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					 Hardware and Software

   Identify characteristics of various personal
   Identify characteristics of various personal
    computer processors on the market today
    computer processors on the market today
                                                               Explain how to work
                                                               Explain how to work
                                                             with application software
                                                             with application software
        Differentiate among the various
        Differentiate among the various
                types of memory
               types of memory
                                                        Identify the key features of widely
                                                        Identify the key features of widely
                                                             used business programs
                                                             used business programs
             Identify the categories
            Identify the categories
            of application software
            of application software
                                                          Describe the function of several
                                                          Describe the function of several
                                                           stand-alone utility programs
                                                           stand-alone utility programs
     Explain ways software is distributed
     Explain ways software is distributed



Slides adapted from: Shelly, Cashman & Vermaat, “Discovering Computers: A Gateway To
    Information 2006”, Thomson Course Technology, Ch 3, 4 & 7, 2006
Processor
What is the system clock?
Ø   Controls timing of all computer operations
Ø   Generates regular electronic pulses, or ticks, that set
    operating pace of components of system unit

                               Pace of system
                            clock is clock speed
        Each tick                                     Processor speed can
                           Most clock speeds are
            is a                                      also be measured in
                          in the gigahertz (GHz)
        clock cycle                                  millions of instructions
                            range (1 GHz = one
                                                       per second (MIPS)
                           billion ticks of system
                              clock per second)


                                                                   Next
Processor
Which processor should you select?
Ø The faster the processor, the more expensive the computer
              Intel Processor   Desired Clock Speed
              Itanium or Xeon     1.3 GHz and up




              Pentium family      3.0 GHz and up

                                  2.4 GHz to 3.0
                                 GHz

                                  Up to 2.4 GHz
              Celeron


                                  2.2 GHz and up
                                                      Next
Processor
What are the guidelines for selecting a
 processor?




                                          Next
Memory
How is memory measured?
Ø   By number of bytes available for storage



             Term      Abbreviation   Approximate Size
            Kilobyte    KB or K       1 thousand bytes
            Megabyte     MB            1 million bytes
            Gigabyte      GB            1 billion bytes
            Terabyte      TB            1 trillion bytes




                                                           Next
Memory
What is random access memory (RAM)?
                      Memory chips that can be
                       read from and written
                          to by processor

                                       Most RAM is
                        Also called
                                      volatile, it is lost
                       main memory
                                      when computer’s
                        or primary
                                          power is
                          storage
                                         turned off

                          The more RAM a
                          computer has, the
                           faster it responds
                                                     Next
Memory
How much RAM do you need?
Ø     Depends on type of applications you intend to run
      on your computer
RAM       256 MB to 1                  512 MB to 1                         2 GB and up
          GB                           GB
Use      • Home and business      • Users requiring more advanced • Power users creating
           users managing           multimedia capabilities              professional Web sites
           personal finance       • Running number-intensive           • Running sophisticated
         • Using standard           accounting, financial, or            CAD, 3D design, or
           application software     spreadsheet programs                 other graphics-intensive
           such as word           • Using voice recognition              software
           processing             • Working with videos, music, and
         • Using educational        digital imaging
           or entertainment       • Creating Web sites
           CD-ROMs                • Participating in video conferences
         • Communicating with     • Playing Internet games
           others on the Web                                                            Next
Storage
What is storage?
l   Holds data, instructions, and information for future use
l   Storage medium is physical material used for storage
    § Also called secondary storage




                                                           Next
Storage
What is capacity?
 l   Number of bytes (characters) a storage medium can hold

     Kilobyte (KB)    1 thousand
     Megabyte (MB) 1 million
     Gigabyte (GB) 1 billion
     Terabyte (TB) 1 trillion
     Petabyte (PB)   1 quadrillion
     Exabyte (EB)   1 quintillion
     Zettabyte (ZB) 1 sextillion
     Yottabyte (YB) 1 septillion
                                                    Next
              Storage
              How does volatility compare?
              Ø Storage medium is nonvolatile—contents retained when
                power is off
              Ø Memory is volatile—holds data and instructions temporarily
                                                ON             OFF

                    Screen Display            Display         Display
Volatile




                                              appears       disappears

                         Memory                Data and       Data and
                       (most RAM)            instructions   instructions
                 (chips on motherboard)      available to      erased
Nonvolatile




                                                 user
                     Storage Medium            Contents      Contents
                 (floppy disks, Zip disks,   available to    retained
                     hard disks, CDs)            user
                                                                      Next
Storage
What is access time?
 l   Time it takes storage device to locate item on storage
     medium
 l   Time required to deliver item from memory to processor
                                   Stores
  faster                           …
 transfer     Primary Storage
   rates
             Memory (most RAM)     Items waiting to be interpreted
                                   and executed by the processor
             Secondary Storage
                 Hard Disk         Operating system, application
                                   software, user data and information
            Flash Memory Cards     Digital pictures or files
            and USB Flash Drives   to be transported
              CDs and DVDs         Software, backups, movies, music
  slower           Tape            Backups
 transfer
                                                                         Next
   rates         Floppy Disk       Small files to be transported
Mobile Computers and Devices
What is a mobile computer?
Ø   Notebook, weighing between 2.5 and 8 pounds, or
    mobile device such as a PDA




                                                  Next
 Putting It All Together
What are suggested processor, clock speed, and RAM
requirements based on the needs of various types of users?




