practised in the colony, the invention of photography and its use in WA. the development of a 'plein air' painting school in the late nineteenth century in Western Australia, the Aesthetic Movement in Western Australia at the turn of the century - the role of the WA Society of Arts, and the Museum and Art Gallery, the 'will to be modern'- the role of Perth Technical Art School - variations on Art Nouveau, the Glasgow School and Viennese Secession, Federation architecture in WA, the influence of the Heidelberg School and the dominance of a few key artists, the problems for sculptors attempting to practice in Perth, Art Deco - the continental style of' 25 - in WA between the wars, the relative strength of graphic and commercial arts between the wars, the University of WA buildings, the influence of revival styles [English and Californian Arts and Crafts], the centenary celebrations of 1929 and nostalgia the introduction of Modernism and its interpretation in the 1930s. - regional expressions - the local practitioners responses, American Art Deco - ‘Style Moderne’ in the urban landscape, Modernism in the fine arts, studio ceramics and photography, Modernism as a mainstream element in Western Australian art and design in the 1950s through galleries and commercial outlets and public buildings, The role of the Skinner Galleries, Claude Hotchin and David Foulkes Taylor's Triangle Gallery, The Womens’ Fine art and craft Societies, Scandinavian Modern in the crafts. international movements such as the post-war Craft Revival, Pop Art, Minimalism, Conceptualism and the return to figuration as interpreted by Western Australian artists, contemporary artists responses to the physical and social environment, regional character in specific artforms such as painting, sculpture, wood and jewellery,

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Art and Social Comment in the 19th Century Question 14 Image K Image L Jean Francois Millet, The Gleaners, 1859 Eugene Delacroix, Women of Algiers, 1834

Compare images K (Millet) and L (Delacroix), considering their differences in style and subject matter. Explain the ways in which each painting reflects the prevailing social and political climate of the time. Syllabus Statements: The Nineteenth Century has been called the "century of revolution." The rise of capitalism and the growth created by the Industrial Revolution effected enormous changes both in society and the art of the period. Many artists did not admire the changes they saw about them and embarked on a critique of society or attempted to construct alternatives to the new order. Many artists chose to make art which was counter to the established structures and traditions of society (like the writings of Marx) and attempted to change the idea of art to one in which art was embedded in society rather than an adjunct to it. The turbulent culture in which artists operated demanded an art which was more than the production of objects of contemplation and beauty. Many artists of this century were politically motivated and tried to make their art relevant to the world around them. Students should be interested to discover how art is capable of communicating or reflecting social and political ideas. They should also have an understanding of the idealistic nature of the art which was produced at this time and acknowledge the manner by which ideas and aspirations may be expressed through art. Additionally they may wish to consider how artists dealt with stylistic questions in their work often in opposition to competing social values and the demands of patronage. The students should be aware that these developments were premised on the desire for a different society and will be able to acknowledge the social theories that were enunciated and be able to describe how the art of the time reflected these beliefs. They should also be familiar with the Romantic Movement and the advent of Social Realism in regard to the character, beliefs, and choice and interpretation of subject matter for these movements. Key Content Points: Romanticism - the partnership of reason and imagination nature and emotion, the exotic, revivals of styles the sublime; adventure and solitude; poetic and "psychological" truth; "stylistic independence" Social Realism the avant-garde, the heroism of modern life and the nobility of labour, the beginning of "art for art's sake" social critic and rebel stylistic independence, originality and imagination, individual expression fusing form and content in art academic and independent movements - contradictions and tensions; the self taught and the trained artist : the Academy and the Independents the influence of progress, "improving" the past and "borrowing" from the past democracy, socialism and the rise of the middle class with individual rights pluralism of tastes and styles The work of Jean-François Millet, Honoré Daumier and Gustave Courbet and their responses to the Romantics and the more egalitarian depiction of people in urban and rural settings.

