International Crop Genebanks

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					HCS 830 – PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES CONSERVATION

International Crop Genebanks

Ka Yeon Jeong Nov 18 2003

The Significance of Plant Biodiversity
Biodiversity - The variety of life on earth. - Forms a “web of life” - Provides enormous benefits aesthetic, cultural, ecological, economic, educational, environmental, genetic, medical, recreational scientific, and social services.

The Significance of Plant Genetic resources
- Plants are the key to food security.  Vital for nourishing and sustaining human society

- Genetic plant diversity  Provide ability to adapt to changing stresses
- The wise use of plant genetic resources  Help eradicate poverty  Protect and enhance the environment

Why plant genetic resources are
conserved and used.
-

In the forest, up to 8% of all plant species are expected to disappear over the next 25 years as deforestation continues.

-

Vital to meet the world’s future development needs.

(IPGRI, http://www.ipgri.cgiar.org/system/page.asp?theme=2)

International Genebanks
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
International Network for the Improvement ofInstituteand Plantain International Plant Genetic Resources Banana

SGRP(System-wide Genetic Resources Programme)

(Plant Production and Protection Division)

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United nations Seed and Plant Genetic Resources Service - AGPS

CGIAR
(Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research)

Mission
“To achieve sustainable food security and reduce poverty in developing countries through scientific research and researchrelated activities in the fields of agriculture, forestry, fisheries, policy, and environment. ”

Five Major Research Areas
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Increasing Productivity. Protecting the Environment. Saving Biodiversity. Improving Policies. Strengthening National Research.

Areas of Research in Plants
Cereals : Rice, Wheat, Maize, Barley, Soghum, Millet Roots, Tubers, Banana and Plantain
Cassava, Potato, Sweet Potato , Yam, Banana and Plantain

Food Legumes
Chickpea, Cowpea, Beans, Lentil, Pigeonpea, Soybean

Oil Crops
Coconut, Groundnut

CGIAR Research Centers
International Research Institute International Food PolicyCenter for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas

International Plant Genetic Resources Institute

International Maze and Wheat Improvement Center International Potato Center International Center for Tropical Agriculture
(CGIAR, http://www.cgiar.org/research/index.html)

“Future Harvest”
Future Harvest - An organization dedicated to building support for international agricultural research.
16 Future Harvest centers work… - In more than 100 countries to mobilize cutting-edge science to reduce hunger and poverty, improve human nutrition and health, and protect the environment - To promote awareness and educate the general public - To make decision about the importance of food production - To build financial support for scientific research and charitable projects

• CGIAR Genebanks
Eleven Centers together maintain over 700,000 samples of crop, forage and agroforestry genetic resources
International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) International Potato Center (CIP) International Center for Agriculture in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) West Africa Rice Development Association (WARDA) World Agroforesty Centre

CGIAR Genebanks : Collection
Center Crop (s) Cassava Forages Bean
Maize Wheat Andean Roots & Tubers Sweet Potato Potato Barley Chickpea Faba Bean Wheat Forages Lentil

Number of Accessions 5,728 18,138 31,718
20,411 95,113

International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) Cali, Colombia International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) Mexico
International Potato Center (CIP) Lima, Peru International Center for Agriculture in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) Aleppo, Syria

1,112 6,413 5,057 24,218 9,116 9,074 30,270 24,581 7,827

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) Patancheru, India

Chickpea Groundnut Pearl Millet Pigeonpea Sorghum Minor Millets

16,961 14,357 21,250 12,698 35,780 9,050

Bambara groundnut Cassava International Institute for Cowpea Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Soybean Wild Vigna Ibadan, Nigeria Yam

2,029 2,158 15,001 1,909 1,634 2,878

International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) Nairobi, Kenya

Forages

11,537

International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) Maccarese, Italy International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) Los Banos, Philippines West Africa Rice Development Association (WARDA) Bouaké, Cote d'Ivoire World Agroforesty Centre Nairobi, Kenya

Musa

931

Rice

80,617

Rice

14,917

Sesbania

25

TOTAL

532,508

(http://www.cgiar.org/research/res_accessions.html)

Impact of the CGIAR
Since CGIAR was born on May 19, 1971.

