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					Southwest Airlines

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Southwest Airlines: Marketing Plan

Ryan Boykin Julie Paulson Bre’ Greenman

Marketing 308 May 8, 2007

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Abstract Southwest Airlines has emerged over the past thirty-six years into a dominant force that has redefined what it means to be successful in one of the toughest industries in the country. The original guidance of Herb Kelleher, the founder of Southwest, has lead to this organization’s implementation and maintenance of a very unique structure and plan that is the major key to their success. Southwest recognizes that building a strong employee base as well as developing highly adept managers has cemented this organization as the premier low-cost national carrier. This report will give the reader a further understanding of Southwest and the relationships between management, employees, and customers.

Southwest Airlines Company description Southwest Airlines (SWA) originated in 1971 by offering flights between Houston, Dallas and San Antonio Texas. In just a few shorts years they had carried their millionth customer and were allowed to expand their flight zones. Now SWA operates in over 31 states and within 61 airports. It offers point to point flights that average no more than 1.7 hours long, with almost no flight having to stop in any other place but its final destination. SWA customer focused attitude helps them to become the leader in US flights, according to the bureau of transportation statistics. They have offered no ticket flying since 1995 by allowing their customers to book with an automated ticket machine, SABRE. By 1999 they also were offering

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customers to purchase tickets online as well as check in at kiosks found by the terminals, thus reducing their wait time (Southwest.com, 2007). Southwest Airlines has prided itself on being a no frills low fare airline that continuously offers positively outrageous service to its customers. SWA works to reduce their costs in order to pass along the savings to their customers. Business Mission Southwest Airlines clearly outlines their business mission for all their employees and customers to see. It says, “The mission of Southwest Airlines is dedication to the highest quality of Customer Service delivered with a sense of warmth, friendliness, individual pride, and Company Spirit” (Southwest.com, 2007). These are the characteristics of Southwest that create their pride within their organization. Their dedication to customer service differentiates them from their competitors giving them an

Southwest Airlines edge. In addition to their company mission Southwest provides a statement to its employees. The statement says,

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“We are committed to provide our Employees a stable work environment with equal opportunity for learning and personal growth. Creativity and innovation are encouraged for improving the effectiveness of Southwest Airlines. Above all, Employees will be provided the same concern, respect, and caring attitude within the organization that they are expected to share externally with every Southwest Customer” (Southwest.com, 2007). Southwest’s dedication to employees has resulted in the lowest turnover rate in the industry, and has forced them to turn away thousands of applicants. Their commitment to their employees transfers into their commitment to customers. Southwest’s overall mission is to take care of people, and that is how they have discovered success. Marketing Objective The marketing objective of Southwest Airlines is to attract long term customers who will be loyal to SWA and consistently fly their airline. To draw in repeat customers Southwest focuses on customer service and providing a positive experience while flying. The goal is to continually fill flights and bring in maximum revenue on every flight. Southwest’s marketing mix provides flights within the United States, and additional travel services. The goal of their product is to appeal to a large target market and provide a service for domestic travel. SWA focuses on shorter direct flights and quick turnaround times. By promoting their service as well as their affordability Southwest strives to lead the industry as a profitable airline that creates happy customers.

