1 1 The ability to reason

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					_____1. The ability to reason through a problem the first time through with no prior experience, is called a. associative behavior b. insight learning c. optimal forage d. imprinting e. altruistic behavior _____2. Action in which an organism helps another, even if it comes at its own expense, is called a. associative behavior b. insight learning c. optimal forage d. imprinting e. altruistic behavior _____3. Innate behavior learned during critical period early in life, is called a. associative behavior b. insight learning c. optimal forage d. imprinting e. altruistic behavior _____4. A baby duck runs for cover when a large object is tossed over its head. After this object is repeatedly passed overhead, the duck learns there is no danger and stops running for cover when the same object appears again. This is an example of a. imprinting b. fixed action pattern c. agonistic behavior d. habituation e. observational learning _____5. Pigeons in the park, when they are young, will flee from passing pedestrians. Over time, they learn that the people are not a threat and will not approach or harm them. Consequently, they stop running from people who get close to them. They have learned not to respond to the stimulus of a person approaching them. This behavior is an example of a. Pavlovian conditioning b. classical conditioning c. operant conditioning d. sensitization e. habituation _____6. The return of salmon to their own birth place to breed is an example of a. habituation b. a stimulus c. operant conditioning d. reasoned behavior e. imprinting

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_____7. Which of the following types of behavior describes the way that mice find their way through mazes? a. habituation b. imprinting c. reasoning d. instinct e. trial and error _____8. A young gosling follows its mother soon after birth. If a human raises the gosling from birth, the young gosling follows the human. If no animate object is nearby at birth, the gosling fails to follow its mother or a human if either are introduced several days after birth. This behavior can best be described as a. insight b. associative learning c. imprinting d. fixed action pattern e. trial and error learning _____9. Some young scrub jays in Florida assist parent birds in feeding younger birds at the nest. This is an example of a. altruism or kin selection b. natural selection c. operant conditioning d. artificial selection _____10. A scientist decides that right before feeding a cat each day, she would ring a bell in another room and then bring the food into the room. Soon after the experiment began, the cat would begin to salivate in anticipation of the food before the scientist had even enter the room. This is an example of a. fixed action pattern b. habituation c. imprinting d. associative learning e. observational learning _____11. Two wolves cross paths in the forest. They both immediately begin growling as their fur stands up on its ends, and they circle each other and stare each other down. This interaction is an example of a. agonistic behavior or territoriality b. dominance hierarchies c. altruistic behavior d. inclusive fitness e. reciprocal altruism _____12. Adaptive behavior has probably been selected by evolutionary process mainly because it a. makes the animal smartest. b. allows the animal to live the longest. c. allows the animal to live in the widest variety of environments. d. allows the animal to produce the largest number of viable offspring. e. All of the above are correct.

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_____14. An increase in fitness due to competition among males and mate choice by females is called a. social interaction b. sexual dimorphism c. sexual selection d. sociobiology e. courtship _____15. Ants following a trail to the sugar bowl in your kitchen are doing so because of a. chance alone. b. a dance done by an ant in the anthill. c. a learned response about where the sugar is. d. an innate knowledge of where the sugar is. e. a pheromone pathway laid down by previous ants. _____16. An example of territoriality is a. barnacles attached to a boat bottom. b. a cloud of moths attracted to light. c. a swarm of mosquitoes hovering around a sweaty person. d. a red wing blackbird singing to ward off other males and to attract a female to the nest in his fencerow. e. All of the above are correct. _____17. Primate grooming and honeybee waggle dancing share which of these forms of communication? a. chemical communication b. auditory communication c. tactile communication d. visual communication _____18. Altruistic behaviors between closely related animals are selected for because they a. reduce fighting between species. b. ensure the survival of the altruistic individual. c. increase the frequency of the altruistic individual's genes in the next generation. d. force individuals to cooperate with one another and thereby increase mating and population growth. e. All of the above are correct. _____19. Which of these could be an answer to a survival value? Females are choosy because a. they do not have the size and weapons with which to compete. b. they must invest heavily in the offspring they produce. c. the ovaries produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone. d. the males tend to be more dressy than the females. e. All of the above are correct. _____20. Which of the following types of chemicals released into the air by female gypsy moths and female silk moths attract males of their respective moth species? a. Ecdysones b. Pheromones c. Auxins d. Phytotoxins e. Neurotransmitters

