Hispanic Food _ Culture - Family and Consumer Science

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Hispanic Food _ Culture - Family and Consumer Science Powered By Docstoc
					Hispanic Culture and Food
   In-service Training
         April 8, 2003
 Barbara Brown, Ph.D., R.D./L.D.
               and
     Stephany Parker, Ph.D.
                     Overview
•   Major stereotypes about Hispanics
•   Regional variety
•   Common ingredients & considerations
•   Fitting Mexican food to the Pyramid
•   Learning to make good choices away
    from home



April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   2
          Major stereotypes about
                 Hispanics
• Presumption that Hispanics are
  "foreign" Source: Office of
  Minority Health, U.S.
• Source: U.S. Department of
  Health & Human Services



April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   3
          Major stereotypes: Race
• Hispanics are not a racial category
   – May be of many race backgrounds
   – Many cultures combined
• Does not fit the “neat & tidy” system
  of US




April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   4
          Major stereotypes about
            Hispanics: Language
• People assume Hispanics don’t speak
  English or learned recently
• Significant % of Hispanics speak no or
  minimal Spanish
   – Fluency less widespread in:
      • Urban Southwest & Midwest
      • Those in US longer
      • Younger people
April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   5
                Major stereotypes:
                live in rural areas
                              • 90% live in urban
                                areas
                              • Disproportionately
                                high in rural
                                workforce
                                 – Especially migrant
                                   workers


April 8, 2003     Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   6
                 Major stereotypes:
                Not National presence
                                    • Assumed
                                      concentrated only
                                      in certain regions
                                       – Southwest,
                                         Pacific Coast,
                                         New York area,
                                         S. Florida


April 8, 2003      Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   7
                Authentic Mexican
                                 • Rich in color and
                                   flavor
                                 • Much variety in
                                   ingredients
                                    – 60+ types of chiles
                                       • Staples of many
                                         regional dishes




April 8, 2003     Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service    8
                Regional diversity




April 8, 2003     Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   9
                Regional diversity
• Along coast: many seafood dishes
• Inland & high-land mountain: stews,
  intricate sauces & corn-based foods
• Desert areas: dishes containing cactus
  plants
• Often of blending of different
  cultures

April 8, 2003     Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   10
                Regional variety
• Basic recipes vary widely in different
  regions
   – Most meals served as authentic
     outside Mexico based on recipes
     from North or Central Mexico




April 8, 2003    Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   11
                     Tex-Mex
• Blended flavors of
  Northern Mexico &
  Southern US peoples
  – Native Americans
  – Cowboys
  – Mexicans



April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   12
                     Tex-Mex
• Traditional dishes altered by need &
  taste
• Most recognized in US as “Mexican
  food”
• Includes ingredients used in casseroles
  instead of served with tortillas
• Examples: chili, cornbread,
  tamale pie, fajitas
April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   13
     Traditional eating pattern
• 3 meals/day
• Each meal has 1 or
  more of:
   – Tortilla
   – Beans
   – Peppers




April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   14
Traditions
• Meals are social times
  with family & friends
  – Families eat
    together at least
    once/day
  – Lunch often eaten
    at home


April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   15
                    Traditions
• Leaving empty plate is impolite by well
  -to-do




April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   16
                Common ingredients
• Carnes (meat)                        • Bebidas (drinks)
• Pescado (fish)                       • Especias (spices)
• Mariscos                             • Condimentos
  (shellfish)                            (condiments)
• Legumbres                            • Postres
  (vegetables)                           (desserts)
• Frutas (fruits)                      • Dulces
• Nueces (nuts)                          (sweets)
April 8, 2003      Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service    17
                Carnes (meat)
• Cabra: goat                       •   Hígado: liver
• Carne de Res:                     •   Jamón: ham
  beef                              •   Lengua: tongue
• Carnero: lamb                     •   Pavo: turkey
• Chorizo: spicey
  sausage



April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   18
                         Carnes
•   Pato: Duck
•   Pollo: Chicken
•   Puerco: Pork
•   Salchicha: Sausage
•   Ternera: Veal
•   Tocino: Bacon (salt
    pork)

April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   19
                Pescado (fish)
• Abulón: abalone                   • Huachinango: red
• Atún: tuna                          snapper
• Cabrilla: sea                     • Pes Espada:
  bass                                swordfish
• Jurel: yellowtail                 • Lenguado:
• Pargo: snapper                      flounder or sole
• Tiburón: shark