Question 15 Romanticism is more concerned with feeling and imagination than ideals and reason. Discuss this statement with reference to the work of two of the following artists: Francisco Goya, Eugene Delacriox, Theodore Gericault
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Syllabus Statements: The Nineteenth Century has been called the "century of revolution". The rise of capitalism and the growth created by the Industrial Revolution effected enormous changes both in society and the art of the period. Many artists did not admire the changes they saw about them and embarked on a critique of society or attempted to construct alternatives to the new order. Many artists chose to make art which was counter to the established structures and traditions of society (like the writings of Marx) and attempted to change the idea of art to one in which art was embedded in society rather than an adjunct to it. The turbulent culture in which artists operated demanded an art which was more than the production of objects of contemplation and beauty. Many artists of this century were politically motivated and tried to make their art relevant to the world around them. Students should be interested to discover how art is capable of communicating or reflecting social and political ideas. They should also have an understanding of the idealistic nature of the art which was produced at this time and acknowledge the manner by which ideas and aspirations may be expressed through art. Additionally they may wish to consider how artists dealt with stylistic questions in their work often in opposition to competing social values and the demands of patronage. The students should be aware that these developments were premised on the desire for a different society and will be able to acknowledge the social theories that were enunciated and be able to describe how the art of the time reflected these beliefs. They should also be familiar with the Romantic Movement and the advent of Social Realism in regard to the character, beliefs, and choice and interpretation of subject matter for these movements. Key Content Points: Romanticism - the partnership of reason and imagination nature and emotion, the exotic, revivals of styles the sublime; adventure and solitude; poetic and "psychological" truth; "stylistic independence" social critic and rebel stylistic independence, originality and imagination, individual expression fusing form and content in art academic and independent movements - contradictions and tensions; the self taught and the trained artist : the Academy and the Independents the influence of progress, "improving" the past and "borrowing" from the past the rise of the avant-garde, the spirit of the age, "tradition of the new" and innovation democracy, socialism and the rise of the middle class with individual rights pluralism of tastes and styles The life, work and beliefs of Francisco Goya, Eugène Delacroix and Theodore Gèricault and their contributions to the Romantic Movement.

Question 16 The ideals of democracy and social justice encouraged artists to explore the social and political concerns of their day. Discuss this statement in relation to two artists you have studied in this unit. Syllabus Statements: The Nineteenth Century has been called the "century of revolution." The rise of capitalism and the growth created by the Industrial Revolution effected enormous changes both in society and the art of the period. Many artists did not admire the changes they saw about them and embarked on a critique of society or attempted to construct alternatives to the new order. Many artists chose to make art which was counter to the established structures and traditions of society (like the writings of Marx) and attempted to change the idea of art to one in which art was embedded in society rather than an adjunct to it. The turbulent culture in which artists operated demanded an art which was more than the production of objects of contemplation and beauty. Many artists of this century were politically motivated and tried to make their art relevant to the world around them.
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Art TEE 2004 Marking Guide
Students should be interested to discover how art is capable of communicating or reflecting social and political ideas. They should also have an understanding of the idealistic nature of the art which was produced at this time and acknowledge the manner by which ideas and aspirations may be expressed through art. Additionally they may wish to consider how artists dealt with stylistic questions in their work often in opposition to competing social values and the demands of patronage. The students should be aware that these developments were premised on the desire for a different society and will be able to acknowledge the social theories that were enunciated and be able to describe how the art of the time reflected these beliefs. They should also be familiar with the Romantic Movement and the advent of Social Realism in regard to the character, beliefs, and choice and interpretation of subject matter for these movements. Key Content Points: Social Realism the avant-garde, the heroism of modern life and the nobility of labour, the beginning of "art for art's sake" social critic and rebel fusing form and content in art academic and independent movements - contradictions and tensions; the self taught and the trained artist : the Academy and the Independents the influence of progress, "improving" the past and "borrowing" from the past the rise of the avant-garde, the spirit of the age, "tradition of the new" and innovation democracy, socialism and the rise of the middle class with individual rights pluralism of tastes and styles patronage and galleries - dealers, collectors, benefactors and the change of style and subject matter and "one man shows" the achievement of status for art and the effect of writers and critics (e.g.Diderot, Byron, Baudelaire, Ruskin, Morris, Proudhon, Thore) The work of Jean-François Millet, Honoré Daumier and Gustave Courbet and their responses to the Romantics and the more egalitarian depiction of people in urban and rural settings.

Art, Technology and Utopia Question 17 Image M Image N Marcel Duchamp, Paradise, 1910-11 Marcel Duchamp, Bicycle Wheel, 1913

Compare these two paintings M and N by Duchamp. What were the reasons for Duchamp’s radical move towards an abstract style, and in what ways did this shift relate to the historical and philosophical issues of the time? Syllabus Statements: By the first years of the twentieth century it was apparent that science and the new technologies and machines had instigated major shifts in our understanding of what it meant to be human. This course introduces students to those major shifts in understanding and examines the way that artists responded to the events and ideas which surrounded them and describes how the art of the period either embraced or rejected these new developments. In this unit students will study how machines and new technologies altered our view of the world. By focusing on particular movements in art which either glorified or criticised these new technologies, students will develop an understanding of the various positions adopted by artists and how their visions contributed to a changing view. Students should be aware of the differing images of machinery and new technologies and be able to discuss using examples, differences in approach based on gender, social, political or aesthetic views.
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They should be aware that movements such as Cubism, Futurism, Vorticism, Dada, Constructivism and post-war Technicist art were all affected by the idea of the machine. In addition they should also be familiar with the seminal importance of Marcel Duchamp and Pablo Picasso to a modernist aesthetic as well as the importance of architects, film-makers and designers to the theme. Key Content Points: dynamism, movement and abstraction speed and the beauty of the machine (The Futurist Manifesto) mass communication: use of newspapers to promote ideas (Marinetti the machine of reason or destruction the world made flat: the end of traditional perspective; looking at the world from above (buildings and aviation) Cubism: new ways of looking involving photography, cinema and the serial image and the new forms of transport on the passage of time Cubism: employing contemporary scientific discoveries such as relativity to describe multiple viewpoints and record simultaneous events

