Flammable and Combustible Liquids in the USA

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					Flammable and Combustible Liquids in the USA

Slide 1 (of 23)

Introduction
The two primary hazards associated with flammable and combustible liquids are explosion and fire Safe handling and storage of flammable liquids requires the use of approved equipment and practices per OSHA standards
Slide 2 (of 23)

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Flash Point
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Flash point means the minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off enough vapor to form an ignitable In general, the lower the flash point, the greater the hazard

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Flammable liquids have flash points below 100oF, and are more dangerous than combustible liquids, since they may be ignited at room temperature
Combustible liquids have flash points at or above 100oF Although combustible liquids have higher flash points than flammable liquids, they can pose serious fire and/or explosion hazards when heated
Slide 3 (of 23)

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Classes of Flammable and Combustible Liquids 200
140
( Flash Point oF)

Classes of Flammable and Combustible Liquids
200

100 73

IIIA
140

II
100 73

Combustible (FP > 100oF) Flammable (FP < 100oF)

IC IA IB

100 Boiling Point (oF)
OSHA Office of Training and Education
4

Slide 4 (of 23)

Classes of Some Flammable Liquids
Common Name
CLASS IA Ethyl Ether

Flash Point (oF)‫‏‬
-49

CLASS IB

Gasoline Methyl Ethyl Ketone Toluene

-45 21 40

CLASS IC

Xylene Turpentine
Slide 5 (of 23)

81-115 95

Program Components
A good plan for safe use of flammable and combustible liquids contains at least these components:
   

Control of ignition sources Proper storage Fire control Safe handling

Slide 6 (of 23)

Sources of Ignition
Must take adequate precautions to prevent ignition of flammable vapors. Some sources of ignition include:
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Open flames Smoking Static electricity Cutting and welding Hot surfaces Electrical and mechanical sparks Lightning
Slide 7 (of 23)

Static Electricity
Generated when a fluid flows through a pipe or from an opening into a tank Main hazards are fire and explosion from sparks containing enough energy to ignite flammable vapors Bonding or grounding of flammable liquid containers is necessary to prevent static electricity from causing a spark

Slide 8 (of 23)

Bonding
Physically connect two conductive objects together with a bond wire to eliminate a difference in static charge potential between them Must provide a bond wire between containers during flammable liquid filling operations, unlessSlide 9 (of 23) a

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Grounding
Eliminates a difference in static charge potential between conductive objects and ground Although bonding will eliminate a difference in potential between objects, it will not eliminate a difference in potential between these objects and earth unless one of the Slide (of objects is connected10to 23)

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Ventilation
Always provide adequate ventilation to reduce the potential for ignition of flammable vapors.

Slide 11 (of 23)

Storage Fundamentals
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Identify incompatible chemicals – check the Material Safety Data Sheet Isolate and separate incompatible materials
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Isolate by storing in another area or room Degree of isolation depends on quantities, chemical properties and packaging Separate by storing in same area or room, but apart from each other
Slide 12 (of 23)

Storage of Flammable and Combustible Liquids
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Storage must not limit the use of exits, stairways, or areas normally used for the safe egress of people In office occupancies:
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Inside storage room

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Storage prohibited except that which is required for maintenance and operation of equipment Storage must be in:
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closed metal containers Slide 13 (of 23) inside a storage cabinet, or

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Safety Cans for Storage and Transfer Approved container of not
more than 5 gallons capacity Spring-closing lid and spout cover Safely relieves internal pressure when exposed to fire
Slide 14 (of 23)

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Flame Arrester Screen
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Prevents fire flashback into can contents Double wire-mesh construction Large surface area provides rapid dissipation of heat from fire so that vapor temperature inside can remains below ignition point

Slide 15 (of 23)

Storage Cabinets
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Not more than 60 gal of Class I and/or Class II liquids, or not more than 120 gal of Class III liquids permitted in a cabinet Must be conspicuously labeled, “Flammable - Keep Fire Away” Doors on metal cabinets must have a three-point lock (top, side, and bottom), and the door sill must be raised(ofat least Slide 16 23)

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Fire Control
Suitable fire control devices, such as small hose or portable fire extinguishers must be available where flammable or combustible liquids are stored Open flames and smoking must not be permitted in these storage areas Materials which react with water must not be stored in the same room with flammable 17 (of 23) or Slide

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Transferring Flammable Liquids
Since there is a sizeable risk whenever flammable liquids are handled, OSHA allows only four methods for transferring these materials:
1. 2. 3.