April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   20
                Mariscos (shellfish)
•   Calamar: squid                     • Camarones:
•   Almejas: clams                       shrimp
•   Callos: scallops                   • Cangreio or
•   Ostinones:                           Jaiba: crab
    oysters                            • Langosta: lobster




April 8, 2003      Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   21
         Legumbres (vegetables)
•   Aceitunas: olives               • Camotes: sweet
•   Apio: celery                      potatoes
•   Arroz: rice                     • Cebolla: onion
•   Betabeles: beets                • Cebollita: green
•   Calabazas:                        onion
    pumpkins or
    squash

April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   22
                   Legumbres
• Chícharos: peas                   • Ensalada: salad
• Champioñes:                       • Lechuga: lettuce
  mushrooms                         • Maiz: corn off
• Ejotes: green                       the cob
  beans
• Elote: corn on
  the cob

April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   23
                   Legumbres
• Nopales: "young"                  • Repollo: cabbage
  leaves of prickly                 • Tomate: tomato
  pear cactus                       • Zanahoria: carrot
• Pepino: cucumber
• Papas: potatoes
• Rábano: radish



April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   24
                Frijoles: dried beans
• Staple of Mexican food
• Pinto most common
   – Also black, kidney, chickpeas




April 8, 2003       Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   25
                Cooking methods
• Frijoles de la Olla
  – Beans cooked in pot
• Refried beans
  – Cooked beans mashed & fried with
    lard or butter
  – Available canned
     • Full fat or 99% fat free

April 8, 2003    Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   26
                Chilies: peppers
                 • Poblano                        • Green
                 • Ancho: dried                     chilies
                   poblano                        • Serrano
                 • Pasilla                        • Jalapeno
                 • Chiltepin                      • Cherry
                 • Green, red,
                   etc. bells

April 8, 2003    Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service        27
     New Mexican (long green)




April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   28
                Pepper varieties
• Ancho (before
  drying)
                                     • Jalapeno




April 8, 2003    Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   29
                Pepper varieties
• Habanero                           • Serrano




April 8, 2003    Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   30
                Pepper varieties
• Cherry
                                     • Chiltepin




April 8, 2003    Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   31
                 Pepper heat
• Determined by:
  – Variety & variety within variety
  – Environment
• Capsaicin is cause
  – Concentrated in veins (not seeds)




April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   32
                     Capsaicin




April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   33
                How capsaicin works
• Stimulates nerve endings in mouth
• Fools brain into thinking there is pain
• Brain releases endorphins
  – similar to morphine
• Mild euphoria results
  – can be mildly addictive because
    of hot pepper "high"

April 8, 2003      Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   34
            Determining pungency
• “Bite the chile”
   – Most common
     method
   – Quick, cheap
   – Painful




April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   35
      Scoville organoleptic test
• How it works:
   – Taste chile sample & record heat
   – Samples diluted in lab until heat no
     longer detectable
• Still subjective test
• Limit on number of samples
  tested in specific time period

April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   36
      Scoville Heat Units Scale
      Pepper                      Scoville Units
      Orange Habanero               210,000
      Tabasco                       120,000
      Tepin                          75,000
      Chiltepin                      70,000
      Jalapeno                       25,000
      Cayenne                          8,000
      Serrano                          4,000
      Bell                                  0
April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   37
        High performance liquid
            chromatography
• Most accurate method
• Expensive test
• How it works
  – Peppers dried & ground
  – Heat causing chemicals extracted
  – Extract measured via
    chromatography
April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   38
          Other pepper products
• Chili powder
• Cayenne pepper or
  red pepper
• Red pepper flakes
• Hot pepper sauce




April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   39
                Cutting the pain
• To relieve burning
  mouth choose milk,
  yogurt, sour cream
• Casein (protein)
  breaks bond with
  pain receptors



April 8, 2003    Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   40
                        Hominy
• Dried white or yellow corn with hull &
  germ removed
   – Mechanically or
   – Chemically by soaking corn in slaked
     lime or lye
• Sold canned, ready-to-eat or dried
• Served in posole or pozole

April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   41
Benefits of lye-treated corn
• Treating with lye increases
  – Usable protein
  – Niacin
     • Reduced incidence of pellegra
        – Dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia,
          death
• No benefit from mechanical
  method
April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   42
Tomatillos
• Not green tomatoes
   – Related to Cape
     gooseberry
• Green outer husk resembles lantern
• Light green & tart
• Size varies from equal to a small
  shallot to a lemon

