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Pollution

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									Pollution (25-30%)
   I.     Pollution types
          a. Air pollution (Ch 20)
                  i. Sources – primary and secondary
                          1. What are primary pollutants (p. 435-436)? Give examples.



                         2. What are secondary pollutants (p. 436)? Give examples.



                 ii. Major air pollutants
                        1. What is carbon monoxide? Where does it come from
                            (Figure 20-2, p. 438)?



                         2. What is nitrogen dioxide? Where does it come from (Figure
                            20-2, p. 438)?



                         3. What is sulfur dioxide? Where does it come from (Figure
                            20-2, p. 438)?



                         4. What is particulate matter? Where does it come from
                            (Figure 20-2, p. 438)?



                         5. What is ozone? Where does it come from (Figure 20-2, p.
                            438)?




                         6. What is lead? Where does it come from (Figure 20-2, p.
                            438)?
iii. Measurement units
        1. Air pollutants are measured in ppb (parts per billion) and
           ppm (parts per million)
iv. Smog
        1. What are the two classifications of smog (p. 439-440)?



        2. What are the reactants, or the starting pollutants, that form
           photochemical smog (p. 439)?



        3. What are the environmental effects of photochemical smog
           (p. 439)?



        4. What are the human health effects of photochemical smog
           (p. 439)?



        5. Why is photochemical smog more likely to form in cities and
           during the summer (p. 439)?




        6. What are the main components of industrial smog (p. 439)?



        7. What is the major fossil fuel that contributes to industrial
           smog (p. 440-441)?



        8. Why isn’t industrial smog as much of a problem in developed
           countries as it is in developing countries (p. 441)?
v. Acid deposition – causes & effects
      1. Why are most smokestacks tall and how does that lead to
          acid formation in the atmosphere (p. 444)?



       2. What two pollutants form acid in the atmosphere (p. 444)?
          Write the chemical formulas (or the names if you don’t
          know the formulas) (p. 444).




       3. What is the typical pH of rainwater in the US (p. 444)?
          What is the average pH of rainwater without the effects of
          acid deposition (p. 444)?



       4. What types of areas are sensitive to the effects of acid
          deposition (p. 445)?



       5. What other continent has acid deposition problems (p. 445)?



       6. What respiratory diseases can be caused by acid deposition
          (p. 445)?



       7. What affects can acid deposition have on man-made
          infrastructure (p. 445)?



       8. How does pH affect aquatic systems? What affect can
          aluminum have (p. 446)?
         9. What happens to essential nutrients in the soil after long
            term acid deposition (p. 447)?



         10. What other pollutant reacts synergistically with acid
             deposition (p. 447)?



         11. What can be done to prevent acid deposition? To clean-up
             areas affected by acid deposition (Figure 20-12 p. 448)?



 vi. Heat islands
        1. What is urban heat island effect and why are cities hotter
             than suburbs (p. 569)?



vii. Temperature inversions
        1. What is a temperature inversion? What type of air mass is
           near the surface and what sits on top of it (p. 442)?



         2. How do temperature inversions enhance pollution effects
            and pollutant concentrations (p. 442)?



         3. What city is the US is especially susceptible to temperature
            inversions (p. 442)?



viii. Indoor air pollution
         1. Why is indoor air pollution a greater threat to human health
             than outdoor air pollution (p. 449)?
        2. What are the four most dangerous indoor air pollutants in
           developed countries (p. 449)?



        3. What are the health effects of tobacco smoke (Figure 20-13
           p. 450)?



        4. Where does formaldehyde come from? What are the human
           health effects of formaldehyde (p. 450)?



        5. What is Radon-222? How does it get into buildings? What
           are the human health effects (p. 450-451)?



        6. How does asbestos get into buildings? What are the health
           effects of asbestos (Figure 20-13 p. 450)?




ix. Remediation & reduction strategies
       1. What types of devices can reduce pollutants from coal-
          burning facilities (Figure 20-17 p. 456-457)?