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_____21.Which of the following behaviors involves the LEAST learning? a. A lion capturing its prey b. A newborn human grasping something placed in its hand c. A mouse finding food in the kitchen of a house d. A mockingbird singing the song of a different species e. A chimpanzee finding its way through a forest _____22. Which of the following types of behavior describes the way that mice find their way through mazes? a. Habituation b. Imprinting c. Reasoning d. Instinct e. Trial and error _____23. In an experiment on birds learning to sing, young male chicks were exposed only to the songs sung by another species. Later, as they approached maturity, songs of their own species were played to them. When the birds reached maturity, they were able to sing neither the typical song of their species nor the full song of the second species. Which of the following accounts for this result? a. Birds innately sing the song typical of their species. b. Birds pass through a critical period early in life when learning their species-typical song is possible. c. Birds can learn their typical song if they hear it at any time. d. Birds must be able to practice their song in order to develop it. e. Birds are capable of imitating any song that they hear.
_____24. After starlings build a nest, they add branches with living leaves

a. b. c. d. e.

as a form of camouflage against predators. as a form of insulation. to repel parasites. to prevent other birds from using the nest. for reasons that are currently unknown.

_____25. Which of the following statements is false?

a. Behavior patterns are inherited. b. Instinctive behavior involves a complete response to a key stimulus the first time it is encountered. c. Behavior evolved as a result of natural selection. d. Reproductive success is responsible for perpetuating behavior patterns. e. The mechanisms underlying instinctive and learned behavior are the same.
_____26. Which of the following statements is false?

a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. d.

Behavior is controlled by the environmental stimuli an organism receives. Behavior is partially genetic so that it undergoes natural selection and evolution. Behavior refers only to responses to external stimuli. Behavior sometimes is nonadaptive. Behavior patterns can be learned. The knee-jerk reflex is a behavior. A behavior such as a complex courtship ritual is encoded by a single gene. Behaviors are products of natural selection. Behaviors are adaptive.

_____27. All but which of the following statements concerning behavior are true?

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_____28. Recent studies in humans have shown there is a close relationship between poor nutrition and

poor learning ability. These studies suggest that a. there is only a minor genetic component to learned behavior. b. behavior is modified by the environment. c. learning is adaptive. d. learning is instinctive. a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. contraction of muscle enzymatic breakdown of food salivation breathing neural networks. hormonal interactions. genetic predisposition. environmental cues. all of these light intensity. light duration or photoperiod. flashes of light. red light. different colors of light. the growth of the gonads of birds. migration. sexual behavior patterns. singing and territorial behavior. all of these

_____29. Of the following, which is NOT a behavior?

_____30. Behavior is the result of

_____31. The pineal gland responds to

_____32. Melatonin specifically controls or interacts to control

_____33. Motor activity and metabolic rates associated with biological clocks are coordinated by

thyroxin secreted by the thyroid gland. melatonin secreted by the pineal gland. a magnetic sense that is attuned to variations in Earth's magnetic field. pheromones released by the dominant animal of the group. all of these melatonin testosterone estrogen calcitonin epinephrine because they are inherently happy. only for species recognition. as a way to declare territory. only during courtship. cause a female to begin singing. result in a female becoming a male. disrupt the development of the song system. allow more melatonin to be secreted.

_____34. Which hormone activates the song system when a bird sings?

_____35. Birds sing

_____36. A deficiency of estrogen in a young songbird will

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_____37. Which of the following statements about white-throated sparrows is false?

a. b. c. d.

There is a region of a bird’s brain called the song system. In young males, the level of estrogen is higher than in young females. The syrinx is the vocal organ of songbirds. The two female hormones, estrogen and progesterone, induce the differences in males and females. e. All that is necessary for a bird to sing is the masculinization of the brain. Estrogen both organizes the song system and activates it. Estrogen organizes the song system, testosterone activates it. Progesterone organizes the song system, testosterone activates it. Progesterone organizes the song system, estrogen activates it. Testosterone activates the song system, estrogen activates it.

_____38. Which of the following is true?

a. b. c. d. e.