April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   43
                    Tomatillos
                               • Easy to grow
                               • Available canned
                               • In home canned
                                 salsa recipes use in
                                 place of red
                                 tomatoes



April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   44
Jicama
• AKA Mexican turnip
• Large tuberous root
• Eat raw or cooked
   – Peel & remove fibrous flesh under
     skin
   – Stays crisp when cooked


April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   45
                Frutas (fruits)
• Aguacate:                         • Limón: Lime or
  Avocado                             Lemon
• Duraznos:                         • Manzana: Apple
  Peaches
• Fresas:
  Strawberries
• Guayaba: Guava
• Higo: Fig
April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   46
                Frutas (fruits)
• Melón: Melon
• Naranja: Orange
  Piña: Pineapple
• Plátano: Banana
• Sandía: Watermelon
• Toronja: Grapefruit
• Uvas: Grapes

April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   47
                Nueces (nuts)
• Cacahuates: peanuts
• Coco: coconut
• Nuez de Castilla:
  walnuts




April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   48
Bebidas (beverages)
•   Aqua: water
•   Café: coffee
•   Crema: cream
•   Jugo de Naranja: orange juice
•   Leche: milk
•   Refrescos: soft drinks
•   Té Caliente: hot tea
•   Té Helado: iced tea
April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   49
Bebidas (alcoholic)
• Aguardiente:                • Vino de
  brandy                        Champaña:
• Cerveza: beer                 champagne
• Ginebra: gin                • Vino Rosado:
                                rose wine
• Ron: rum
                              • Vino Tinto: red
• Vino Blanco:
                                wine
  white wine

April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   50
                Alcohol and cooking

• Can tenderize (acid)
• Adds flavor
• Some evaporates
  – Leaves flavor, few
    calories




April 8, 2003      Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   51
    Cooking method using alcohol                         % Retained
  Added to boiling liquid & taken                           85
  from heat
  Flamed                                                    75
  Baked 25 min, not stirred into                            45
  mixture
  Baked/simmered, stirred into
  mixture
     –30 min                                                35
     –1 hour                                                25
     –2 hours                                               10
April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service           52
                Alcohol substitutions
• Savory dishes: for 1 cup wine use
  – 7/8 cup fat-free low-sodium broth,
    white grape juice, apple juice or
    tomato juice
  – + 2 T fresh lemon juice or vinegar




April 8, 2003      Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   53
Alcohol substitutions & desserts
• Wine: fruit juice + dash balsamic
  vinegar
• Orange liqueur: frozen orange juice
  concentrate + grated orange zest
• Coffee liqueur: double-strength
  espresso or instant coffee made with
  4-6 times amount normally used
• Brandy or rum: extracts
April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   54
            Especias y Condimentos
             (spices & condiments)
• Ajo: garlic                       • Mostaza:
• Azucar: sugar                       Mustard
• Canela: cinnamon                  • Parejíl: parsley
• Mantequilla:                      • Pimienta: pepper
  butter                            • Sal: salt
• Mayonesa:                         • Vainilla: vanilla
  mayonaise
• Miél: honey
April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service    55
Cilantro
• Fresh green coriander
  leaves & stems
   – Chinese parsley
• No substitute for
  flavor
• Wash just before using
• Use leaves & tender
  stems

April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   56
  Store cilantro up to 1 week
• Refrigerated in plastic bag
OR
• Bunch placed, stems down, in glass of
  water & covered with plastic bag
  – Bag secured to glass with rubber
    band
  – Refrigerated & water changed
    every 2—3 days
April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   57
                  Postres y Dulces
                (desserts & sweets)
•   Bolillos: French-style Rolls
•   Flan: Custard
•   Galletas: Cookies
•   Helado: Ice Cream
•   Paleta: Flavored Ice on a Stick
•   Pan Dulce: Sweet Bread
•   Pastel: Cake
•   Pay: Pie
April 8, 2003     Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   58
                Other foods
•   Caldo: broth                    • Tortilla
•   Fideos: noodles                 • Masa Harina
•   Huevos: eggs                    • Mole
•   Pan: bread
•   Sopa: soup