Question 18 In the first decade of the twentieth century, industry and technology were seen as the modern saviours of humanity. Discuss the ways in which artists responded to this utopian vision with reference to works by two artists you have studied in this unit. Syllabus Statements: Since the Industrial Revolution, new technologies such as steam power, machinery, photography and the cinema have had a profound impact on art. In 1889 the Eiffel Tower successfully embodied the romance of the age of engineering. It presided over an International Exhibition that celebrated the machine and the changes that had been brought to modern life. It was indicative of an optimistic faith in progress and improvement for all through the benefits of science and industry. By the first years of the twentieth century it was apparent that science and the new technologies and machines had instigated major shifts in our understanding of what it meant to be human. This course introduces students to those major shifts in understanding and examines the way that artists responded to the events and ideas which surrounded them and describes how the art of the period either embraced or rejected these new developments. In this unit students will study how machines and new technologies altered our view of the world. By focusing on particular movements in art which either glorified or criticised these new technologies, students will develop an understanding of the various positions adopted by artists and how their visions contributed to a changing view. Students should be aware of the differing images of machinery and new technologies and be able to discuss using examples, differences in approach based on gender, social, political or aesthetic views. They should be aware that movements such as Cubism, Futurism, Vorticism, Dada, Constructivism and post-war Technicist art were all affected by the idea of the machine. In addition they should also be familiar with the seminal importance of Marcel Duchamp and Pablo Picasso to a modernist aesthetic as well as the importance of architects, film-makers and designers to the theme. Key Content Points: dynamism, movement and abstraction speed and beauty of the machine ( Futurist manifesto) the machine of reason or destruction Vorticism in Britain Epstein’s homage to the machine Russian Constructivism: art for the people - art as production
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Tatlin’s heroic art glorifying new technologies and his use of manufacturing techniques and materials to make art – the avant garde and elite Agit prop and the use of trains and the cinema to carry art to the people the applied art of the Bauhaus – abstract forms and social use – machines for living

Question 19 Discuss the ways in which Cubism reflected changing perceptions of the world in the early twentieth century. Why is Cubism considered such a revolutionary modern movement? Refer to specific examples of work by at least two artists. Syllabus Statements: By the first years of the twentieth century it was apparent that science and the new technologies and machines had instigated major shifts in our understanding of what it meant to be human. This course introduces students to those major shifts in understanding and examines the way that artists responded to the events and ideas which surrounded them and describes how the art of the period either embraced or rejected these new developments. In this unit students will study how machines and new technologies altered our view of the world. By focusing on particular movements in art which either glorified or criticised these new technologies, students will develop an understanding of the various positions adopted by artists and how their visions contributed to a changing view. Students should be aware of the differing images of machinery and new technologies and be able to discuss using examples, differences in approach based on gender, social, political or aesthetic views. They should be aware that movements such as Cubism, Futurism, Vorticism, Dada, Constructivism and post-war Technicist art were all affected by the idea of the machine. In addition they should also be familiar with the seminal importance of Marcel Duchamp and Pablo Picasso to a modernist aesthetic as well as the importance of architects, film-makers and designers to the theme. Key Content Points: dynamism, movement and abstraction mass communication: use of newspapers to promote ideas the world made flat: the end of traditional perspective; looking at the world from above (buildings and aviation) Cubism: new ways of looking involving photography, cinema and the serial image and the new forms of transport on the passage of time Cubism: employing contemporary scientific discoveries such as relativity to describe multiple viewpoints and record simultaneous events

Question 20 Image O Image P Magritte, Les Promenades d’Euclid, 1935 Joan Miro, Person throwing a stone at a bird, 1926

What makes these two very different looking artworks, O (Magritte) and P (Miro), Surrealist? Why was there such a range of styles in Surrealism, and to what extent are these two artworks typical of the movement? Syllabus Statements: Many modern artists and designers have claimed their work has in some way transcended everyday rationality and conventional aesthetic attitudes. In doing so artists claim to reveal some truth of human experience and reality. The apparently irrational has often been seen as a means of not only defending humanity from the narrow and mechanistic but also as a means of liberating the psychic and creative impulses. The dadaists and surrealists have been foremost in embracing these attitudes.

