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					The Age of
Exploration
 Unit One Notes
         Standard 7-1.1
n The student will be able to…
 nUse a map or series of maps to
   identify the colonial expansion of
   European powers in Africa, Asia,
   Oceania and the Americas
   through 1770.
      Who’s who?
You have five minutes to use
your workbook to identify as
many explorers and the
countries they sailed for as you
can. A prize goes to the winner.
Countries Leading Exploration
n Portugal
  n PrinceHenry the Navigator
  n Bartholomeu Dias

  n Vasco da Gama

  n Pedro Cabral

n England
  n James Cook
  n Henry Hudson

  n John Cabot
Countries Leading Exploration
n Spain
  n Christopher Columbus
  n Ferdinand Magellan

  n Hernán Cortés

  n Francisco Pizarro

  n Francisco Vásquez de Coronado

  n Juan Ponce de León

  n Vasco Núñez de Balboa

  n Hernando de Soto
Countries Leading Exploration
n France
  n Jacques Cartier
  n Samuel de Champlain

  n Giovanni da Verrazano

  n Jacques Marquette

  n Louis Joliet

  n Robert la Salle

n Netherlands
  n Henry   Hudson
What made Europeans explore?
n they   wanted an all water route to Asia
  n overland trade with Asia was expensive
  n science and technology improved sea travel

n “God,    gold, and glory”
  n increased trade, more territory, wealth (gold)
  n fame and power (glory)

  n spread of religion (God)
Where did Europeans explore?
n   North America
    n Bahamas and other Caribbean islands
    n the eastern United States

    n Great Lakes and the Mississippi Valley

    n northeastern Canada

    n southwestern United States

n   Central and South America
    n Mexico
    n Peru

    n Brazil

    n southern tip of South America
Where did Europeans explore?
n   Africa
    n Azores, Cape Verde Islands
    n southern tip of Africa/Cape of Good Hope

    n east African trading posts

n   Asia
    n India
    n islands of the Indian Ocean

    n Philippines

n   Oceania
    n Australia
    n New Zealand
Where did Europeans Explore?
Wind and Ocean Currents
             Standard 7-1.2
n The   student will be able to…
 n Explain   how technological and scientific
   advances, including navigational
   advances and the use of gunpowder,
   affected various parts of the world
   politically, socially, and economically and
   contributed to the power of European
   nations.
     Bellringer 9-2-10
n You  should have read p. 658-669 in
  your textbook.
n You should have answered questions 1
  -6 on p. 669 on a separate sheet of
  paper.
n Take the first few minutes to make
  sure you have this completed and
  ready to turn in.
n Key terms quiz TOMORROW.
    Technology, Science, and
         Exploration
n compass   – magnetized needle to
  determine direction
n astrolabe – invention in which
  sailors used sun and stars to
  determine latitude
n cartography – mapmaking → new
  data from new technology improved
  the quality and accuracy of maps
    Technology, Science, and
         Exploration
n rudder  – flat, moveable piece at the
  rear of a ship that improved steering
n caravel – new lightweight ship that
  many explorers used to sail the
  oceans
n gunpowder – explosive mixture of
  chemicals that explorers used to
  take captives
    What do you think?
n Europeans   used new technology to
 dominate the world. What aspects of
 life in the New World did Europeans
 change? Write your answers in your
 notes.
 n ideas   to consider
   n politics/government
   n economics/business
   n culture
Europeans Use Technology to Expand
          Their Influence
n   economics
    n philosophy of mercantilism
    n development of enterprises to benefit Europe (such as
      plantations)
n   culture
    n spread of Christianity (forced and voluntary)
    n adoption of western European ideas like private property

n   politics
    n lands came under control of European countries
    n colonists established European-style governments
     Key Terms for 7-1.1 – 7-1.3
n   empire         n   trading post empire
n   compass        n   plantation colony
n   astrolabe      n   settler colony
n   cartographer   n   encomienda system
n   rudder         n   charter
n   caravel        n   representative
n   gunpowder          assembly
n   colony
            Standard 7-1.3
n The   student will be able to…
 n Compare   how European nations
   exercised political and economic
   influence differently in the Americas,
   including trading-post empires,
   plantation colonies, and settler colonies
              Types of Colonies
n   trading-post colonies
    n outposts set up for the purpose of trade
    n French colonies were primarily trading-posts

n   plantation colonies
    n characterized by large estates growing 1 or 2 cash
      crops
    n slave labor used to farm the land

n   settler colonies
    n territories were governed by the home country
    n wanted to attract large numbers of people to
      establish control of the region
           Types of Colonies
n New   Spain
 n ruled by viceroys (royal governors)
 n encomienda system – used Native Americans
   as slaves
n New   France
 n small population
 n mainly fur trappers and Catholic missionaries

 n lived among the Native Americans and
   respected their culture
               Types of Colonies
n   English colonies
    n some started for profit (Jamestown) and some started for
      religious reasons (Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay)
    n all wanted charters that stated rights and freedoms
        n Mayflower Compact