_____39. The cells surrounding milk-producing cells in the female mammary gland contract shortly after

the female hears the cry of an infant. This is an example of a. a response that is not a behavior. b. instinctive behavior. c. imprinting behavior. d. learned behavior. a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. e. stereotyped. unlearned. induced each and every time the stimulus is presented. triggered by limited sets of clues. all of these

_____40. Instinctive behavior is

_____41. To get a young baby to smile, simply present a

parent’s smiling face. parent’s nonsmiling face. person’s face or a mask. picture of a face. representation of a face, so long as it has two recognizable eyes. Instinctive behavior does not have to be learned. Behavior in newborn animals is mainly instinctive. Instinct is genetically determined but environment controls learning. Instinct is recognized by its stereotyped nature. fixed patterns changes stereotyping repetitions false starts

_____42. Which of the following concerning instinctive behavior is false?

_____43. Learned behavior is recognizable by the __________ the animal makes in its responses.

_____44. In classical conditioning,

two different stimuli elicit the same response. two different stimuli elicit two different responses. one stimulus elicits one response. one stimulus elicits two different responses. that one uses a reinforcing stimulus and the other does not. that one presents the reinforcing stimulus before the response and the other one after. that one uses a bell as a reinforcing stimulus and the other one uses an instrument. that a satiety center is involved in one and an aggression center in the other. all of these

_____45. The principal difference between classical Pavlovian conditioning and operant conditioning is

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_____46. A cat explores all the rooms of a new home even though such exploration is NOT rewarded.

Later, when the cat begins to feel chilled, it goes directly to the warmest room. This is an example of a. classical conditioning. b. echolocation. c. latent learning. d. imprinting. e. all of these
_____47. A child grabs a dog’s ear, and the dog responds by biting the child. Both behaviors are repeated

once again the next day, and again a day later. The child never grabs a dog’s ear again. This sequence of events is an example of a. insight learning. b. latent learning. c. operant conditioning. d. imprinting.
_____48. The ability of a rat to solve a maze to obtain a reward is increased if it has the chance to explore

the maze before the test begins. This is an example of a. insight learning. b. latent learning. c. associative learning. d. conditioning. e. extinction.

_____49. Horticulturists use periodic discharges of loud sounds to scare birds away from their fruit trees.

After several days birds can be seen ignoring the sounds due to a. habituation. b. imprinting. c. conditioning. d. insight learning. e. instinct.

_____50. If a dog stops responding to the loud noise produced by its master when he bangs his pipe

against an ashtray, the dog is exhibiting a behavior pattern known as a. imprinting. b. insight learning. c. habituation. d. trail-and-error learning. a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. d. conditioning. imprinting. habituation. insight. latent learning.

_____51. Humans, and other primates , differ from most animals in their ability to learn by

_____52. Konrad Lorenz is noted for his studies on

prenatal marking. mating behavior. imprinting. habituation. insight learning. response to a stimulus. learned behavior that occurs during a critical time period. fixed action potential. decline in the level of a response to a nonthreatening stimulus.

_____53. Imprinting is a

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_____54. Newly hatched goslings follow any large moving objects to which they are exposed shortly after

hatching. This is an example of a. homing behavior. b. imprinting. c. piloting. d. migration. e. none of these a. b. c. d. e. imprinting habituation classic conditioning operant conditioning none of these

_____55. Which of the following is initiated before birth or hatching?

_____56. Studies of __________ in young animals could lend support for arguments that human parents

and babies need to spend as much time together as possible. a. conditioning b. imprinting c. habituation d. insight learning e. latent learning a. b. c. d. e.

_____57. Which of the following is false?

Imprinting can be learned only during a limited time span. Bird song can be learned only during a limited time span. For a bird to be able to sing the song of its species, it must have heard it. Instinctive behavior has adaptive value. In explaining a behavioral trait, it is better to use an approach based upon a species benefiting rather than an individual benefiting. has to be heard before a bird can sing it. is learned during early life. is specific for each bird species. has a genetic component. all of these Territorial pairs of ravens feed silently. Single nonterritorial ravens proclaim the discovery of a food source. Sexual selection through competition for mates leads to evolutionary change. Reproductive success is based upon the same criteria for both sexes. Males that do not have territorial or sexual status sometimes employ strategies that allow them to mate.