        2. How can pollution from motor vehicles be reduced (Figure
           20-19 p. 457)?



        3. How can indoor air pollution be reduced and prevented
           (Figure 20-20 p. 458)?
       x. Clean Air Act & other relevant laws
             1. What is the major goal of the Clean Air Act (p. 453)?



              2. How does the Clean Air Act control for major pollutants (p.
                 453)?



              3. Has the CAA been effective (p. 453)?



              4. What air pollutant is controlled using an emissions trading
                 policy? How does it work (p. 454)?



b. Noise pollution
       i. Sources
              1. What is noise pollution (p. 569)?



              2. Where is noise pollution most likely to occur (p. 569)?



              3. What are the sources of noise pollution (Figure 25-9 p. 570)?



              4. At what point can permanent damage occur (Figure 25-9 p.
                 570)?



              5. What is light pollution (p. 570)? What are the problems
                 with light pollution (p. 570)?
       ii. Control measures
              1. What are some ways to reduce noise pollution? The book
                  doesn’t really talk about this, so look at the various activities
                  that cause noise pollution in Figure 25-9 p. 570 and think
                  about ways to address those.



c. Water pollution
      i. Types
             1. What are the two major types/categories of water pollutants
                 (p. 494-495)?



               2. What are infectious agents (Figure 22-1 p. 492)? Give
                  examples.



               3. What are oxygen-demanding wastes (Figure 22-1 p. 492)?
                  Give examples.



               4. What are organic chemicals (Figure 22-1 p. 492)? Give
                  examples.



               5. What are sediments (Figure 22-1 p. 492)? Give examples.



               6. What is thermal pollution (Figure 22-1 p. 492)? Give
                  examples.



       ii. Sources
              1. What are the sources of fecal coliform bacteria (p. 493)?
       2. What is the leading source of water pollution (p. 495)?
          What are the pollutants that come from it?



       3. What are the pollutants that come from mining (p. 495)?




iii. Causes & Effects
        1. How do oxygen-demanding wastes lower DO (p. 494-495)?




       2. Why are lakes more vulnerable to pollution than streams
          (this goes for estuaries and any slow moving body of water
          also) (p. 497)?



       3. What types of ocean ecosystems are the most susceptible to
          pollution (p. 504)?




       4. What are the major pollutants in coastal areas (p. 505)?



       5. What are the consequences of the industrial and agricultural
          wastes that accumulate in coastal areas (p. 505)?



       6. What are the environmental effects of oil pollution on coastal
          and ocean communities (p. 507)?
iv. Cultural eutrophication
       1. Describe the process of cultural eutrophication (p. 498)?



        2. What are the ingredients for eutrophication to occur or a
           deadzone to be created (p. 498)?



v. Groundwater pollution
      1. Why are we worried about groundwater pollution (p. 501)?



        2. How does groundwater become contaminated (p. 501)?



        3. Why is groundwater more vulnerable to pollution than
           streams (p. 501)?



        4. What are the major groundwater contaminant (p. 503)?



vi. Maintaining water quality
       1. How can groundwater be protected and cleaned up (Figure
           22-10 p. 503)?



        2. How can oil spills be cleaned up (p. 508)?



        3. How can coastal water pollution be prevented and cleaned
           up (Figure 22-14 p. 508)?
         4. How can nonpoint source water pollution be prevented and
            cleaned up (p. 509)?




vii. Water purification
       1. How can water be purified in developing countries that lack
           large scale purification infrastructure (p. 515)?



viii. Sewage treatment/septic systems
         1. What is the purpose of a septic tank and how does it work
            (p. 510)?



         2. Why do septic systems sometimes fail (p. 510)?



         3. Describe how a wastewater treatment plant works (p. 510)
               a. Primary sewage treatment



                b. Secondary sewage



                c. Advanced/tertiary treatment



                d. Disinfection



         4. What is sewage sludge? What are the problems with sewage
            sludge? What are the potential solutions (p. 511)?
              5. How can sewage be treated using ecological purification (p.
                 512-513)?




      ix. Clean Water Act & other relevant laws
             1. What is the goal of the CWA (p. 509)?