Situation Analysis Industry Analysis Trends

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Southwest Airlines shines above its competitors as the industry leader in low fare flights. They strive to give their customers that positively outrageous service (POS) that they are known so well for. Southwest Airlines discovered a niche market for air travelers who wanted an easy and affordable way to fly. Southwest makes it easy for customers to travel within the states conveniently without all the hassles of a major airport or many transfer flights. SWA was established in the time when economy flights were steadily increasing. More and more families wanted to travel in state but could not afford the high priced seats that Southwest’s competitors, Continental, Alaska or United offered. This was a great opportunity for Southwest because they now had a chance to increase their market segmentation and create loyalty from these customers and new ones from the value they offer. By providing open seating coupled with a corporate culture of happy employees and spontaneous attitudes Southwest has truly taken the trend of economy flying to the next level. Southwest Airlines has come up with a plan to offer its customers no in flight meals which cuts costs for everyone, a first come first serve seating, and outstanding customer service to make the low cost experience feel like your flying first class to your destination. In 2002 Southwest introduced 250 new ticket dispensing kiosks throughout airports; the goal with these kiosks was to reduce the time spent in line and improve airport experience since September 11 2001. Throughout Southwest’s history the only roadblock that they have encountered was in 1978 with The Airline Deregulation Act, which redefined the industry by eliminating the ability of the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) to set fares, allocate routes, and control entry and exit into markets. Companies had no ability to change fares, even if

Southwest Airlines their costs were increasing. The only attempt to raise prices was through a petition to the CAB for a fare raise. A request commonly took up to 6 weeks to be processed. This effected Southwest since their business tends to be very cyclical in nature. In certain months people are likely to pay more for tickets than in other months. To fight this new law Southwest averaged their prices and went for a slow and steady growth business model, understanding that this would eventually land them in first place among their competitors. Competitors Southwest’s competitors include another low cost airline called Jet Blue. This airline is mimicking what Southwest has done with its no frills flights. They could take customers from Southwest by creating new ways to innovate this industry. This could be

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concerning to Southwest because they must always be aware of what other companies are doing in order to hedge against competing offers in an effort to maintain customers. Other Airlines that contribute to taking Southwest’s customer base are Continental, United, and American airlines. Of course these airlines offer a variation on the services to their customers, and are targeting different target segments. Customer Profile Southwest Airlines have long since prided itself on a no frill low fare flights. This kind of service, in addition with their outstanding customer service, attracts mainly families and the travelers looking to save a few dollars. This demographic segmentation allows Southwest to offer their target market the best possible service and prices by rewarding ticket holders who arrive early a choice of seats, and still offering that POS service. Since young families are their main customers Southwest offers promotional

Southwest Airlines coupons with their flights in order to attract customers going on vacations. One example

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is when they created an alliance with a Ski resort based in Utah; Southwest then offered a weekend of skiing on them, if you chose to fly on their airline. Also Southwest targets travel agents, corporate travel managers along with their individual travelers. SWOT Analysis Strengths Southwest Airlines is the leader in providing low cost in state flights for its customers. It consistently offers frequent flights, inviting cabins, reliable service, and amazing customer service. Since every Southwest airplane is operated by 71 people, the lowest ever in their history, labor costs have decreased and those who are left are highly trained and specifically chosen out of thousands of applicants to reflect Southwest’s customer oriented culture. Since Southwest Airlines has been the leader in low cost flights for the last 36 years, and have been profitable for 33 years, they use the strategy of purchasing the same model of airplane for their entire fleet. The Boeing 737 is their airplane of choice; they have chosen to have a single airplane because you only need to train employees on one type of airplane and as a result their efficiency increases. All of these factors, low cost flights, smaller hubs, excellent customer service, and cost cutting techniques, have led to Southwest being the leader of its industry. Weaknesses Southwest Airlines have managed to be consistently profitable in all of their years in business. However, there are things that Southwest needs to improve upon in order to continue their plan of slow yet steady growth over the long term. The first

Southwest Airlines thing they need to improve upon is their dependence on passenger revenues. Since about 95% of their revenues come from their passengers an empty seat on a plane is revenue lost that can never be retrieved. Another thing that Southwest can improve upon is their load factor. They have

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been consistently behind all of their competitors. This of course could be due to the much higher frequency of flights on each route. Since they need to fill a certain number of seats to meet their quota, any decrease in their load could negatively affect their bottom line. Along with this are their limited growth capabilities. Since they only travel within the United States and not internationally they could potentially be missing out on a whole new market for air travel. Opportunities To compliment their new strategy of steady long term growth, Southwest Airlines could consider expanding into new smaller airports. This would increase the number of flights they could offer their customers, thus appealing to a broader range of clientele, especially the business minded people, who could be a potential market they have yet to fully tap in to. They could offer flight transfers, which they currently do not, and also offer more frequent flyer rewards to passengers and businesses who want to save money but still be involved in all aspects of their company state wide. In addition to the expansion into new hubs across the nation, Southwest should invest in new Boeing 737’s to expand their fleet to accommodate the increase in flights. This would positively impact the company’s bottom line by improving their range and flight offerings.