April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   59
                Queso: cheese
• Queso blanco—white, fresh, salty
• Queso añejo—aged, salty, crumbly
  cheese
• Queso de Chihuahua
   – Eaten all over Mexico
   – Similar to a mild cheddar


April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   60
                Cheese caution
• Avoid raw milk cheeses
  – Potential for contamination &
    foodborne illness
  – Associated with Listeria outbreak




April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   61
                      Tortillas
• Eaten at almost every meal
• Everyday bread
• Unleavened, round & flat
• Made with corn flour (masa) or wheat
  – Corn most common, flour in north
• Baked on griddle


April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   62
                Tortilla uses
• Burritos: stuffed tortilla parcels
• Enchiladas: tortillas dipped in chili
  sauce, filled and baked
• Flautas: fried rolled filled tortillas
• Quesadillas: folded with cheese and
  fried



April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   63
                Tortilla uses
• Tacos: warmed or fried tortillas
  folded & filled
• Tostadas: crisp fried tortillas topped
  with chilli or beans
• Tortilla Chips: cut into wedges & deep
  fried



April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   64
                  Mole sauce
• Rich, dark reddish-brown sauce
• Usually a blend of onion, garlic,
  varieties of peppers, ground seeds, &
  Mexican chocolate
   – Chocolate gives richness, not
     sweetness



April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   65
         Fitting in Mexican food
                                          • Can be good
                                            fit with food
                                            guide pyramid




April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service      66
         Not so well fitted taco
• Crunchy taco shell
• Extra meat (ground beef)
• Extra cheese
  – Melted bits scratched from paper




April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   67
         Not so well fitted taco
• Sour cream
• Lettuce, tomato,
  olive slice
   – Most falls off
     & is not eaten




April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   68
                Better built taco
•   Soft tortilla
•   Grilled meat, not ground
•   Less cheese or reduced fat
•   Reduced fat sour cream or omit
•   Salsa
•   Extra lettuce, tomato, olives


April 8, 2003     Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   69
                Restaurant meals
• Can be high fat, sodium
  – Beef & Cheese Nachos had fat =
    ten glazed doughnuts
  – Chicken Burrito dinner had a day's
    worth sodium
  – Chile Relleno dinner had saturated
    fat = 27 bacon slices
     Source: Center for Science in the Public Interest


April 8, 2003        Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   70
                Eating Mexican out:
                 Limit side orders

• Rice: over 800mg sodium per 3/4 cup




April 8, 2003     Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   71
                          Beans
• Almost as much
  sodium as rice
• Much fat included if
  refried
   – Lard, bacon,
     cheese



April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   72
                Other sides with fat
     •   Sour cream
     •   Guacamole
     •   Salad dressing
     •   Butter




April 8, 2003      Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   73
         Poor choices when eating
         Mexican out: Main dishes
•   Tortillas softened in oil or deep-fried
•   Filling ingredients fried
•   Smothered in melted cheese
•   High fat sides used as toppings
    – Sour cream
    – Guacamole


April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   74
   Healthy eating out: choose
• Low-fat appetizers
   – Gazpacho (cold tomato soup), black
     bean or tortilla soup, jicama with
     salsa
• Salsa on meal & chips
   – No butter, sour cream, guacamole
• Beans: cooked in pot,
  not refried
April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   75
                Limit fried chips




April 8, 2003    Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   76
         Healthy entrée choices
                                    • Baked, grilled,
                                      stir-fried:
                                      enchiladas,
                                      fajitas




April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   77
         Healthy entrée choices
• Order regular plate
  – Combo plates often larger
  – Don’t “super size”




April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   78
                   Taco salad
• Eat less tortilla
  shell or chips
• Grilled or baked
  meat
• Salsa instead of
  dressing or sour
  cream
• Limit cheese
April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   79
                Good choices
• Fajitas, burritos, quesadillas, soft
  tacos
   – Limit high fat ingredient toppings




April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   80
          Large portion solutions
                Share with friend




April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   81
          Large portion solutions
• To-go box at start
  – Food safety
    considerations
     • 2 hours at room
       temperature
     • Transfer to
       appropriate container
       at home

April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   82
                         Review
• Examined common stereotypes about
  Hispanics
• There is much regional variety
• Looked at common ingredients &
  considerations for healthier choices




April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   83
                         Review
• How to fit Mexican food to the
  Pyramid
• How to make good choices away from
  home




April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   84
April 8, 2003   Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service   85

				
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