              2. What improvements does the CWA still need (p. 514)?



              3. What is the goal of the Water Quality Act (p. 509)?



              4. What is the goal of the Safe Drinking Water Act (p.515)?



d. Solid waste
       i. Types
               1. What country produces the most solid waste? What percent
                  of the world’s solid waste is produced by this country (p.
                  533)?



              2. What are the components of municipal solid waste (MSW) in
                 order of decreasing percentages (Figure 24-2 p. 533)?



              3. What are the top 4 types of waste in US landfills (p. 534)?



       ii. Disposal
        1. What is a waste-to-energy incinerator (p. 545)? What are
           the pros and cons of burning waste (p. 545-546, Figure 24-
           13)?



        2. What is an open dump? How do sanitary landfills prevent
           some of the problems associated with open dumps (p. 547)?



        3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of sanitary
           landfills (Figure 24-15 p. 548)?



iii. Reduction
        1. Why are we classified as a high-waste society (p. 534)? How
            can a change in perspective reduce waste (p. 535-537)?



        2. What are the six ways to reduce solid waste (p. 535-536)?



        3. What items can be reused that are currently throw-away
           items (p. 539-540)?



        4. What are the different types of recycling (p. 540)?



        5. What is composting and how is it recycling (p. 541)?



        6. Does recycling make economic sense (p. 544)?
II.   Impacts on Environment and Human Health
      a. Hazards to human health
              i. Environmental risk analysis
                    1. How is risk analysis used in association with environmental
                        damage (Figure 19-2 p. 410)?



                    2. What types of environmental hazards are people exposed to
                       (p. 410)?



             ii. Acute and chronic effects
                    1. What is an acute effect (p. 412)? Give an example.



                    2. What is a chronic effect (p. 412)? Give an example.



            iii. Dose-response relationships
                    1. What does a dose-response curve show about dose of a toxin
                        and a population (Figure 19-5 p. 413)?



                    2. What is LD50 (p. 413)?



                    3. What is the threshold response (Figure 19-6 p. 414)?



                    4. What are the difficulties with applying dose response curves
                       to environmental problems (p. 415)?
      iv. Air pollutants
              1. What are the chronic effects of air pollutants on human
                  health (p. 452-453)?



      v. Smoking & other risks
            1. What are the health and economic dangers of smoking (p.
               409)?



b. Hazardous chemicals in the environment
      i. Types of hazardous waste
             1. What is hazardous waste (p. 548)?



              2. Where do most hazardous wastes come from (p. 548)?



             3. High-level radioactive wastes are the highly radioactive
                materials produced as a byproduct of the reactions that occur
                inside nuclear reactors. High-level wastes take one of two
                forms: (1) Spent (used) reactor fuel when it is accepted for
                disposal (2) Waste materials remaining after spent fuel is
                reprocessed
             4. Low-level waste includes items that have become
                contaminated with radioactive material or have become
                radioactive through exposure to neutron radiation. This
                waste typically consists of contaminated protective shoe
                covers and clothing, wiping rags, mops, filters, reactor water
                treatment residues, equipments and tools, luminous dials,
                medical tubes, swabs, injection needles, syringes, and
                laboratory animal carcasses and tissues.
      ii. Treatment/disposal of hazardous waste
             1. What is bioremediation? Phytoremediation (p. 551)? What
                are the advantages and disadvantages of Phytoremediation
                (Figure 24-19 p. 552)?
       2. What is a plasma torch? What are the advantages and
          disadvantages of plasma (p. 552 and Figure 24-20)?



       3. What are the dangers of burning hazardous waste (p. 552)?



       4. What are the different ways hazardous waste can be stored
          (p. 553)?



       5. What are the advantages and disadvantages of deep
          underground storage (Figure 24-21 p. 553)?



       6. What are the advantages and disadvantages of surface
          impoundments (Figure 24-22 p. 553)?



iii. Cleanup of contaminated sites
        1. What are brownfields (p. 554)?