Southwest Airlines Since their business operates on an entirely cyclical system, they could hedge against the possibility of a decrease in flights by expanding into a more extensive air freight business. They could do this by purchasing cheaper, smaller airplanes that would haul cargo across the states. This would allow for another stream of revenue year long, and it would also allow them to decrease their complete dependence on passenger revenues. Threats Due to recent global activities the price of oil has increase to almost thirty six dollars a barrel. Being involved in the transportation industry during this time is proving to be difficult. Already the price for aviation turbine fuel has nearly doubled in the last year with no signs of slowing down. This could have an effect on Southwest’s bottom line. Another factor that the airline must consider is the past events of September 11 2001. On this day air travel as we know it changed. This of course decreased revenues and trust in the airlines to keep their passengers safe. Southwest must now come up with a new and innovative way to make their customers feel safe and secure in order to continue to see long term growth. Any wrong move could ruin this great company’s reputation for quality service that still saves their customers money. Marketing Strategy Target Market Southwest began its airline service almost 36 years ago on the idea that if they could get passengers to their destinations when they wanted to arrive, on time, and at the

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lowest price possible they could be a successful airline. Since its creation, Southwest has

Southwest Airlines been successful in operating on these principles and continues to attract customers with these values. Southwest Airline is a low fare, no-frills airline that targets the general

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population. Their goal is to make flying as inexpensive as possible so everyone can be a customer. With current prices, Southwest’s VP of Marketing, Sales, and Distribution said, “our customers actually have extra money to spend once they get to their final destination” (Unknown, 2007). With destinations spanning across the United States, SWA tries to attract customers traveling for both business and pleasure. Southwest targets customers who aren’t concerned with class seating, while still providing them complimentary items on all flights. With their no-frill philosophy, SWA has made flying simple for its customers opening their market up to everyone. In researching the traveling market, Southwest has found, the market is almost 5050 male to female, but as they looked deeper they found with, travelers taking eight-plus trips a year, it becomes a 60-40 male split (Sweet, 2005). Most importantly, for promotional reasons SWA has discovered that the majority of frequent flyers are male, so they advertise a lot in sports. However, to balance their demographic, Southwest is also using new product integration that does not create much additional cost. To sum up Southwest Airline’s target market, they attract domestic passengers who want an airline that provides more value for less money. Marketing Mix Product Southwest Airlines basic product is flights within the United States amounting to more than 32,000 each day. They provide service to 63 cities in 32 different states, but

Southwest Airlines their product extends beyond just flying. Southwest.com is another one of Southwest’s products where they were, “the first airline to establish a home page on the Internet” (southwest.com, 2007). Since their establishment, Southwest.com has attracted many viewers making it the largest airline site as well as the, “number one airline website for online revenue” (southwest.com, 2007).

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Southwest.com is a useful site because it allows customers to find the lowest fare based on the customer availability for an entire month. By entering days and time that the customer wishes to fly, the server then gives a list of possible flights, times, and price. An advantage to booking online with Southwest is the hassle free aspect of not having to deal with a travel agent or sales representative on the phone. SWA also has a few complementary products to their flights including car rentals, hotel and cruise reservations, and complete vacation package deals, which all can be accessed through their website. Southwest, being a low fare airline never has “sales” on flights, but they do often package two or three of their products together advertising them as special promotional deals. Aside from Southwest’s website, they also offer credit cards with rewards. Bank One has began issuing the, “Southwest Airlines Rapid Rewards Visa Business and Visa Signature card” (Unknown, 2004). With an annual fee, the card holder receives one reward dollar for every $1 they spend or two reward dollars for every $1 spent on Southwest Airlines. This card replaced Bank One’s previous Southwest Platinum card which only rewarded customers one dollar for every $1 spent on Southwest flights (Unknown, 2004).

