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					               Lecture 2



      History of Technology and
    Relation to Information Warfare


             Mohamed Sharif




1                                     ms
              Lecture Contents

    •   What is technology?
    •   What is High technology?
    •   Technology History
    •   Chinese Technology
    •   Western Technology
    •   Internet
    •   Internet tools and Malicious Software
    •   Technology in the recent wars



2                                               ms
           What is Technology?


    According to one dictionary:
    • The study, development, and application
      of devices, machines, and techniques for
      manufacturing and productive processes
    • A method or methodology that applies
      technical knowledge or tools.



3                                            ms
              What is Technology?


    • According to Michael Patrick “ Technology is
      the practical application of knowledge
      gained through theoretical research to
      specific production problem”.
    • According to Alan Paau “Technology =
      knowledge to do something”
    • According to Andrew Grove “Technology
      drives change”.

4                                                ms
        What is High Technology?


    High technology is based on a reference
    point and that reference point is time.
    Example:
     • Telephone and Mobile phone
     • Copper wire and Optical fiber




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         The Chariot and other Wheeled
                    Vehicles

    Give us your stuff!




                          I gotta get me one of those!


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                          The Bow

    Cool! This thing is high-tech!




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              The Composite Bow

    The composite bow had four times the range of a
    standard bow and may have given the Akkadians
    tactical superiority over the Sumerians
    (Iraq, mid 3rd millennium B.C.)


       http://www.theaha.org/tl/LessonPlans/nc/Kinard/nar
       amsin.htm



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               Gunpowder

    China: 10th century CE




9                            ms
     Transport




                 and




     Logistics

10                     ms
                 Chinese Technology


     •   Abacus 3000 B.C.
     •   Medical 2205 – 1766 B.C.
     •   Chemical warfare 403 – 206 B.C.
     •   Steel from cast iron 206 – 220 B.C.
     •   Parachute 206 - 220 B.C.
     •   Mechanical Clock 589 – 618 A.C.
     •   Gunpowder 618 - 907 A.D.
     •   Bomb 960 – 1279 A.D.


11                                             ms
            Western Technology

     Some of the technological invention in the 17th
     Century are
      • Telescope
      • Mechanical Calculator
      • Human-powered submarine
      • Steam Turbine
      • Rifles
      • Pistols
      • Air pump
      • Steam pump
12                                                     ms
          Western Technology (Conti.)

     Some of the technological invention in the 18th
     Century are
      • Steam engine
      • Electric Telegraph
      • Hot-air balloon
      • Submarine
      • Steamship
      • Bicycle
      • Smallpox vaccination
      • Battery
13                                                     ms
          Western Technology (Conti.)

     Some of the technological invention in the 19th
     Century are
      • Telegraph
      • Telephone
      • Amphibious vehicle
      • Armored worship
      • Machine Gun
      • Radar
      • Roll Film for camera
      • Barbed wire
      • Dynamite
14                                                     ms
          Western Technology (Conti.)

     Some of the technological invention in the 20th
     Century are
      • Airplane
      • Radio receiver
      • Atomic bomb
      • Hydrogen bomb
      • Television
      • Computer
      • Reliable Encryption Algorithm
      • Optical fiber
      • Internet
15                                                     ms
              Moore’s Law


     The capacity or circuit density of
     semiconductors doubles every 18
     months or quadruples every three
     years




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                 What is Internet ?

     • The Internet is a worldwide IP network, that
       links collection of different networks from
       various sources, governmental, educational
       and commercial.
     • Network of the networks
     • Also known as cyberspace and global
       information infrastructure (GII)



17                                                ms
           What is Internet ? (Conti.)

     According to John Perry Barlow “The
     Internet is too widespread to be easily
     dominated by any single government. By
     creating a seamless global-economic zone,
     anti-sovereign and unregulatable, the
     Internet calls into question the very idea of
     the nation-state”.




18                                                   ms
                       Internet

     Some of The Internet application are
       • E-mail
       • USNET
       • WWW
       • Search
       • E-commerce
       • Distance Learning


19                                          ms
                 Internet (Conti)

     Internet is the newest battlefield in the
     information warfare with dual use because
      • Hundreds of Internet Service Providers
        (ISP)
      • No protection and defensive standards
      • Few regulations




20                                               ms
        Internet tools and Malicious
               Software (Conti)

     Some of the Internet tools and other
     malicious software are used in the
     information warfare:
      • Hacker tools
      • Viruses
      • Worms
      • Trojan horses
      • Logic bombs

21                                          ms
          Internet tools and Malicious
                 Software (Conti)

     •   Cookies
     •   Steganography
     •   Encryption
     •   Processor serial number




22                                       ms
       Tools of Warfare in the context of the
             Evolution of Technology



     Agrarian        Industrial      Information
     Bows             Subs          Computers
     arrows           Tanks         Satellites
     Swords           Planes        Communications
     Guns             Missiles      Smart weapons



23                                                 ms
         Technology in the recent wars

     • German submarine “Wolf Packs” proved to
       be an important force during WWI.
     • During WWII, a brilliant Polish cryptanalyst
       named Rejewski figured out how the
       German Enigma machines worked and
       shared this with the Allies. Recovered code
       books revealed that weather information
       was being used as encryption keys.


24                                                    ms
      Technology in the recent wars (Cont.)


     • With this intelligence, code-breakers at
       Bletchley Park in England were able to
       break the German codes. This meant that
       the Allied convoys could avoid the German
       subs and many subs were sunk. This was a
       turning point in the war.
     • US used precision guided munitions in the
       Gulf war in 1991 and Iraq war in 2003


25                                                 ms

				
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posted:9/30/2013
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