       2. Brownfields can be cleaned up using bioremediation and by
          removing soil.

iv. Biomagnification
       1. What are the major sources of mercury in aquatic systems
          (p. 555-556)?



       2. What are the human health problems associated with
          mercury (p. 557)?
                      3. What happens to mercury in the food chain?



                      4. How can mercury pollution be prevented and controlled
                         (Figure 24-27 p. 557)?



                      5. What are some other biomagnifying pollutants?



              v. Relevant laws
                    1. What law governs the disposal of hazardous waste (p. 558)?
                        How does it work?



                      2. What law governs the clean up of brownfields (p. 558)?
                         How does it work?



                      3. Who pays for the clean up of brownfields (p. 559)?



III.   Economic Impacts
       a. Cost-benefit analysis
              i. What is cost-benefit analysis (p. 589)?



              ii. What are the drawbacks of cost-benefit analysis (p. 589)?



       b. Externalities
              i. What are externalities (p. 592)?
       ii. How are environmental consequences of development externalities
           (p. 592)?



      iii. How would full cost incorporate externalities? How would this be
           good for the environment (p. 593)?



c. Marginal costs
      i. What is marginal cost (p. 585)?



       ii. Explain the supply, demand and market equilibrium curves (Figure
           26-2 p. 584)?



d. Sustainability
        i. How can en environmentally sustainable economy be achieved (p.
           600)?
Multiple Choice
  1. Photochemical smog does NOT require the presence of
                                  a. nitrogen oxides
                                  b. ultraviolet radiation
                                  c. peroxyacyl nitrates
                                  d. volatile organic compounds
                                  e. ozone
  2. ______________________ contributes to the formation of ______________ and
       thereby compounds the problem of _________________.
                                  a. Ozone, carbon dioxide, acid rain
                                  b. Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone depletion
                                  c. Sulfur dioxide, acid deposition, global warming
                                  d. Nitrous oxide, ozone, industrial smog
                                  e. Nitric oxide, ozone, photochemical smog
  3. Which of the following is a natural component of the atmosphere, comprises
       about 0.036% by volume of the atmosphere and is produced by the decay of
       vegetation, volcanic eruptions, exhalation of animals, burning of fossil fuels and
       deforestation?
                                  a. Carbon monoxide
                                  b. Carbon dioxide
                                  c. Nitrous oxide
                                  d. Nitrogen dioxide
                                  e. Methane
  4. Which of the following steps is NOT involved in the production of industrial
       smog?
                                  a. C + O2  CO2
                                  b. C + O2  CO
                                  c. S + O2  SO2
                                  d. NO2  NO + O
                                  e. SO2 + O2  SO3
  5. Household water is most likely to be contaminated with radon in homes that
           a. are served by public water systems that use a groundwater source
           b. are served by public water systems that use a surface water source
           c. have private wells
           d. use bottle water
           e. are served by water agencies that use ozone to disinfect the water
  6. Which reaction is NOT involved in the formation of acid deposition
                                  a. O3 + CxHy  PANS
                                  b. SO2 + H2O  H2SO3
                                  c. H2SO3 + 1/2O2  H2SO4
                                  d. NO + 1/2O2  NO2
                                  e. 2NO2 + H2O  HNO2 + HNO3
7. Normal rainfall has a pH of about
                               a. 2.3
                               b. 5.6
                               c. 7.0
                               d. 7.6
                               e. 8.3
8. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, about _____________ of all
    commercial buildings in the United States are classified as sick.
                               a. 5%
                               b. 15%
                               c. 50%
                               d. 75%
                               e. 100%
9. In developing countries, the most likely cause of respiratory disease would be
                               a. photochemical smog
                               b. industrial smog
                               c. smoking
                               d. PM10
                               e. asbestos
10. Humans LEAST susceptible to the effects of air pollution are
                               a. newborns
                               b. children between the age of 2 and 10
                               c. teenagers
                               d. adult males
                               e. the elderly
11. Acid precipitation, leaching out the metal ____________, causes fish and other
    aquatic organisms to die from acid shock.
                               a. Al
                               b. Pb
                               c. Hg
                               d. Cd
                               e. Fe
12. Which pollutant best illustrates the effectiveness of legislation?
                               a. NO2
                               b. SO2
                               c. CO2
                               d. O3
                               e. Pb
13. The diagram below shows the range of organisms found within certain sections of
    a river in an industrial area. Which section of the river most likely has the
    LOWEST level of dissolved oxygen?