Southwest Airlines Newest in Southwest’s product line is DING! This desktop application is downloadable for both PC and Mac computers. DING! is a program that notifies customers of “exclusive hot offers” and was introduced in February of 2005 (southwest.com, 2007). Southwest was the first airline to implement this type of

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application which was successful by marketing to Rapid Rewards members. SWA gave their initial customers credits for downloading the application and using it. Southwest saw DING! as a way to show its loyalty to current customers as well as a way to attract new customers. One customer was noted saying, “I may not fly very often, but at the right price you could get me to take a trip” (Creamer, 2005). By informing customers of low ticket prices on their desktops, they are more likely to get spontaneous customers who can’t resist a good deal. Southwest’s least visible product is their cargo service. One of SWA’s differentiations as an airline is their fast turnaround times. They can typically turn a plane, by unloading and reloading passengers in fifteen minutes, which makes it hard to carry a lot of cargo because it slows the process. Even so, in 2006 Southwest managed to move 256 million pounds of cargo and mail without interrupting their regular service (Southwest.com, 2007). Place Southwest began as a small Texas airline but has expanded to service 63 cities in 32 states. With this growth from a single state airline, Southwest has now grown to be one of the largest airlines in America (Southwest.com, 2007). SWA has continually expanded since its beginning. In the last few years, Southwest has added services in Pittsburgh and Philadelphia. Starting with just 14 flights out of Philadelphia, SWA has

Southwest Airlines amped up its service to 41 flights a day from 10 different gates since May 2004 (Reed, 2005).

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Lately, Chicago’s Midway airport has been the focus for Southwest. Ranking as SWA’s number two airport in terms of daily departures, it services more gates than any other hub occupied by Southwest (Southwest.com, 2007). Midway is a big focus because Southwest can add to their large portion of business travelers pulling in customers from Chicago O’Hare, while only competing with a couple other airlines at Midway’s location. In 2007, Southwest has stated its focus is on growth in large, high-demand business travel markets. They have continued to expand services starting with the Denver market, and returned to New Orleans market post hurricane Katrina, just one year ago. Coming this fall, Southwest also plans to resume service to San Francisco’s International airport which it left in 2001 (Reed, 2007). SWA has been successful in competing in the airline business by focusing on small airport hubs where it can gain a large portion of business with its low fares. Promotion Promotional advertisements for Southwest come in a variety of forms. They advertise on television in commercials, in print ads, on the radio, on the internet, and through word of mouth. Part of the promotion SWA does is for specific package deals combining their products to promote all of them as a whole, airfare, car rental, and hotel, for one low rate. But lately Southwest has been trying to think outside these traditional forms of promotion and advertisement. The creation of DING! was a clever solution to incorporate promotion into a product. Not only does it act as a tool for finding flights, it

Southwest Airlines is also a constant advertisement on customer’s desktops giving them up to date information on SWA’s rates.