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Art TEE 2004 Marking Guide
The course requires the examination of the Dada and Surrealist groups that constitute a major movement of art in the 20th Century. Students will be required to comprehend the nature and beliefs of Dada and Surrealism as they were represented through artworks and writings and examine the work and influence of central figures such as, Andrd Breton, Marcel Duchamp and Rend Magritte. They should be aware of the conditions and context which led to these developments in art and have a clear idea of the variety of forms such as, film, frottage and performance as well as the variety of styles, ranging from the abstract to the illusionistic which were embraced. Students should be able to identify the radical, intellectual and political stance which was implicit in these groups. Key Content Points: dreams, psychic automatism and stream of consciousness interest in psychoanalysis and sexuality (Freud) the metaphysical school and de Chirico and other precursors (eg Hieronymus Bosch) the conjunction of the unexpected as a creative tool painting, collage, photomontage (eg Man Ray and John Heartfleld)

Question 21 What is meant by anti-art? Discuss the emergence of this art form and its impact on twentieth century art with reference to the work of two artists you have studied. Syllabus Statements: Many modern artists and designers have claimed their work has in some way transcended everyday rationality and conventional aesthetic attitudes. In doing so artists claim to reveal some truth of human experience and reality. The apparently irrational has often been seen as a means of not only defending humanity from the narrow and mechanistic but also as a means of liberating the psychic and creative impulses. The dadaists and surrealists have been foremost in embracing these attitudes. The course requires the examination of the Dada and Surrealist groups that constitute a major movement of art in the 20th Century. Students will be required to comprehend the nature and beliefs of Dada and Surrealism as they were represented through artworks and writings and examine the work and influence of central figures such as, Andrd Breton, Marcel Duchamp and Rend Magritte. They should be aware of the conditions and context which led to these developments in art and have a clear idea of the variety of forms such as, film, frottage and performance as well as the variety of styles, ranging from the abstract to the illusionistic which were embraced. Students should be able to identify the radical, intellectual and political stance which was implicit in these groups. Key Content Points: - the nature of Dada; multiplicity of meanings, enigmatic and anarchic - the distinction between Dada as an idea (Duchamp) and as a revolutionary act (Tzara) and its development in Germany, Zurich, Paris and New York - the methods of Dada; spontaneity, chance and intuition - objects, writings, events, actions (eg International Dada Fair of 1920) - Frottage and cinema (eg Bunuel and Dali, Le Chien Andalou, Fellini's 8 1/2) - improvisation,theatre, poetry and performance (eg Surrealist Manifesto, 1924)

Question 22 While Dada and Surrealism had many things in common, at the time there were deep divisions between them. Why did the Surrealists break away from Dada, and what new ideas did they introduce? Your discussion should refer to at least one artist from each movement. Syllabus Statements: Many modern artists and designers have claimed their work has in some way transcended everyday rationality and conventional aesthetic attitudes. In doing so artists claim to reveal some truth of human experience and reality. The apparently irrational has often been seen as a means of not only defending

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humanity from the narrow and mechanistic but also as a means of liberating the psychic and creative impulses. The dadaists and surrealists have been foremost in embracing these attitudes. The course requires the examination of the Dada and Surrealist groups that constitute a major movement of art in the 20th Century. Students will be required to comprehend the nature and beliefs of Dada and Surrealism as they were represented through artworks and writings and examine the work and influence of central figures such as, Andrd Breton, Marcel Duchamp and Rend Magritte. They should be aware of the conditions and context which led to these developments in art and have a clear idea of the variety of forms such as, film, frottage and performance as well as the variety of styles, ranging from the abstract to the illusionistic which were embraced. Students should be able to identify the radical, intellectual and political stance which was implicit in these groups. Key Content Points: the nature of Dada; multiplicity of meanings, enigmatic and anarchic the distinction between Dada as an idea (Duchamp) and as a revolutionary act (Tzara) and its development in Germany, Zurich, Paris and New York the methods of Dada; spontaneity, chance and intuition dreams, psychic automatism and stream of consciousness interest in psychoanalysis and sexuality (Freud) the metaphysical school and de Chirico and other precursors (eg Hieronymus Bosch) the conjunction of the unexpected as a creative tool painting, collage, photomontage (eg Man Ray and John Heartfleld) objects, writings, events, actions (eg International Dada Fair of 1920) Frottage and cinema (eg Bunuel and Dali, Le Chien Andalou, Fellini's 8 1/2) improvisation, theatre, poetry and performance (eg Surrealist Manifesto, 1 924)