_____58. Bird song

a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. d. e.

_____59. Which of the following statements is false?

_____60. During aggressive encounters between members of the same species,

a. the strong members are always victorious. b. the invader into a territory is able to replace the current resident of the territory unless he has already mated. c. opponents usually settle the dispute without bloodshed. d. a fight to the death occurs, with the one higher in the pecking order being successful more often.
_____61. Altruistic behavior is

a. b. c. d. e.

selfish. sexually directed behavior. self-sacrificing behavior. aggressive behavior. nonreactive, such as freezing at the sign of danger.

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_____62. Which of the following behavior patterns is limited to the most highly evolved forms?

a. b. c. d. e.

imprinting insight learning habituation operant conditioning classical conditioning

_____63. The example used to demonstrate that Darwinian natural selection explains some behavioral

traits better than does group selection is a. the dilution effect in wildebeest and zebra populations. b. siblicide among egrets. c. courtship behavior in albatrosses. d. the dispersal of Norwegian lemmings when population densities became extremely high. e. all of these a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. d. e. probably a perception by human observers. gene-based. a conscious effort to preserve the species. just lucky behavior. used in nonverbal communication. found only in the invertebrates. signals to members of other species. types of internal hormones that control maturation. they work in the dark. they are often unique to individual species. only small amounts are needed. they do not trigger a response in other species. all of these genetic similarity. bonding early in youth. communication. diversity. polymorphism.

_____64. Altruism in animals other than humans is

_____65. Pheromones are

_____66. Pheromones are advantageous because

_____67. Social behavior among insects depends on

_____68. Social behavior is most obviously the result of

genetics. communication signals. environmental influences. parental upbringing. learning.

_____69. Even though the termite can detect the scent of an invading ant, this is not considered a form of

communication between termite and ant for which of the following reasons? a. The scent is not sufficient to cause a response in the termite. b. Communication must benefit both the signaler and the receiver. c. The ant does realize it is giving off a scent. d. The scent is not sufficient to cause a response in the termite; and Communication must benefit both the signaler and the receiver. e. The scent is not sufficient to cause a response in the termite; Communication must benefit both the signaler and the receiver; and The ant does realize it is giving off a scent.
_____70. A termite that intercepts the scent of an ant is called

a. b. c. d.

an illegitimate receiver. an exploiter. an illegitimate signaler. smart.

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_____71. Which scientist won the Nobel Prize for his research on the behavior of bees and the discovery

of the way bees communicated the location of a food source? a. Karl von Frish b. Nicholas Tinbergen c. Konrad Lorenz d. Skinner e. Pavlov
_____72. Bees learn the direction to a distant source of food by

a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. d. e.

following the foraging scout. following a trail pheromone. observing the tail-wagging dance. observing the round dance. observing the tail-wagging dance and the round dance. local topographic features odors magnetism the angle of the sun distance between plants tactile—honeybees acoustical—frogs visual—baboons chemical or olfactory—termites and honeyflies chemical or olfactory—albatrosses daylight. short distance. a clear line of sight. keen eyesight. sharp hearing.

_____73. Bees use which information for locating food and the hive?

_____74. Which of the following communication signals is mismatched?

_____75. Communication by means of visual signals has a minimum requirement of

_____76. Which of the following is false?

Yawning by a baboon is a threat signal. Threat displays evolve through natural selection. Threat displays benefit both the sender and the receiver. Of necessity, visual displays are brief, direct, and obvious. Some predatory fireflies use light flashes to attract a male firefly for predation.

_____77. The communication signal requiring the most minimal distance between the sender and receiver

animals is a. visual. b. chemical. c. acoustical. d. tactile.

_____78. Many zoos have reported cases of animals attempting to mate with individuals of different

species. It appears that the animals have imprinted on an inappropriate species. These cases indicate that a. imprinting has a genetic basis. b. insight learning is necessary for species recognition. c. a behavior that is adaptive in one environment may be maladaptive in another. d. conditioned reflexes can cause extinction of imprinted behaviors.