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Since Southwest’s beginning it has carried a few branding messages that it keeps reverting back to. SWA promotes low “fun fares,” prompts consumers with “want to get away,” reminds them Southwest is the “symbol of freedom,” and invites them to fly by saying, “your now free to move about the country” (Goetzl, 1999). Specific groups that have been targeted with these messages are minorities and sports fans. Southwest launched a campaign targeted at Hispanic and African American customers on radio and Spanish-language stations. Southwest’s VP-marketing manager said, “we feel it’s very important to get involved with customers at the local level,” and to do that, “we have to tie into things they’re passionate about” (Goetzl, 1999). Breaking into the sports market Southwest took out ad’s to run with the NFL, as well as Southwest-sponsored baseball, hockey, and basketball games on television. In more recent advertisements, Southwest has been mocking its competitors. Television ads poked fun at how some airlines charge extra fees, by showing passengers who have to insert coins in a slot to open the overhead compartments (Reed, 2007). While no airline has gotten that extreme, SWA prides itself on its low fares that come with their no frill service. Southwest has built its reputation on friendly service, no assigned seating, and its quick plane changeover times. They also have a frequent flyer mile program for their customers. While these aspects of Southwest are not commonly put in television or print ads they still are part of SWA promotion of their company.

Southwest Airlines Price Southwest has been a successful company because they are a low fare airline. Their average passenger airfare is $104.40, and the average passenger trip is about 808

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miles (Southwest.com, 2007). Southwest price guarantees a seat on the plane, but part of the reason for its lower prices, is they do not put money into seat assigning technology. By reducing technology costs, SWA passes the savings on to their customers. This system also allows them to turn planes over faster at the gate, which helps them to keep prices low. The “nation’s leading low-fare airline,” (Unknown, 2007) is known to set the price floor for the industry. When Southwest raises prices all other big airlines are expected to follow. Airlines have continually raised prices over the past years, and this trend it likely to continue. For a one way coast-to-coast flight, Southwest’s top fare is now $339, compared to $299 in January of 2005. SWA fares have increased just $40 over a time period in which other airlines have gone up about $200 (Reed, 2007). This trend is likely to continue with the rise in gas prices around the globe. Since fuel is one of the biggest expenses for airlines it has the biggest impact on ticket prices for consumers. Implementation, Evaluation, and Control Market Research As technology improves along with the growing awareness of environmental issues, it is reasonable to assume the airline industry will progress to new sources of energy and possibly entirely new means of travel. Alternative fuels are on the list for all airlines, not just to face critics of greenhouse emissions but to also save on rising jet fuel costs. This is no simple task as the fuel for airplanes must meet stringent quality

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specifications. When you also consider that airline companies like Southwest have such high fixed cost it is imperative that they cut costs wherever possible. From January 2004 to July 2006, jet fuel prices rose $1.16 per gallon. Over the course of a year this is an additional 22.6 billion dollars in operating expenses for airlines. According to the latest findings fuel is now a larger expense then labor totaling 20 to 30 percent of operating expense (ATA Issue Brief, 2006). Now, what the solution to this problem is still unclear deciding whether new forms of fuel or an entirely new plane would be the most effective is difficult to determine, but it is certain that change is needed as the airline industry feels the squeeze of the oil market. Another future possibility for Southwest is to use employee knowledge to conduct market research. When thinking about airline travel flight attendants learn about all the hot new books and gadgets before they are widely accepted in the market. Southwest could sell this research to marketing firms allowing them to find out plenty of information on the next must have items. Flight attendants would know the most popular book that everyone is reading that could turn into next summer’s blockbuster. They could also apply this research to technology knowing in advance the most popular laptop computers and portable gaming devices (Evans Jr., 2006). This is an interesting form of research for any airline company to undertake and could be an additional product Southwest could offer creating more sources of revenue. Organizational Structure and Plan Southwest has developed an organizational structure and business plan designed around customer and employee satisfaction which has lead Southwest to be one of the leaders in its industry. Southwest’s plan started with Herb Kelleher and a simple quote