Impressionism and its Context Question 23 Image question: Image Q Berthe Morisot, In the Dining Room 1885-6 Image R Mary Cassatt, Feeding the Ducks, c 1893 Compare and contrast the ways in which Morisot (Image Q) and Cassatt (image R) depicted modern life. Syllabus Statements: Impressionism was a movement in art which developed out of the plein-air approach to landscape to capture the momentary effects of light and atmosphere and the fleeting sensation. Impressionism occurred in Paris in a climate of reaction to the mannered and sentimental nature of art that was authorised by the Academy. The art of the Impressionists reflected the interest in the point at which the urban environment had expanded rapidly and also in consequence of the radical changes in French society. In this unit students will be required to describe the changes in technique and subject matter of Impressionism through to Post- Impressionism. Students should be familiar with the careers and major works of Édouard Manet, Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, Berthe Morisot, Mary Cassatt, Auguste Renoir and George’s Seurat. They should also be able to discuss the development of artists such as Vincent Van Gogh, Paul Gauguin and Paul Cdzanne who emerged from the background of Impressionism. They should be familiar with the technical and stylistic differences between different artists that are studied. They should also be familiar with the major exhibitions which defined the intentions of the Impressionist movement, in particular the Salon des Refus6s of 1863 and the various exhibitions of the 1870's. Students should be aware of the commitment to direct observation, the plein - air approach and its limitations and the development of colour theory as an empirical approach by the Impressionists. They should also consider the type and variety of subject matter that various artists employed with in the
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context of a changing society and acknowledge the metropolitan or suburban nature of that content in much of the work. Students should also explore the different ways in which the human figure and the nude were represented by artists such as Manet, Renoir, Degas and Seurat. Key Content Points: the stylistic change from Impressionism to post- Impressionism the nature of plein air painting the urban and the rural (Argenteuil, the Seine, Paris Boulevards) use of colour and development of colour theory (Seurat and the Pointillists) the rise of the bourgeoisie and industry work and leisure - the cafe' society the depiction of women in painting women in art schools, women artists and their work the role of women in society the impact of photography and Japonism on composition and design

Question 24 How important was Impressionism in the development of Post-impressionism? In answering this question, refer to the work of two Post-impressionist painters, discussing the artists’ techniques, choice of subject matter and approach to colour. Refer to specific examples of artworks to support your answer. Syllabus Statements: Impressionism was a movement in art which developed out of the plein-air approach to landscape to capture the momentary effects of light and atmosphere and the fleeting sensation. Impressionism occurred in Paris in a climate of reaction to the mannered and sentimental nature of art that was authorised by the Academy. The art of the Impressionists reflected the interest in the point at which the urban environment had expanded rapidly and also in consequence of the radical changes in French society. In this unit students will be required to describe the changes in technique and subject matter of Impressionism through to Post- Impressionism. Students should be familiar with the careers and major works of Édouard Manet, Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, Berthe Morisot, Mary Cassatt, Auguste Renoir and George’s Seurat. They should also be able to discuss the development of artists such as Vincent Van Gogh, Paul Gauguin and Paul Cdzanne who emerged from the background of Impressionism. They should be familiar with the technical and stylistic differences between different artists that are studied. They should also be familiar with the major exhibitions which defined the intentions of the Impressionist movement, in particular the Salon des Refus6s of 1863 and the various exhibitions of the 1870's. Students should be aware of the commitment to direct observation, the plein - air approach and its limitations and the development of colour theory as an empirical approach by the Impressionists. They should also consider the type and variety of subject matter that various artists employed with in the context of a changing society and acknowledge the metropolitan or suburban nature of that content in much of the work. Students should also explore the different ways in which the human figure and the nude were represented by artists such as Manet, Renoir, Degas and Seurat. Key Content Points: the stylistic change from Impressionism to post- Impressionism the nature of plein air painting the urban and the rural (Argenteuil, the Seine, Paris Boulevards) use of colour and development of colour theory (Seurat and the Pointillists) the rise of the bourgeoisie and industry the importance of critics such as Zola and Baudelaire contemporary reworking - Clark and Pollock the impact of photography and Japonism on composition and design the art of sensations and the emergence of expressionism (van Gogh), abstraction (Cdzanne) and symbolism (Gauguin)
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Question 25 The Impressionists were intent on seeing the world with fresh eyes. How did this new way of seeing impact on their style? Your answer should refer to the works of at least two impressionist artists? Syllabus Statements: Impressionism was a movement in art which developed out of the plein-air approach to landscape to capture the momentary effects of light and atmosphere and the fleeting sensation. Impressionism occurred in Paris in a climate of reaction to the mannered and sentimental nature of art that was authorised by the Academy. The art of the Impressionists reflected the interest in the point at which the urban environment had expanded rapidly and also in consequence of the radical changes in French society. In this unit students will be required to describe the changes in technique and subject matter of Impressionism through to Post- Impressionism. Students should be familiar with the careers and major works of Édouard Manet, Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, Berthe Morisot, Mary Cassatt, Auguste Renoir and George’s Seurat. They should also be able to discuss the development of artists such as Vincent Van Gogh, Paul Gauguin and Paul Cdzanne who emerged from the background of Impressionism. They should be familiar with the technical and stylistic differences between different artists that are studied. They should also be familiar with the major exhibitions which defined the intentions of the Impressionist movement, in particular the Salon des Refus6s of 1863 and the various exhibitions of the 1870's. Students should be aware of the commitment to direct observation, the plein - air approach and its limitations and the development of colour theory as an empirical approach by the Impressionists. They should also consider the type and variety of subject matter that various artists employed with in the context of a changing society and acknowledge the metropolitan or suburban nature of that content in much of the work. Students should also explore the different ways in which the human figure and the nude were represented by artists such as Manet, Renoir, Degas and Seurat. Key Content Points: the stylistic change from Impressionism to post- Impressionism the nature of plein air painting the urban and the rural (Argenteuil, the Seine, Paris Boulevards) use of colour and development of colour theory (Seurat and the Pointillists) the impact of photography and Japonism on composition and design