    n small farms in the north, large plantations in the south
    n colonies had royal governors but also had
      representative assemblies
    n took Dutch territory New Amsterdam, renamed New
      York, in 1664 and also took most of New France after
      the French and Indian War (1756-1763)
 Homework for the week of 9/7
n 1-4 on p. 13-14 in the workbook
  (7-1.1)
n 1-3 on p. 18 in the workbook (7-
  1.2)
n 1-4 on p. 26-27 in the workbook
  (7-1.3)
       Key Terms for 7-1.4 – 7-1.6
n   Atlantic slave trade   n   mercantilism
n   triangular trade       n   export
n   Middle Passage         n   import
n   abolition movement     n   balance of trade
n   Jesuits*               n   middle class
n   isolationism           n   capitalism
n   Columbian Exchange     n   capital
Guided Reading for workbook p. 29-33

n Whatwere 2 reasons Native Americans did
 not make good slaves?
 n they were not immune to diseases and died
   by the thousands
 n they knew the land and often ran away

n What   was the Atlantic slave trade?
 n thecapture and transport of Africans into
   bondage in the Americas
Guided Reading for workbook p. 29-33

n What  three groups of people used
  Africans as slaves?
  n otherAfricans
  n Muslims

  n Europeans
Guided Reading for workbook p. 29-33
n   Sketch a diagram of triangular trade.

                             Europe         clothing,
 sugar, molasses,                           manufactured
 rice, tobacco, furs,                       goods, guns,
 indigo, raw                                alcohol
 materials



    Americas                                  Africa
                        enslaved Africans
Guided Reading for workbook p. 29-33
n   Define and describe the Middle Passage
    n the middle part of the triangular trade in which
      African slaves were brought to the Americas
    n conditions aboard the ships were cramped, hot,
      deadly
          Standard 7-1.4
n The student will be able to…
  n Summarize   the characteristics of
   European colonial power and
   explain its effects on the society and
   culture of African nations, including
   instances of participation in and
   resistance to the slave trade
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
n European     countries involved:
  n Portugal

  n Spain

  n Netherlands

  n England

na growing need for labor in the New World
 led to the plantation system
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
n   African nations participated in the slave trade
    for the following reasons:
    n it was lucrative (it produced wealth)
    n many nations saw it as a way to weaken rival tribes

n   effects of slave trade on African nations
    n   removal of large segments of the population
         n 10-20 million died
         n 20-30 million were direct or indirect victims

    n nations became dependent on slave trade
    n led to a constant state of warfare between tribes
      seeking to capture humans to sell into slavery
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
n   resistance to the slave trade took many forms:
    n moving villages
    n creating defense structures

    n buying back captured family members

    n warfare

    n mutiny on slave ships
        n Amistad
  Bellringer 9-13-10
Word Splash: Asia – Write down
what comes to mind when you
think about the continent of
Asia. (Think about culture,
history, etc.)
          Standard 7-1.5
n The student will be able to…
  n Summarize   the characteristics of
   European colonial powers in Asia
   and their effects on the society and
   culture of Asia, including global
   trade patterns and the spread of
   various religions
        European Influence in Asia
n   Portugal led European expansion into Asia
n   religions clashed in the region
    n   Christian missionaries from Europe
    n   Asians already practicing Hinduism, Buddhism, Shintoism,
        or Confucianism
    n   Arabs converted many Asians to Islam
n   Japan and China practiced isolationism
    n   Japan feared Christianity as a threat to power
    n   China welcomed the Jesuits (Catholic missionaries) at first
        for their knowledge but expelled them by the early 1700s
    n   trade was allowed in few places – Nagasaki Harbor in Japan
        and Macao in China
        European Influence in Asia
n   Europeans were more successful controlling the
    spice trade on the islands of southeast Asia
n   Spain created a valuable trade link in the
    Philippines
    n   missionaries had great success converting people to
        Catholicism there
n   Europeans had limited influence on mainland
    Asia for much of the 1500s to the 1700s
          Standard 7-1.6
n The student will be able to…
  n Explain the emergence of capitalism,
   including the significance of
   mercantilism, a developing market
   economy, an expanding international
   trade, and the rise of the middle class.
European Expansion and Business
n Columbian   Exchange connected 4
  continents: the Americas, Europe, and
  Africa
n trade patterns and ways to earn wealth
  were drastically changed
n governments became more involved in
  business ventures, like colonies
European Expansion and Business
Evaluating the Columbian Exchange
Complete the following chart in your notes. List the positive
and negative effects of Columbian Exchange. Use p. 668 – 669.


Positive Effects                Negative Effects
 Bellringer 9/14/10
n Imagine   that you are going to start
 your own business. This could be
 any business you want (so long as it
 is legal). What type of business
 would it be? Where and why would
 you start this type of business?
European Expansion and Business
n   theory of mercantilism – plan for nations to gain
    power through wealth by building up a supply of
    bullion (gold and silver) through trade
n   increased buying and selling of goods (commerce)
    led merchants to make decisions based on supply
    and demand
n   new type of businessman emerged: the
    entrepreneur
n   governments encouraged entrepreneurs to invest
    in joint-stock companies (see p. 667 in your
    textbook)
European Expansion and Business
n   What were the effects of this new commercial
    revolution?
    n rise of the middle class – group of people, mainly
      merchants and artisans, who made their money by
      investing or working in commerce and trade
    n the “seeds of capitalism” were beginning to be sown
        n build up money (capital) to invest

        n middle class support of business

        n raw materials

        n markets to sell goods

        n belief in free enterprise
Homework for the week of 9/13
n 1-5 on p. 40-41 in the workbook

n 1-4 on p. 46 in the workbook
What Did You Learn?
How did capitalism differ
from mercantilism?

				
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