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that would forever shape southwest airlines. “Make Love, Not War” became the airline’s theme and, the company became the “LUV” airline, even taking this abbreviation as their stock ticker in the years to come (Buller, & Schuler, p.115). When developing the idea for the airline Herb Kelleher and Rollin King first thought about what they would want in an airline and how they would like to be treated from a customer perspective. They both decided that “if you get your passengers to their destinations when they want to get there, on time, at the lowest possible fares, and make darn sure they have a good time doing it, people will fly your airline”(SWA website, 2007). From the very beginning Southwest wanted to have a commitment to providing customer satisfaction at the lowest possible cost. This seems to be an extremely difficult task to develop an airline that will meet customer needs while charging the least in an industry known for its high fixed costs. In order for this business plan to work a new and unique structure and culture would be needed to be developed so that it would incorporate all aspects of the industry from customers to employees. The organizational structure of Southwest is highly centralized, which refers to the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding decision-making, become concentrated within a particular location and group. This centralization is visible when you consider that until Herb Kelleher step down as president of Southwest, he personally had to approve any expenditures over a thousand dollars. Southwest is also a highly formalized company that sets to regulate and standardized behavior. Formalization is the degree to which jobs within an organization are standardized. Formalization is necessary for Southwest in order to keep up with its demand to have on-time flights. This standardization can be seen in Southwest’s fleet as

Southwest Airlines they only fly Boeing 737’s allowing any pilot to fly any plane which also makes maintenance of planes much easier. Although Southwest is a centralized, formalized, and standardized company,

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employees are not expected to follow these characteristics in regards to customer service. When it comes to customer service employees are allowed to use what the company calls “loose-tight” design, within the context of tight rules and procedures, employees are encourage to take a wide degree of leeway to ensure customer satisfaction (Buller, & Schuler, p.122). Take for instance the case where “an agent babysat a passenger’s dog for two weeks so that the customer could take a flight on which pets were not allowed” (Buller, & Schuler, p.125). This shows a lot of trust by upper management in its employees to make decisions on the behalf of the company. Southwest’s plan and success is believed not to be based around low cost fares but its employees. Southwest is able to get such great performance out of its employees by keeping them involved and informed in the company. Southwest is becoming notorious for how well they treat employees and in fact have to reject about a hundred-thousand applicants a year. As a result they have a turnover rate that is less then half of most other airlines (Buller, & Schuler, p.124). Southwest keeps employees involved in several ways and offer great benefits which include medical, dental and life insurance (SWA website, 2007). On top of that Southwest offers profit sharing plans, which are contributions that are made when the company meets profitability goals set each year (SWA website, 2007). The profit sharing plan is a large reason for the great service employees provide at Southwest, as this would give each employee an added interest in the success of the company. As each employee knows that the better the company does the more money

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they will receive. Southwest also keeps the employees informed on how the company is doing as well as other airlines in the industry. Southwest did this by incorporating a company newsletter it calls “LUV Lines,” the belief is that the more informed employees are on the industry the better suited they are to make decisions (Buller, & Schuler, p.125). Financial Projections Southwest Airlines has been producing a profit for the past 33 years and plans on continuing to do so as seen in planned future estimates. These predicted financial statements developed by Merrill Lynch Brokerage Firm point to future profitability for Southwest.

Southwest Airlines Forecasted Income Statement (US$ Millions) Year 2005A 2006A Sales 7,583 9,086 % Change 16.2% 19.8% Gross Profit % Change EBITDA % Change Net Interest & Other income Net Income (Adjusted) % Change 1,342 21.3% 1,353 35.1% 63 433 30.4% 584 34.7% 1,658 23.5% 1,425 5.3% -145

2007E 10,089 11.0% 1,941 17.1% 1,789 25.5% -12 724 24.0%

2008E 11,121 10.2% 2,218 14.2% 2,047 174.4% 0 846 17.0%

2009E 11,866 6.7% 2,347 5.8% 2,176 6.3% 5 888 4.9%

Southwest Airlines Forecasted Balance Sheet (US $ Millions) Year 2005A 2006A Cash & Equivalents 2,280 1,390 Trade Receivables 258 241 Other Current Assets 1,082 970 Property, Plant & Equipment 9,427 10,094 Other Non-Current Assets Total Assets 1,171 14,218 765 13,460