Modern Design Question 26 Image question: Image S Marianne Brandt, Teapot, 1924 Image T Louis Tiffany, Favrile Vase, 1917 Compare and contrast the design influences in the works S (Brandt) and T (Tiffany) In your answer discuss the role of decoration in each designer’s work. Syllabus Statements: This course aims to provide a context for understanding contemporary craft and design by exploring the major design developments which evolved during the early decades of this century. These were exciting pioneering years of modern art and design which still have a significant influence on how we think about design today. For example the integration of all the arts – the fine and applied arts, crafts and architecture – to create more unified and expressive environments in which to live. Art Nouveau which was seen as the first truly modern style had its genesis in the late 19th century and conversely the Bauhaus school of Architecture and Applied Arts established in 1919 instituted the collaboration of designers and industry to overcome challenges for hand made traditions posed by factory production.
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There are many issues which can be addressed and debated by students in this course. The relationship between traditional designs and social status and how this is challenged by modern technology and design. Notions of ‘good’ and ‘bad’ taste and the role of fashion trends and popular culture can be explored. The course includes the work and ideas of significant artists, crafts practitioners, architects, interior designers. Social and historical forces…had an impact on the various strands of modern design. Key Content Points: the importance of design the influence of design on the quality of life communicating social and cultural values through design mass production and design hand made versus the machine made new materials and their impact on design (e.g. steel, chrome, bakelite, plastic) the "machine metaphor" nature and the organic form as basis of design relationship of ornament and decoration to form and function Modernism and concepts of progress geometry as the new aesthetic principle ( rejection of ornament and decoration) functionalism ( form follows function) Stylistic revivals and eclecticism 'good' and 'bad' taste, popular culture and kitsch non-Western influences (e.g. Japanese, African, Egyptian) influences from America - the American Dream women and design - as designers and consumers

Question 27 Referring to the work of at least two modern designers, evaluate the success of design as a way of communicating social and cultural values. Syllabus Statements: This course aims to provide a context for understanding contemporary craft and design by exploring the major design developments which evolved during the early decades of this century. These were the exciting pioneering years of modern art and design which still have a significant influence on how we think about design today. For example, the integration of all the arts - the fine and applied arts, crafts and architecture - to create more unified and expressive environments in which to live. Although the course concentrates on the first half of the twentieth century, reference to the influential ideas and developments in the 19th century should be made, including for example, the work of William Morris and the Arts and Crafts movement. Art Nouveau which was seen as the first truly modern style had its genesis in the late 19th century and conversely the Bauhaus school of Architecture and Applied Arts established in 1919 instituted the collaboration of designers and industry to overcome the challenges for hand made traditions posed by factory production. Bauhaus designs are still being produced today . There are many issues which can be addressed and debated by students in this course. For example, the relationship between traditional designs and social status and how this is challenged by modern technology and design. Notions about ‘good’ and ‘bad' taste and the role of fashion trends and popular culture can be explored. The role of international exhibitions in promoting design ideas can also be considered. Students should be encouraged to look at the situation today and look for parallels in the past, and consider the many influences on our contemporary building and design forms. The course includes the work and ideas of significant artists, craft practitioners, architects, graphic, interior and industrial designers and the role of major institutions such as the German Bauhaus. Social and historical forces and the influence of non-Western cultures all had an impact on the various strands of modern design. Through exploring these influences, concepts such as eclecticism, modernism and the avant-garde can be better understood.
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Key Content Points: the importance of design the influence of design on the quality of life communicating social and cultural values through design influence of industrialisation and the great exhibition of 1851 John Ruskin, William Morris and Morris and Co. The principles underlying the Arts and Crafts Movement and the Aesthetic Movement mass production and design hand made versus machine made new materials and their impact on design the machine metaphor the aesthetic concept of total design nature and the organic form as basis of design relationship of ornament and decoration to form and function Modernism and concepts of progress geometry as the new aesthetic principle ( rejection of ornament and decoration) functionalism ( form follows function) Stylistic revivals and eclecticism - 'good' and 'bad' taste, popular culture and kitsch non-Western influences (e.g. Japanese, African, Egyptian) influences from America - the American Dream women and design - as designers and consumers advertising and mass media (posters, graphics, etc.) product design (vehicles, furniture, glassware, ceramics, textiles) - architecture and community design (cafes, theatres etc) photography and film

