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Unit Three: New Empires and New Faiths Chapter Eight: The Rise of Rome Section Four: The Early Empire Guide to Reading • Main Ideas • Key Places, People, and – By expanding the Terms empire and – Rhine River reorganizing the – Danube River military and – Puteoli government, Augustus – Ostia created a new era of – Caligula prosperity. – Nero – Rome’s system of – Hadrian roads, aqueducts, – Pax Romana ports, and common – aqueduct currency made the – currency empire rich and prosperous. Did You Know? •The first fire brigade, or fire department, was created by Augustus. The Emperor Augustus •The Pax Romana is the long era of peace that began with Augustus. The Emperor Augustus • Augustus built a permanent, professional army and created a special guard called the Praetorian Guard, who guarded him. The Emperor Augustus •Augustus restored Rome’s splendor and fed the hungry poor of Rome with imported grain. The Emperor Augustus • Augustus appointed a proconsul, or governor, for each province, replacing politicians appointed by the Senate. The Emperor Augustus • Augustus reformed the tax system by making tax collectors permanent workers, and he reformed the legal system by creating a set of laws for people who were not citizens. The Emperor Augustus • The Julio-Claudian emperors were the rulers who followed Augustus: Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. –Caligula and Nero were cruel leaders, and Tiberius and Claudius were competent rulers. Discussion Question • What did Augustus do to make the empire safer and stronger? • What lands did Augustus conquer during his reign? Unity and Prosperity •Vespasian restored order to Rome after the chaos following Nero’s death. Unity and Prosperity •The Jewish temple in Jerusalem was destroyed by Vespasian’s armies in the effort to put down a Jewish Unity and Prosperity •Mount Vesuvius erupted and destroyed the city of Pompeii in A.D. 79. Unity and Prosperity • The rulers known as the good emperors were Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. –The Roman Empire flourished under their rule. Unity and Prosperity • Aqueducts are human- made water channels for carrying water long distances. –They were created during the prosperous times of the good emperors. Unity and Prosperity • The Roman Empire became one of the largest empires in history during the reign of the good emperors. –The different people of the Roman Empire were united by Roman law, Roman rule, and their shared identity as Romans. Unity and Prosperity • Most people were farmers who grew olives, grapes, and grain. • Other people were artisans who traded with others inside and outside the Roman Empire. Unity and Prosperity •Roads and currency —a system of money —were important to the prosperous trade that developed. Unity and Prosperity • A gap existed between rich merchants, shopkeepers, and skilled workers and poor farmers and city dwellers. Discussion Question •Who were the “Good Emperors,” and what did they accomplish? •Why were aqueducts important? Section 4 Review • What was the Pax Romana? • What products came from the farms of Italy, Gaul, and Spain? • Describe the sequence of emperors who ruled Rome, from Augustus through the “Good Emperors.” • What was Rome’s creation of a common currency important? Graphic Organizer Add details about the improvements and changes Augustus made to the Roman Empire during his reign. Changes Under Augustus Journal Assignment Who do you think was a more important leader, Julius Caesar or Augustus? Explain.
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