The Native Americans

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					The Native
n   Culture
n   Language
n   Kinship system
n   Political - economic
n   In 1500 Native American population stood at
    10,000,000 and by 1900 declined to less than
 and Native
  Views of
Government Actions toward Native Americans

n   1778 - Continental Congress: Reaffirms 1763 British
    policy (tribes accorded independent nation status; lands
    west of the Appalachian mountains are Native American;
    royal government must approve all land purchases).
n   1787 - Northwest Territory Ordinance: Opens the
    Midwest for settlement; declares U.S. government
    responsible for Native American property rights and
n   1824 - Bureau of Indian Affairs is created under the
    jurisdiction of the secretary of war.
n   1830 - Indian Removal Bill: Mandates all Indians must
    move west of the Mississippi.
Government Actions toward Native Americans
n   Indian Removal Act (1830)
     n This act called for the expulsion of all Native
       Americans from southeastern states and their
       relocation to the territory west of the Mississippi.
     n Combining two Supreme Court Cases (1832), the court
       ruled that the Cherokee were a “domestic dependent
n   1830–1880 - As forced segregation becomes the new
    Native American reality most reservations are established.
n   1871 - Appropriations bill rider: ended federal recognition
    of Native American tribes as independent or as “domestic
    dependent nations”
           Government Actions (continued)
    n made tribes wards of the government, no longer

      independent nations; legislation, not
      negotiation, is to determine any new
n   1887 - Dawes Act: Reservations divided in tracts, allotted
    to individual tribal members; surplus land sold.
n   1898 - Curtis Act: Terminates tribal governments that
    refuse allotment to individual tribal members; surplus
    land sold.
n   1906 - Burke Act: Eliminates Native Americans’ right to
    lease their land, with the intent to force Native Americans
    to work the land themselves.
           Government Actions (continued)

n   1924 - Indian Citizenship Act: Grants US citizenship
n   1934 - Indian Reorganization Act: Ends allotment,
    encourages tribal self-government; restores freedom of
    religion; extends financial credit to the tribes
     n gave preference in BIA employment to Native
     n permitted consolidation of Native American lands split
       up through inheritance, and
     n promotes revival of Native American culture and
n   1952 - Relocation Program: Moves Native Americans at
    government expense to urban areas for better jobs.
           Government Actions (continued)

n   1953 - Termination Act: Elimination of reservation
    systems, ends federal services and tax immunity.
n   From 1953-1954 a series of bills sought to end federal
    responsibility for welfare and administration of Native
n   1972 - Indian Education Act
n   1973 - Menominee Restoration Act: Revokes termination
    and restores Menominee’s reservation and tribal status.
n   1974 - Indian Finance Act: Grants and loans for Native
    American enterprises and development projects .
n   1975 - Indian Self-Determination and Education
    Assistance Act: Expands tribal control over reservation
    programs; provides funding for public schools on/near
Formerly Terminated Native American Tribes Now Restored
      The Termination Act of 1953
n   The most controversial governmental policy
    toward reservation life
n   It reduced costs and ignored individual needs
n   Federal services were stopped immediately
n   The effect of the governmental order was
n   In 1975, the government resumed the services
            Government Actions (continued)
n   1976 - Indian Health Care Improvement Act: Provides
    funds to build/renovate hospitals, add personnel, scholar-
    ships for Native Americans in Indian Health Service.
n   From 1977-1990 most tribes that had been terminated had
    their federal recognition restored, but in many cases, not
    their land.
n   1978 - Education Amendments Act: Gives substantial
    control over education programs to Native Americans.
n   1978 - Tribally Controlled Community College
    Assistance Act: Provides grants to tribal community
          Government Actions (continued)
n   1978 - Indian Child Welfare Act: Restricts placement of
    Native American children into non-Native American
n   1978 - American Indian Religious Freedom Act: Protects
    Native American religious rights, including peyote use.
n   1988 - Indian Gaming Regulatory Act
n   1993 - Religious Freedom Restoration Act: Restores
    standards of review for American Indian Religious
    Freedom Act that were overturned by a Supreme Court
    ruling in 1990.
n   1993 - Omnibus Indian Advancement Act: Establishes
    foundation for gifts to BIA schools; increases economic
    development opportunities for tribes; improves tribal
n   1990 - Indian Art & Craft Act
Native American Lands and
 Ten Largest
American Indian
Tribal Groupings,
Reservation Life & Federal Policies
n   Approximately 25% of the Native American
    population live on reservations with
    approximately 75% living in Urban areas
n   There are slightly over 557 recognized
    reservations in the United States
     Native American Legal Claims
n   From 1836 to 1946 Native Americans could
    not bring a claim against the government
    without an Act of Congress
    n   Only 142 claims were heard during this period
n   In 1946 Congress established the Indian
    Claims Commission to hear claims against the
     Native American Legal Claims
n   Led to an increase in claims
n   Commission was extended until 1978 - now
    cases are heard by U.S. Court of Claims
n   Amount of awards and setoffs
n   The case of the Black Hills
    n   Desire to recover land over financial settlement
    Employment Assistance Program
n   Program led to the relocation from reservations
    to urban areas
    n   Provided educational and business assistance
    n   Impact on the economic development of the
        reservation and the brain drain
n   Return to the reservation
n   While collaborative action gathering cannot be
    minimized, there continues to be a strong
    effort to maintain tribal sovereignty or tribal
                 Collective Action
n   Pan-Indianism
    n   Intertribal movement and solidarity
    n   Emerged out of the effects of internal colonialism
    n   A social movement attempting to establish a
        Native American ethnic identity instead of just a
        tribal identity
    n   has not been completely accepted as many Native
        Americans prefer to preserve their own tribal
    n   Action occurred at Alcatraz (1969) and at
        Wounded Knee, SD (1973)
                         Red Power
n   National Congress of American Indians (NCAI),
    founded in Denver 1948
    n   Political role of NCAI
        nProvides national leadership on issues facing tribal communities
         throughout the United States. Services include legislative alerts
         and lobbying.
        nFounded in response to termination and assimilation policies that