                               a. Clean zone
                               b. Decomposition zone
                               c. Septic zone
                               d. Recovery zone
                               e. None of the above
14. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
                               a. The United States generates approximately 230
                                  million tons of municipal solid waste a year, about
                                  4.6 pounds per person per day.
                               b. Food waste is the third largest component of
                                  generated waste (after yard waste and corrugated
                                  boxes) and the second largest component of
                                  discarded waste.
                               c. It takes 3 to 12 months to produce compost,
                                  depending on the type of waste.
                               d. The average American college student produces 640
                                  pounds of solid waste each year, including 500
                                  disposable cups and 320 pounds of paper.
                               e. All statements are true.
15. The major source of solid waste in the United States comes from what source?
                               a. Homes
                               b. Factories
                               c. Agriculture
                               d. Petroleum refining
                               e. Mining wastes
16. What is the largest type of domestic solid waste in the United States?
                               a. Yard wastes
                               b. Paper
                               c. Plastic
                               d. Glass
                               e. Metal
17. Which of the following is most readily recyclable?
                               a. Plastic
                               b. Paper
                               c. Metal
                               d. Glass
                               e. All are equally and readily recyclable
18. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
        a. Recycling is more expensive than trash collection and disposal.
        b. Landfills and incinerators are more cost effective and environmentally
            sound than recycling options.
        c. The marketplace works best in solving solid waste management problems;
            no public sector intervention is needed.
        d. Landfills are significant job generators for rural communities.
        e. None of the above.
19. In the 1970s, houses were built over a toxic chemical waste disposal site. This
    case study is known as
                               a. Love Canal
                               b. Bet Trang
                               c. Bhopal
                               d. Brownfield
                               e. Chernobyl
20. Which of the following methods of handling solid wastes is against the law in the
    United States?
                               a. Incineration
                               b. Dumping it in open landfills
                               c. Burying it underground
                               d. Exporting the material to foreign countries
                               e. Dumping the material in the open ocean
21. Which of the following is an extremely hazardous gas produced by the incomplete
    burning of fossil fuels?
                               a. Ozone
                               b. Carbon dioxide
                               c. Lead
                               d. Nitrous oxide
                               e. Carbon monoxide
22. What is the chemical formula for ozone?
                               a. O
                               b. O2
                               c. O3
                               d. CO2
                               e. NH4
23. Which statement most accurately describes a temperature inversion?
                               a. A stable layer of warmer air over cooler air
                               b. An unstable layer of warm air over cooler air
                               c. A layer of cooler air over warmer air
                               d. A mixing of all the layers of the atmosphere
                               e. A layer of ozone concentrated in the stratosphere
24. Which of the following is an indoor air pollutant found in particle board,
    furniture, wallpaper, and carpeting?
                               a. Ozone
                               b. Nitrous oxide
                               c. Radon
                               d. Formaldehyde
                               e. MBTE
25. Which of the following kills pathogens and removes most organic material
    through aeration?
                               a. Septic systems
                               b. Primary sewage treatment
                               c. Secondary sewage treatment
                               d. Tertiary sewage treatment
                               e. Municipal septic systems
26. Runoff from construction sites is an example of which of the following?
                               a. Primary pollution
                               b. Secondary pollution
                               c. Fugitive emission
                               d. Heat island
                               e. Tertiary sewage
27. What is the natural enrichment of a lake environment called?
                               a. Primary treatment
                               b. Secondary treatment
                               c. Tertiary treatment
                               d. Eutrophication