4.

Through a closed piping system From safety cans By gravity through an approved selfclosing safety faucet By means of a safety pump
Slide 18 (of 23)

Self-Closing Safety Faucet
wire between drum and container  Grounding wire between drum and ground  Safety vent in drum
 Bonding

Slide 19 (of 23)

Safety Pump
Faster and safer than using a faucet  Spills less likely  No separate safety vents in drum required  Installed directly in drum bung opening  Some pump hoses have integral bonding wires

Slide 20 (of 23)

Waste and Residue
Combustible waste and residue must be kept to a minimum, stored in covered metal receptacles and disposed of daily.

Waste drum with disposal funnel

Safety disposal can

Oily-waste can (self-closing lid)‫‏‬

Slide 21 (of 23)

Safe Handling Fundamentals
Carefully read the manufacturer’s label on the flammable liquid container before storing or using it Practice good housekeeping in flammable liquid storage areas Clean up spills immediately, then place the cleanup rags in a covered metal container Only use approved metal safety containers or original manufacturer’s container to store flammable liquids Keep the containers closed when not in use and store away from exits or passageways Use flammable liquids only where there is plenty of ventilation Slide away Keep flammable liquids 22 (of 23) from ignition sources such

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Hazardous Materials
Subpart H

Subpart H Standards
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1910.101 1910.102 1910.103 1910.104 1910.105 1910.106

Compressed Gases Acetylene Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrous Oxide Flammable and Combustible Liquids

Subpart H Standards
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1910.107

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Spray Finishing using Flammable and Combustible Materials 1910.108 Dip Tanks containing Flammable and Combustible Liquids 1910.109 Explosives and Blasting Agents

Subpart H Standards
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1910.110
1910.111 1910.119 of 1910.120

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Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia Process Safety Management Highly Hazardous Chemicals Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response

Subpart H Standards
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1910.123
and 1910.124

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Dipping and coating operations: Coverage Definitions General Requirements for Dipping and Coating Operations

Subpart H Standards
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1910.125 Flammable Liquids

Additional Requirements for Dipping and Coating Operations that use or Combustible
Additional Requirements for Special Dipping and Coating Operations

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1910.126

Definitions
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Hazardous Chemical
Occupational Safety & Health Act (OSHA) term that denotes any chemical that would be a risk to employees if exposed in the work place

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Definition
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Highly Hazardous Chemical
OSHA term that denotes any chemical that would posses toxic, reactive, flammable or explosive properties

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Flammable and Combustible Liquids
1910.106

Definitions
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Aerosol
Aerosol shall mean a material which is dispensed from its container as a mist, spray, or foam by a propellant under pressure

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Definitions
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Approved
Approved shall mean an approved or listed by a national recognized testing laboratory Such as:
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Underwriters Laboratories (UL) or Factory Mutual (FM)

Definitions
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Boiling Point
Boiling point shall mean the boiling point of a liquid at a pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (psia). The pressure is equivalent to 760 millimeters of mercury (760 mm Hg) Liquid changes into a vapor

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Definitions
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Point
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Boiling

At temperatures above the boiling, the pressure of the atmosphere can no longer hold the liquid in the liquid state and bubbles begin to form.

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The lower the boiling point, the greater the vapor pressure at normal ambient temperatures and consequently the greater the risk.

Definitions
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Container
Container shall mean any can, barrel, or drum

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Definitions
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Closed Container
Closed container shall mean a container so sealed by means of a lid or other device that neither liquid or vapor will escape from it at ordinary temperatures

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Definitions
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Fire Area
Fire area shall mean an area of a building separated from the remainder of the building by construction having a fire resistance of at least 1 hour and having all communicating openings properly protected by an assembly having a fire resistance rating of at least one hour.

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Definitions
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Flash Point
Flash point means the minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off vapor within a test vessel in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid. The flash point is normally an indication of susceptibility to ignition.

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Combustible Liquid

Definitions

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Combustible liquid means any liquid having a flash point at above 100°F (37.8 °C). Combustible liquids are divided into two classes:
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Class II Class III

Definitions
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Class II Liquids
Class II liquids shall include those with a flash point at or above 100°F (37.8°C) and below 140°F (60°C)

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Definitions
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Class III Liquids
Class III liquids shall include those with flash points at or above 140°F (60°C). Class III are divided into two classes:
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Class IIIA Class IIIB

Definitions
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Class IIIA Liquids
Class III liquids shall include those with flash points at or above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93.3°C)

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Definitions
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Class IIIB Liquids
Class IIIB liquids shall include those with a flash point at or above 200°F (93.3°C). This section does not regulate Class IIIB liquids.