Question 28 Assess the contribution of the Bauhaus school of architecture and applied arts to the development of modern design. Discuss the architectural and design work of at least two of the following designers to support you argument: Walter Gropius, Le Corbusier (Charles Edward Jeanneret), Mies van der Rohe, Marcel Breuer. Syllabus Statements: This course aims to provide a context for understanding contemporary craft and design by exploring the major design developments which evolved during the early decades of this century. These were the exciting pioneering years of modern art and design which still have a significant influence on how we think about design today. For example, the integration of all the arts - the fine and applied arts, crafts and architecture - to create more unified and expressive environments in which to live. Although the course concentrates on the first half of the twentieth century, reference to the influential ideas and developments in the 19th century should be made, including for example, the work of William Morris and the Arts and Crafts movement. Art Nouveau which was seen as the first truly modern style had its genesis in the late 19th century and conversely the Bauhaus school of Architecture and Applied Arts established in 1919 instituted the collaboration of designers and industry to overcome the challenges for hand made traditions posed by factory production. Bauhaus designs are still being produced today . The course includes the work and ideas of significant artists, craft practitioners, architects, graphic, interior and industrial designers and the role of major institutions such as the German Bauhaus. Social and historical forces and the influence of non-Western cultures all had an impact on the various strands of modern design. Through exploring these influences, concepts such as eclecticism, modernism and the avant-garde can be better understood. Key Content Points: the importance of design the influence of design on the quality of life communicating social and cultural values through design
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influence of industrialisation and the Great Exhibition of 1851 mass production and design hand made versus the machine made new materials and their impact on design (e.g. steel, chrome, bakelite, plastic) the "machine metaphor" the aesthetic concept of total design nature and organic form as the basis of design relationship of ornament and decoration to form and function Modernism and concepts of progress geometry as the new aesthetic principle (rejection of ornament and decoration) - functionalism; concept of form follows function

Pop Art Question 29 Image question: Image U Tom Wesselmann, Great American Nude No. 98, 1967 Image V James Rosenquist, The F-111, 1974 Compare Images U (Indiana) and V (Rosenquist), identifying differences in style, technique and composition. Discuss the means by which each artist comments on American society in the 1960s? Syllabus Statements: Pop Art is a form of artistic comment which has established itself as a distinct movement in the larger field of art and retains its appeal to the present day. It is accessible because of its representational and decorative appeal as well as its reference to our daily lives. For students it should also have the capability to communicate through a great variety of themes, styles and techniques. Pop art is a critique of the imagery of the consumerist society that has burgeoned in this century. The study of Pop Art is inherently "popular" and can be easily made relevant to the students own experiences as it draws upon many of the experiences with which they are familiar, e.g. television, advertising, etc. Pop Art has proposed ways in which art can be imbued with a distinct identity but which absolves the artist from the necessity of "originality". An understanding of Pop Art should give students an idea of how their culture is produced and how they can critically engage with their culture. This unit examines the following areas within the history of Pop Art: First of all, the work of the British Pop artists of the 50s and 60s; Hamilton, Paolozzi, Kitaj, Hockney and the Independent Group. Secondly, the work of American Pop artists; Warhol, Lichtenstein, Oldenburg, Wesselman and their supporters and thirdly, reference to the continuing diversity of Pop to the present time. Students should be aware of the crucial differences between the evolution of Pop Art in each country by considering the differences between specific artists, (e.g.Hockney and Warhol) and the conditions in each country which gave rise to a different sensibility. Students should understand the distinctions that were drawn between High art and the emergence of a new aesthetic which drew upon the popular, folk and kitsch forms of culture within society. They should examine the differences between each of these forms, consider their relationship and relate it where possible to local examples. e.g. Kitsch and Australiana. Key Content Points: The advent of the consumer society The Americanisation of world culture mass consumption and communications post war reconstructed societies - affluence and materialism (or absence) "good" and "bad" art and kitsch
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unlimited and commonplace subject matter (figuration) "industrial and commercial style" and technique ambiguity of stance and attitude - e.g. cool, ironic, etc. transforming the world or imitating the world ? The American Dream the machine, print, photograph, cartoons, film, TV, multi media, computers. reproduction, serial images and facsimile art as sign and art commodified