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_____79. In many bird and mammal species, males compete for females, but females do NOT compete for

males because a. males are larger than females. b. females are larger than males. c. females produce fewer gametes than males do. d. females compete for territory.

_____80. When researchers attempt to answer the question of why various animals exist in such a

diversity of social units from solitary to complex societies, they use a. genetic analysis. b. habitat data. c. cost-benefit analysis. d. environmental studies. e. time-density data. a. b. c. d. e. predator avoidance cannibalism food depletion contagious diseases parasite infestation

_____81. All but which of the following are disadvantages to sociality?

_____82. The presence of the strongest competitors in the center of a group of animals may qualify the

group for status as a(n) a. altruistic society. b. selfish herd. c. kin group. d. dominance hierarchy. a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. e.

_____83. Which of the following features of territoriality is NOT an advantage?

Territorial behavior enables a male to attract a mate. Territoriality requires a male to place himself at risk. Territoriality ensures an adequate food supply. Territoriality limits the size of a population and its impact upon its environment. being on the outside. being near the front. being in the middle. being isolated. Position is of no advantage.

_____84. In the selfish herd, there is an advantage to

_____85. Which of the following statements concerning subordinate behavior as exemplified by

interactions among members of wolf packs is true? a. It is gradually being removed by natural selection. b. It is adaptive. c. It is self-sacrificing. d. It is inexplicable in terms of reproductive success. dominance hierarchies involved a. albatrosses. b. a honeybee colony. c. baboon troops. d. greylag geese. e. all of these

_____86. The example used to demonstrate that competitive interactions lead to the formation of

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_____87. Which behavior is exhibited when one animal meets or interacts with a superior member of its

group? a. aggressive b. neutral c. sexual d. appeasement e. all of these, at certain times

_____88. Whatever the motivation of self-sacrificing behavior on the part of nonhuman animals is, we

know it is NOT a. genetic. b. the result of selection. c. derived from conscious reasoning. d. a result of dominance hierarchy.
_____89. Which of the following statements is false?

a. A communication signal has benefits for both the sender and the receiver. b. Under some circumstances, solitary individuals may leave more descendants than social ones do. c. Social animals must exhibit altruism. d. Not every environment favors the evolution of social life. e. Altruism means helping others, which may mean sacrificing personal reproductive success. a. b. c. d. e. artificial selection. kin selection. natural selection. negative selection. stabilizing selection.

_____90. Parental support of offspring is an example of

_____91. A bird in a forest sees a falcon and issues an alarm call. As a result of this communication, the

falcon is able to orient toward the caller and subsequently capture it. However, calling behavior does NOT disappear in the prey species because a. the behavior is not acted on by natural selection. b. of the advantage of kin selection. c. calling behavior is genetically based, and mutations constantly occur to produce it. d. some of the time, predatory birds such as falcons do not capture the caller. a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. e. self-sacrificing behavior. dominance hierarchy. social behavior. indirect selection. predators. dominance hierarchy. altruistic behavior. the development of harems. symbiotic organisms.

_____92. Researchers attempt to explain the persistence of altruism by the theory of

_____93. Indirect selection refers to

_____94. If an individual for whatever reason cannot pass on its genes to offspring, the best alternative is

to show altruism to a. relatives. b. strangers. c. neighbors. d. other species.

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_____95. In highly integrated insect societies,

a. natural selection favors individual behaviors that lead to greater diversity among members of the society. b. there is scarcely any division of labor. c. cooperative behavior predominates. d. patterns of behavior are flexible, and learned behavior predominates. e. all of these a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. d. e. self-sacrifice altruism judgment morality modified by the environment stereotyped performed the first time stimulus presented innate automatic reward punishment extinction selection disregard of stimulus

_____96. Only in judging human behaviors does the concept of “__________” supplant “adaptation.”

_____97.Four of the five answers listed below are characteristics of behaviors that are inborn. Select the exception.

_____98. Four of the five answers listed below are involved in associative learning. Select the exception.

_____99. Four of the five answers listed below are species in which the females cluster and the males

fight. Select the exception. a. dogs b. lions c. elk d. bison e. bighorn sheep
_____100. Four of the five answers listed below are castes of termites. Select the exception.

a. b. c. d. e.

drone king queen soldier worker

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