Android OS

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INTRODUCTION: Android is a software platform and operating system for mobile devices, based on the Linux kernel, developed by Google and later theOpen Handset Alliance. It allows developers to write managed code in the Java language, controlling the device via Google-developed Java libraries. Applications written in C and other languages can be compiled to ARM native code and run, but this development path is not officially supported by Google. The unveiling of the Android platform on 5 November 2007 was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 48 hardware, software, and telecom companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. Google released most of the Android code under the Apache license, a free-software and open source license. History: In July 2005, Google acquired Android, Inc., a small startup company based in Palo Alto, CA. Android's co-founders who went to work at Google included Andy Rubin (co-founder of Danger), Rich Miner (cofounder of Wildfire Communications, Inc.), Nick Sears (once VP at T-Mobile), and Chris White (one of the first engineers at WebTV[]). At the time, little was known about the functions of Android, Inc. other than that they made software for mobile phones.[9] This began rumors that Google was planning to enter the mobile phone market, although it was unclear what function it might perform in that market.[citation

Open Handset Alliance founded: On 5 November 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of several companies which include Google, HTC, Intel, Motorola, Qualcomm, T-Mobile,Sprint Nextel and NVIDIA, was unveiled with the goal to develop open standards for mobile devices.[2] Along with the formation of the Open Handset Alliance, the OHA also unveiled their first product, Android, a mobile device platform built on the Linux kernel version 2.6. Open source: Since 21 Oct 2008, Android has been available as open source. Google threw open the entire source code (including network and telephony stacks) that were not available previously, under an Apache license. Certain parts that relate to a specific hardware can't be made open and are not considered part of the Android platform. With Apache License, vendors are free to add proprietary extensions without submitting those back to the open source community. While Google's contributions to this platform are expected to remain open-sourced, the branches could explode using varieties of licenses. Early prototypes: At least three prototypes were unveiled for Android at the Mobile World Congress on 12 February 2008. One prototype at the ARM booth displayed several basic Google applications. A 'd-pad' controls zooming of items in the dock with a relatively quick response.

Aftermarket installations: Some users have been able (with some amount of hacking, and with limited functionality) to install Android on mobile devices shipped with other OSes: The Openmoko phones (Neo FreeRunner and Neo 1973) have limited support since Google's release of the Android source code on 21 October 2008.[51] As of 4 November 2008, the whole source stack compiles, with the kernel, user interface and most applications working, but telephony, SMS, suspend/resume and wifi, which rely on lower level hardware features, are not fully working. [52][53] In early 2009 Cupcake images were demonstrated and available as flashable images.[54] Software development kit: The Android SDK includes a comprehensive set of development tools.[69] These include a debugger, libraries, a handset emulator (based on QEMU),documentation, sample code, and tutorials. Currently supported development platforms include x86-based computers running Linux (any modern desktop Linux Distribution), Mac OS X 10.4.8 or later, Windows XP or Vista. Requirements also include Java Development Kit, Apache Ant, andPython 2.2 or later. The officially supported integrated development environment (IDE) is Eclipse (3.2 or later) using the Android Development Tools (ADT) Plugin, though developers may use any text editor to edit Java and XML files then use command line tools to create, build and debug Android applications. Android Developer Challenge: The Android Developer Challenge was a competition for the most innovative application for Android. Google offered prizes totaling 10 million US dollars, distributed between two phases of the competition.[74][75] The first phase accepted submissions from 2 January to 14 April 2008. The 50 most promising entries, announced on 12 May 2008, each received a $25,000 award to fund further development.[76][77] The second phase ended in early September with the announcement of ten teams that received $275,000 each, and ten teams that received $100,000 each.[78] The top ten winners of the Android Developer Challenge were: TuneWiki Social Media Player Wertago, the mobile app for nightlife. Locale cab4me EcoRio CompareEverywhere GoCart Life360