2007E 2,173 383 957 11,038 683 15,234

2008E 3,014 423 1,055 11,926 753 17,170

2009E 3,925 451 1,125 12,746 804 19,050

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Short-Term Debt Other Current Liabilities Long-Term Debt Other Non-Current Liabilities Total Liabilities Total Equity Total Equity & Liabilities 601 3,247 1,394 2,301 7,543 6,675 14,218 122 2,765 1,567 2,557 7,011 6,449 13,460 78 3,085 2,366 2,547 8,076 7,159 15,234 78 3,401 3,212 2,580 9,179 7,991 17,170 78 3,629 3,875 2,604 10,185 8,865 19,050

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Summary Southwest prides itself on providing leading customer service and the lowest prices for flights in the industry. Their goal is to remain profitable while keeping air travel simple. SWA is an entirely domestic airline that focuses on smaller airports throughout the nation. By competing in smaller hub locations Southwest has been able to gain a large portion of the market industry. Southwest tries to appeal to the entire general public, while many of their passengers are business people or customers who fly in-state. Southwest has established a firm hold in the airline industry, and with their long streak of profitability Southwest Airlines is here to stay.

Southwest Airlines References ATA Issue Brief. (October 2006). U.S. Airlines Support Development of Alternative Fuels. Retrieved April 21, 2007 from http://www.airlines.org/government/issuebriefs/Alt+Fuels.htm Buller, and Schuler. (2006). Managing Organizations and People: Southwest Airlines: Can LUV Rule the World? Mason, OH: Thomson South-Western Creamer, M (2005, 07, 11). Southwest rings $20M in fares with killer app.. Advertising Age, 76, Retrieved April 2, 2007, from http://search.ebscohost.com Euromonitor International.Nov.2006.Southwest Airlines co. http://www.euromonitor.com/Southwest_Airlines_Co_ (Travel_And_Tourism)

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Evans Jr., David. (June 23, 2006). Nuts about Southwest. Retrieved April 19, 2007 from http://www.blogsouthwest.com/2006/06/23/market-research-101/ Goetzl, D (1999, 04, 19). Southwest lifts minority ads in expanded five-part TV plan. Advertising Age, 70, Retrieved April 13, 2007, from http://search.ebscohost.com Lamb,Hair,McDaniel.Marketing9e.Thomson now. 2007 M-Travel.com. March 4th 2007. Southwest may charge more for extra services. http://www.mTravel.com/news/2007/03/southwest_airli.ht ml Reed, D (2005, 01, 06). Southwest Airlines heads to Pittsburgh. USA Today, Retrieved April 17, 2007, from http://search.ebscohost.com Reed, D (2007, 03, 26). Are extra fees in Southwest's future?. USA Today, Retrieved 03, 27, 2007, from http://search.ebscohost.com

Southwest Airlines Southwest Airlines website.(updated May 2007). About Southwest. Information form

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parts: Our Mission, History, Investor Relations, Careers.Retrieved April 4, 2007 from http://www.southwest.com/about_swa/ Southwest Airlines site. 2007. Southwest. http://www.southwest.com/ University of North Alabama site.4/5/2002. Try to march our prices.http://distance.una.edu/~kabsher/southwes.htm Unknown. (2004, 03, 08). Bank One-Southwest rewards. American Banker, 169, Retrieved April 14, 2007, from http://search.ebscohost.com Unknown. (2005, 06, 27). Southwest diverts path with product placement. Brandweek, 46, Retrieved April 2, 2007, from http://search.ebscohost.com Unknown. (2007, 04,03). Southwest airlines offers air fares as low as $49 one-way. Retrieved April 24, 2007, from CNN Money Web site: http://money.cnn/news/newsfeeds/articles Yahoo site.5/3/07.Yahoo finance LUV. http://finance.yahoo.com/q?s=luv