Question 30 To what extent do you believe British Pop art to be the expression of an obsession with American modern life, its consumer society and its technology? Refer to the work of two of the following artists to support your answer: Richard Hamilton, Eduardo Paolozzi, R. B. Kitaj, David Hockney. Syllabus Statements: Pop Art is a form of artistic comment which has established itself as a distinct movement in the larger field of art and retains its appeal to the present day. It is accessible because of its representational and decorative appeal as well as its reference to our daily lives. For students it should also have the capability to communicate through a great variety of themes, styles and techniques. Pop art is a critique of the imagery of the consumerist society that has burgeoned in this century. The study of Pop Art is inherently "popular" and can be easily made relevant to the students own experiences as it draws upon many of the experiences with which they are familiar, e.g. television, advertising, etc. Pop Art has proposed ways in which art can be imbued with a distinct identity but which absolves the artist from the necessity of "originality". An understanding of Pop Art should give students an idea of how their culture is produced and how they can critically engage with their culture. This unit examines the following areas within the history of Pop Art: First of all, the work of the British Pop artists of the 50s and 60s; Hamilton, Paolozzi, Kitaj, Hockney and the Independent Group. Secondly, the work of American Pop artists; Warhol, Lichtenstein, Oldenburg, Wesselman and their supporters and thirdly, reference to the continuing diversity of Pop to the present time. Students should be aware of the crucial differences between the evolution of Pop Art in each country by considering the differences between specific artists, (e.g.Hockney and Warhol) and the conditions in each country which gave rise to a different sensibility. Students should understand the distinctions that were drawn between High art and the emergence of a new aesthetic which drew upon the popular, folk and kitsch forms of culture within society. They should examine the differences between each of these forms, consider their relationship and relate it where possible to local examples. e.g. Kitsch and Australiana. Key Content Points: The advent of the consumer society The Americanisation of world culture mass consumption and communications post war reconstructed societies - affluence and materialism (or absence) "good" and "bad" art and kitsch unlimited and commonplace subject matter (figuration) "industrial and commercial style" and technique ambiguity of stance and attitude - e.g. cool, ironic, etc. transforming the world or imitating the world ? The American Dream the machine, print, photograph, cartoons, film, TV, multi media, computers. reproduction, serial images and facsimile art as sign and art commodified

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Question 31 In what ways was Pop art a threat to aesthetic conventions and quality in art? Discuss these challenges with reference to work by two of the following artists: Hamilton, Claus Oldenburg, Roy Lichtenstein, Jasper Johns, Tom Wesselman. Syllabus Statements: Pop Art is a form of artistic comment which has established itself as a distinct movement in the larger field of art and retains its appeal to the present day. It is accessible because of its representational and decorative appeal as well as its reference to our daily lives. For students it should also have the capability to communicate through a great variety of themes, styles and techniques. Pop art is a critique of the imagery of the consumerist society that has burgeoned in this century. The study of Pop Art is inherently "popular" and can be easily made relevant to the students own experiences as it draws upon many of the experiences with which they are familiar, e.g. television, advertising, etc. Pop Art has proposed ways in which art can be imbued with a distinct identity but which absolves the artist from the necessity of "originality". An understanding of Pop Art should give students an idea of how their culture is produced and how they can critically engage with their culture. This unit examines the following areas within the history of Pop Art: First of all, the work of the British Pop artists of the 50s and 60s; Hamilton, Paolozzi, Kitaj, Hockney and the Independent Group. Secondly, the work of American Pop artists; Warhol, Lichtenstein, Oldenburg, Wesselman and their supporters and thirdly, reference to the continuing diversity of Pop to the present time. Students should be aware of the crucial differences between the evolution of Pop Art in each country by considering the differences between specific artists, (e.g.Hockney and Warhol) and the conditions in each country which gave rise to a different sensibility. Students should understand the distinctions that were drawn between High art and the emergence of a new aesthetic which drew upon the popular, folk and kitsch forms of culture within society. They should examine the differences between each of these forms, consider their relationship and relate it where possible to local examples. e.g. Kitsch and Australiana. Key Content Points: The advent of the consumer society The Americanisation of world culture mass consumption and communications post war reconstructed societies - affluence and materialism (or absence) "good" and "bad" art and kitsch unlimited and commonplace subject matter (figuration) "industrial and commercial style" and technique ambiguity of stance and attitude - e.g. cool, ironic, etc. transforming the world or imitating the world ? The American Dream the critics; Greenberg, Selz and Rosenberg - opposition to the new the machine, print, photograph, cartoons, film, TV, multi media, computers. Neo - dada and the influence of Duchamp and "ready-mades" the "gap between art and life" anti-art and anti-modern - the demise of the avant garde reproduction, serial images and facsimile art as sign and art commodified

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