         the United States forced upon the tribal governments in
         contradiction of their treaty rights and status as sovereigns.
        nNCAI stressed the need for unity and cooperation among tribal

         governments for the protection of their treaty and sovereign rights.
        nSince 1944, the National Congress of American Indians has been

         working to inform the public and Congress on the governmental
         rights of American Indians and Alaska Natives.
              Collective Action
n   Urban problems and AIM- founded by Clyde
    Bellecourt and Dennis Banks in 1968 at
    Minneapolis, MN
n   Fishing rights in the Northwest and fish-ins
n   Takeover of Alcatraz in 1969
n   Red Power
n   Aim and the Ogallala Sioux and Wounded
           Native Americans Today
n   Economic development - high rate of
    unemployment and poverty
n   Tourism and the double edged sword
    n   source of income but also a source of degradation
n   Cottage industries
n   Income from mineral rights
n   Casino gambling
           Native Americans Today
n   Government employment
    n   BIA subculture
    n   Education
n   Federal control of Native American education
    n   BIA schools
n   Some tribes formed their own education systems
n   Educational Attainment - drop out or pushout rate is
    50% higher than for Blacks or Hispanics
n   Testing, schooling and the crossover effect
n   Under-enrollment at all levels, from the primary
    grades through college
n   The need to adjust to a school with values sometimes
    dramatically different from those of the home
n   The need to make the curriculum more relevant
n   The under-financing of tribal community colleges
n   The unique hardships encountered by reservation-
    born Native Americans who later live in and attend
    schools in large cities
n   The language barrier faced by the many children who
    have little or no knowledge of English
n   High rate of:
    1. Alcoholism and mortality
    2. Under nutrition
    3. Tuberculosis and death
    4. High rate of teenage suicide
n   Lack of access to health care resources
            Religious Expression
n   American Indian Religious Freedom Act passed by
    Congress in 1978
n   Act contains no penalties and enforcement provisions
n   Native American Church - ritualistic use of peyote
    and marijuana
n   In 1994, Congress amended the Indian Religious
    Freedom Act to allow Native Americans the right to
    use, transport, and possess peyote for religious
n   CERT was formed in 1976 - Council of Energy
    Resource Tribes
n   Consisted of twenty-five of the West’s largest tribes
n   Other tribes were added later
n   Purpose to protect and develop tribal natural
    resources such as natural gas
n   Environmental justice
n   Continued land disputes
n   Environmental justice
n   Balance between environmental and economic needs
n   Spiritual needs
        Native Americans - Still Exploited
n   Today, many people in the U.S. are oblivious to Native
    Americans’ problems and consider them quaint relics of
    the past; others find them undesirable and some want
    their land and will use almost any means to secure it.
n   Native Americans still encounter discrimination in stores,
    bars, and housing, particularly in cities and near the
    reservations. They have been beaten or killed and their
    property rights infringed on.
n   Of all the minorities in the United States, according to
    government statistics on income, Native Americans are
    the “poorest of the poor.”
    Present-Day Native American Life
l   By 2002 the Native American and Alaska native
    population was 2.8 million.
     – The Native American birth rate is almost twice the national
     – Half the population of Native Americans live on
       reservations that provide inadequate economic support.
l   Chronic unemployment is a serious problem.
l   Some tribes have succeeded through their own
    Present-Day Native American Life
l   The average life span in some tribes is 45 years.
     – Nationally, the average life span is about 10 years
       less than the average.
l   Deaths by suicide among Native American
    males aged 15 to 24 is 50% greater than among
    the general population’s youth.
l   The most serious problem facing Native
    Americans today is alcohol abuse.
              Still Exploited (continued)
n   Encroachment on Native American land continues.
    Water and energy needs have led government and
    industry to look covetously at reservation land once
    considered worthless.
n   Poor, but with large tracts of isolated land, Native
    Americans in recent years have seen their reservations
    recommended as toxic-waste dumping grounds.
n   Urban sprawl and agribusiness have prompted whites to
    sink deep wells around reservations in Arizona,
    siphoning off the water reserves of several tribes.
n   A growing number of sacred Native American sites are
    under threat from housing developments and industrial
    Present-Day Native American Life
l   The Educational Amendments Act of 1978 gave
    substantial control over school programs to the
    Native American communities.
l   Bilingual Native American language programs in
    17 states help preserve ancestral language and
    teach English to children who were raised in
    homes where only their tribal language was
l   One of the most visible signs of Native Americans’
    economic deprivation is reservation house.
       Urban Native Americans
l   About 70 percent of all Native Americans live in
    urban areas or away from the reservations.
l   Twice as many urban Native Americans live in
    poverty compared to all other racial and ethnic
    groups combined.
l   Although urban Native Americans are more likely
    to be employed than those who remain on the
    reservation, they do not achieve any improved
    income earnings, on average, until after five years
    of residence in the city.
Social Indicators About Native American Progress
                                    (in percentages)
Socioeconomic Characteristics of Native Americans,
                      The Courts
l   In the late 20th century legal efforts to force the
    government to honor tribes’ treaty rights were
    more numerous and successful.
    – Legal action occurred in
       South Dakota       Maine
       Washington         Wyoming
       Colorado           New Mexico
       New York
Intergroup Relations Continuum

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