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Definitions
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NOTE:
When a combustible liquid is heated to within 30°F (16.7°C) of its flash point, it shall be handled in accordance with the requirements for the next lower class of liquids

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Definitions
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Flammable Liquid
Flammable liquid means any liquid having a flash point below 100 °F (37.8 °C) Flammable liquids shall be known as Class I liquids

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Definitions
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Class I liquids are divided into three classes: Class 1A Class 1B Class 1C

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Definitions
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Class 1A
Class 1A shall include liquids having flash points below 73 °F (22.8°C) and having a boiling point below 100 °F (37.8°C) Examples: Ethyl Ether, Isopropyl Chloride, Pentane

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Definitions
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Class 1B Liquids
Class 1B shall include liquids having flash points below 73°F (22.8°C) and having a boiling point at or above 100°F (37.8°C) Example: Acetone, Gasoline, Toluene

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Definitions
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Class 1C
Class 1C shall include liquids having flash points at at or above 73°F (22.8°C) and below 100°F (37.8°C) Examples: Amyl Alcohol, Naphtha, Xylene

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Flash Point
200°F

IIIA
140°F

Combustible
Flash Point

100°F

II IC

> 100°F Flammable Flash Point

73°F

IA

IB
100°F

< 100°F

Boiling Point

Definitions
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Portable Tank
Portable tank shall mean a closed container having a liquid capacity over 60 U.S. gallons and not intended for fixed installation

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Definitions
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Safety Can
Safety can means an approved container, of not more than 5 gallons capacity, having a spring-closing lid and spout cover and so designed that it will safely relieve internal pressure when subject to fire exposure

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Definitions
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Vapor Pressure
Vapor Pressure is a measure of a liquid’s propensity to evaporate. The higher the vapor pressure, the more volatile the liquid and, thus, the more readily the liquid gives off vapors

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Flammable (Explosive) Limits
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Flammable Range
The range of a combustible vapor or gas-air mixture between the upper and lower flammable limits. Also, known as the “explosive range.”

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Flammable (Explosive) Limits
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Lower Flammable Limit
The lowest concentration at which a combustible gas forms a flammable mixture. Below the LFL there is too little combustible fuel to sustain a flame. Also, known as “Lower Explosive Limit or LEL.”

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Flammable (Explosive) Limits
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Upper Flammable Limit
The highest concentration at which a combustible gas forms a flammable mixture. Above the UFL there is too little oxygen to sustain a flame. Better known as “too rich” to burn. Also, known as “Upper Explosive Limit or UEL.”

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Flammable (Explosive) Limits
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Hazardous Material LFL Butane Ethylene Oxide Gasoline Hydrogen Isopropyl Alcohol Propane 1.9 3.0 1.4 4.0 2.0 2.1

UFL 8.5 100.0 7.6 75.0 12.7 9.5

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Sources of Ignition
Must take adequate precautions to prevent ignition of flammable vapors. Some sources of ignition include:
   


 

Open flames Smoking Static electricity Cutting and welding Hot surfaces Electrical and mechanical sparks Lightning

Static Electricity
 



Generated when a fluid flows through a pipe or from an opening into a tank Main hazards are fire and explosion from sparks containing enough energy to ignite flammable vapors Bonding or grounding of flammable liquid containers is necessary to prevent static electricity from causing a spark

Industrial Plants – Grounding
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Class I liquids shall not be dispensed into containers unless the nozzle and container are electrically interconnected

Bonding
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Physically connect two conductive objects together with a bond wire to eliminate a difference in static charge potential between them Must provide a bond wire between containers during flammable liquid filling operations, unless a metallic path between them is otherwise present

Grounding
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Eliminates a difference in static charge potential between conductive objects and ground Although bonding will eliminate a difference in potential between objects, it will not eliminate a difference in potential between these objects and earth unless one of the objects is connected to earth with a ground wire

Storage Cabinets
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Not more than 60 gal of Class I and/or Class II liquids, or not more than 120 gal of Class III liquids permitted in a cabinet Must be conspicuously labeled, “Flammable - Keep Fire Away” Doors on metal cabinets must have a three-point lock (top, side, and bottom), and the door sill must be raised at least 2 inches above the bottom of the cabinet

Fire Control
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Suitable fire control devices, such as small hose or portable fire extinguishers must be available where flammable or combustible liquids are stored Open flames and smoking must not be permitted in these storage areas Materials which react with water must not be stored in the same room with flammable or combustible liquids

Safety Pump
  

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Faster and safer than using a faucet Spills less likely No separate safety vents in drum required Installed directly in drum bung opening Some pump hoses have integral bonding wires

Waste and Residue
Combustible waste and residue must be kept to a minimum, stored in covered metal receptacles and disposed of daily.