                               e. Algal bloom
28. Phasing out the use of CFCs and reducing smog is covered under which of the
    following?
                               a. Clean Water Act
                               b. Safe Drinking Water Act
                               c. Clean Air Act
                               d. Fugitive Emissions Act
                               e. Environmental Protection Agency
29. Which of the following is a point source of water pollution?
                               a. Smoke stack
                               b. Outflow pipe
                               c. Runoff from streams
                               d. Melt water
                               e. Soil erosion
30. Which of the following is NOT a direct source of groundwater pollution?
                                a. Automobile exhaust
                                b. Wastewater lagoons
                                c. Underground storage tanks
                                d. Waste injected into deep wells
                                e. Pesticides sprayed on the land
31. Which of the following cities would have the greatest amount of gray-air smog?
                                a. New York, New York
                                b. Beijing, China
                                c. Los Angles, CA
                                d. Chicago, IL
                                e. London, England
32. All of the following are true about sanitary landfills EXCEPT
    a. they have methods of monitoring leaks in the clay and plastic liners
    b. they pipe methane gas that’s generated to storage tanks
    c. they pump leachate out of the landfill for treatment and disposal
    d. they are built so that trash sits on top of the land
    e. they contain clay and plastic liners that prevent leachate form entering the soil
33. Which of the following correctly explains what happens to the level of oxygen
    dissolved in water when organic waste is put in the water?
    a. The levels would remain the same after the waste was added.
    b. The levels would increase due to the availability of nutrients to animals that
        live in the water.
    c. The levels would increase due to the higher temperatures of the water.
    d. The levels would decrease due to the waste absorbing the oxygen.
    e. The levels would decrease due to the bacteria feeding off the waste and using
        the oxygen to live.
34. The abundance of which of the following would indicate that water is polluted?
                                a. Trout and other game fish
                                b. Sludge worms, anaerobic bacteria, and fungi
                                c. Carp, gar and leeches
                                d. Salamanders and turtles
                                e. Insect larvae and nymphs
35. Which of the following is the most common way of disposing of municipal solid
    waste?
                                a. Recycling
                                b. Composting
                                c. Placing in landfills
                                d. Burning
                                e. Transportation to other countries
     36. Which of the following gases involved in global climate change is increasing in
         the atmosphere at the fastest rate?
                                    a. H2O
                                    b. Methane
                                    c. Chlorofluorocarbons
                                    d. CO2
                                    e. O2
     37. Which of the following choices gives the correct order of processing sanitary
         waste in a sewage treatment plant?
         a. Disinfection-breakdown of organics by bacteria-solid separation
         b. Solid separation-breakdown of organics by bacteria-disinfection
         c. Solid separation-disinfection-breakdown of organics by bacteria
         d. Breakdown of organics by bacteria-solid separation-disinfection
         e. Breakdown of organics by bacteria-disinfection-solid separation
     38. Which of the following is a secondary pollutant?
                                    a. CO
                                    b. Soot
                                    c. VOCs
                                    d. PANs
                                    e. CO2

Questions 39 – 43 refer to the following methods of treating hazardous waste.
                  (A) underground burial
                  (B) reduce the amount made
                  (C) incineration
                  (D) neutralization
                  (E) bioremediation

   39. Involves mixing waste with other chemicals to produce less toxic substances
   40. This process can cause secondary pollutants in the atmosphere
   41. Injection into deep wells
   42. The easiest and cheapest method
   43. Living organisms process the waste and remove it from the ecosystem
Answers
1         C        11       A        21        E        31       B        41       A
2         E        12       E        22        C        32       D        42       B
3         B        13       C        23        A        33       E        43       E
4         D        14       E        24        D        34       B
5         C        15       E        25        C        35       C
6         A        16       B        26        B        36       D
7         B        17       B        27        D        37       B
8         B        18       E        28        C        38       D
9         D        19       A        29        B        39       D
10        D        20       C        30        A        40       C

								
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