                                                      Next
Putting It All Together
What are recommended storage devices for
home users?

               §   80 GB hard disk
               §   Online storage
               §   CD or DVD drive
               §   Card reader/writer
               §   USB flash drive and/or 3.5-inch
                   floppy disk drive
      Home




                                                     Next
Putting It All Together
What are recommended storage devices for
small office/home office (SOHO) users?

                         §   750 MB Zip drive
                         §   120 GB hard disk
                         §   Online storage
                         §   CD or DVD drive
                         §   External hard drive for backup
                         §   USB flash drive and/or 3.5-inch
      Small Office/          floppy disk drive
    Home Office (SOHO)




                                                               Next
Putting It All Together
What are recommended storage devices for
mobile users?

               §   80 GB hard disk
               §   Online storage
               §   CD or DVD drive
               §   Card reader/writer
               §   Portable hard disk for backup
               §   USB flash drive, and/or 2 GB PC Card
      Mobile       hard disk, and/or 3.5-inch floppy disk
                   drive




                                                            Next
Putting It All Together
What are recommended storage devices for
power users?

              §   CD or DVD drive
              §   300 GB hard disk
              §   Online storage
              §   Portable hard disk for backup
              §   USB flash drive and/or 3.5-inch floppy
                  disk drive
      Power




                                                           Next
     Putting It All Together
     What are recommended storage devices for
     large business users?
                               § Desktop computer
                                   §160 GB hard disk
                                   §CD or DVD drive
                                   §Smart card reader
                                   §Tape drive
                                   §USB flash drive and/or 3.5-inch
                                   floppy disk drive
              Large Business   § Server or Mainframe
                                   §Network storage server
                                   §40 TB hard disk system
                                   §CD-ROM or DVD-ROM server
                                   §Microfilm or microfiche
p. 380 Fig. 7-38                                                      Next
Application Software
What is application software?
Ø   Programs designed to make users more productive




                                                  Next
Application Software
How is software distributed?
  l   Packaged software, mass-produced
  l   Custom software, performs functions specific to
      a business or industry
  l   Open source software, provided for use,
      modification, and redistribution
  l   Shareware, distributed free for trial period
  l   Freeware, copyrighted software provided at no
      cost
  l   Public-domain software, freeware with no
      copyright restrictions
                                                   Next
Business Software
What is business software?
 Ø   Software that assists people in becoming more
     effective and efficient




                                                     Next
Business Software
What is word processing software?
 Ø   Allows users to create and
     manipulate text and graphics
     §   Clip art is a collection
         of graphics
         that you can
         insert in
         documents




                                    Next
Business Software
What is spreadsheet software?
 l   Organizes data
 l   Performs calculations and
     recalculates when data changes


             = A1+B2 (*C12)     = D1+E2 (*F12)




                     = SUM (C12:Y12)




                                                 Next
Business Software
How is a spreadsheet organized?
                    Ø Columns identified by letters
                    Ø Rows identified by numbers
                    Ø A cell is the intersection of a
                      column and row




                                              Next
Business Software
What is a function?
Ø   A predefined formula
    that performs
    common calculations
    =C4+C5+C6+C7+C8
    =SUM(C4:C8)




                           Next
Business Software
What is charting?
Ø   Allows you to display spreadsheet data in graphical form




                                                    Next
Business Software
What is database software?


    Allows you to create
     and manage data



                            Add, change, delete,
                           sort, and retrieve data

                                                Next
Business Software
What are the parts of a database?
Ø   A table contains records
Ø   A record is a row in a
    table that contains
    information about a
    given person, product,
    or event
Ø   A field is a column in
    a table that contains
    a specific piece of
    information within
    a record
                                    Next
Business Software
How do you extract information from a
 database?



  Run queries to                Can be sent as a
   retrieve data              report to the printer




                                               Next
Business Software
What is a software suite?

 A collection of individual
     programs sold as
 A collection of individual   Two major advantages:
     a single package
     programs sold as         Two major advantages:
      a single package
                               lower cost     ease of use




                                                      Next
Business Software
What is enterprise computing software?
Ø   Large organizations require special computing
    solutions
Ø   Each functional unit has specialized software
    requirements

           Human
                    Accounting Engineering Manufacturing
          Resources

                                         Customer
     Marketing   Sales    Distribution               IT
                                          Service

                                                           Next
Graphics and Multimedia
Software
What are some
popular graphics
and multimedia
software products?




                          Next
Application Software for
Communications

What software facilitates communication?


      E-mail           Web
                                   Chat rooms      Video
                     browsers
                                                conferencing

               FTP                        Instant
                          Newsgroups
                                         messaging




                                                         Next
Popular Stand-Alone Utility
Programs
What are some widely used stand-alone utility
 programs?


   Antivirus     Spyware     Internet      File
   Program       Remover      Filters   Compression



             File      CD/DVD         PC
          Conversion   Burning    Maintenance

                                                Next
Application Software on the
Web
What is a Web application?

Ø   A software application that
    exists on a Web site, such
    as maps and directions
    §   Some Web applications
        store your data and
        information at their site
    §   Some are free


                                    Next

				
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