Waste drum with disposal funnel

Safety disposal can

Oily-waste can (self-closing lid)

Service Stations
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No smoking or open flames in areas used for fueling, servicing fuel, etc. Conspicuous signs must be posted.

Liquid Transfer
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If gravity transfer is used, must be through an approved self-closing valve. Transferring by means of air pressure on the container or portable tanks shall be prohibited.

Handling Liquids
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Flammable liquids shall be kept in covered containers when not actually in use.

Housekeeping
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Combustible waste and residue shall be kept to a minimum, stored in covered metal receptacles, and disposed of daily

Spray Finishing
1910.107

Definitions


Aerated Solid Powders


Aerated powders shall mean any powdered material used as a coating material which shall be fluidized within a container by passing air uniformly from below. It is common practice to fluidize such materials to form a fluidized powder bed and then dip the part to be coated into the bed in a manner similar to that used in liquid dipping. Such beds are also used as sources for powder spray operation

Definitions
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Spraying Area
Any area in which dangerous quantities of flammable vapors or mists, or combustible residues, dusts, or deposits are present due to the operation of spraying processes.

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Definitions
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Spray Booth
A power-ventilated structure provided to enclose or accommodate a spraying operation to confine and limit the escape of spray, vapor, and residue, and to safely conduct or direct them to an exhaust system

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Definitions
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Waterwash spray booth
A spray booth equipped with a water washing system designed to minimize dusts or residues entering exhaust ducts and to permit the recovery of overspray finishing material

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Definitions
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Dry spray booth
A spray booth not equipped with a water washing system as described in subparagraph (4) of this paragraph.

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Definitions
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Dry spray booth
A dry spray booth may be equipped with


distribution or baffle plates to promote an even flow of air through the booth or cause the deposit of overspray before it enters the exhaust duct; or overspray dry filters to minimize dusts or residues entering exhaust ducts; or where dry powders are being sprayed, with powder collection systems so arranged in the exhaust to capture oversprayed material.

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Separation of Operations
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Each spray booth shall be separated from other operations by: not less than 3 feet or by a partition or wall to reduce danger
3 ft 8 feet

3 feet

Sources of Ignition
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There will be no open flame or spark producing equipment in any spray area nor within 20 feet

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Space heating appliances, steam pipes, or hot surfaces shall not be located in the spray area

Electrical
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Class I or Class II, Division 1 Locations The interior of spray booths or rooms The interior of exhaust ducts Any area in the direct path of spray operations

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Electrical
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Class I or Class II, Division 2 Locations For open spraying, all space outside of but within 20 feet horizontally and 10 feet vertically
Spray Area 20’

Closed Top/Open Face Booth

Enclosed Spray Booth or Room

Open Spraying Locations

1910.119(a) Purpose
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This section contains requirements for preventing or minimizing the consequences of catastrophic releases

of:
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Toxic, Reactive,


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Flammable, or
Explosive chemicals

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These releases may result in toxic, fire or explosion hazards

1910.119(a)(1)Applicati on


A process which involves a chemical at or above the specified threshold quantities listed in Appendix A A process which involves a flammable liquid or gas (as defined in 1910.1200(c) of this part) on site in one location, in a quantity of 10,000 pounds (4535.9 kg) or more

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Review
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What is a flammable liquid? What is a combustible liquid? A Class 1A flammable liquid has a flash point of less than?

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Review
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What is the maximum amount of a 1A liquid that can be stored outside of a flammable storage cabinet or room?

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A 12B fire extinguisher must be located within _______ feet of flammable liquid storage room.

Summary


The two primary hazards associated with flammable and combustible liquids are explosion and fire Safe handling and storage of flammable liquids requires the use of approved equipment and practices per OSHA standards An excellent reference on this topic is National Fire Protection Association Standard No. 30, Flammable

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and Combustible Liquids Code
Slide 23 (of 23)


				
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