1) Food production has doubled.

More than 300 CGIAR-developed varieties of rice and wheat, and more than 200 varieties of maize, are being grown by farmers in developing countries.

Impact of the CGIAR
2) Conserve the land and water resources and biodiversity.
More environment-friendly technologies developed by CGIAR have saved 230 and 340 million hectares of land.

http:.//www.cgiar.org/who/wwa_impact.html

Impact of the CGIAR
3) Reduction of pesticide use in developing countries.
- Control of cassava pests has increased the value of annual production in Sub-Saharan Africa.

4) The world’s largest collection of plant genetic resources.
- Over 800,000 accessions of more than 3,000 crop, forage, and pasture species

5) CGIAR works with developing country partners to strengthen their scientific capacities.
http://www.cgiar.org/who/wwa_impact.html - More than 75,000 scientists and technical experts have received training at the centers.

What is IPGRI ?
International Plant Genetic Resources Institute
IPGRI is an international research institute with a mandate to advance the conservation and use of genetic diversity for the well-being of present and future generations. A Centre of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).
http://www.ipgri.cgiar.org/system/page.asp?theme=2

http://www.cgiar.org/research/index.html

Mission of IPGRI
To encourage, support and undertake activities to improve the management of genetic resources worldwide.
I. II. III.

Help eradicate poverty Increase food security Protect the environment

Three major objectives of IPGRI :
1. Enable countries to better assess and meet their own plant genetic resources needs.
2. International collaboration in the conservation and use of genetic resources is strengthened. 3. Knowledge and technologies relevant to the improved conservation and use of plant genetic resources are developed and disseminated.

Major works of IPGRI
Conserving and using specific crops
Special responsibilities:
(1) Bananas, Plantains and Coconut and cacao (2) Neglected or underused species (3) Supporting the genetic resources work of the CGIAR.

Programs of IPGRI
1) The Plant Genetic Resources Programme
2) The International Network for the improvement of Banana and Plantain(INIBAP) 3) The CGIAR Genetic Resources Support Programme.

- The programs of IPGRI 1. The Plant Genetic Resources Programme
APO Regional Office for Asia, the Pacific and Oceania

EUR Regional Office for Europe

CWANA Regional Office for Central & West Asia and North Africa

AMS Regional Office for the Americas SSA Regional Office for Sub-Saharan Africa

- The programs of IPGRI 2. The International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain(INIBAP)
 Bananas

- One of the world's most important food crops.  Plantain - Close relative of banana
 An essential part of the daily diet for communities
in more than 100 tropical and subtropical countries.  INIBAP works to increase and sustain the productivity of bananas and plantains grown on small holdings.

- The programs of IPGRI 3. The CGIAR Genetic Resources Support Programme.

Provides advice and services to the CGIAR in the area of genetic resources policy. Enhances the system’s work on genetic resources through the CGIAR Systemwide Genetic Resources Programme(SGRP) ( System-wide Information Network for Genetic Resources, SINGER.)

Goal & Benefits?
The goal of IPGRI : To contribute to improving the lives of the poorest producers and consumers in developing countries. The increased production and diversity of food and other commodities or to lower prices. Beneficiaries – farmers, forest dwellers, the rural community members,plant breeders, scientists , development workers urban consumers.

FAO(Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)

http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/Default.htm

Seed and Plant Genetic Resources Service (AGPS)
I. Seed Group * To provides technical advice to FAO Members on seed and planting material improvement

II. Plant Genetic Resources Group PGRAF(Plantic Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture) * To support the FAO Global System on Conservation and Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources.

* To assist and advise on * To manage programs for conservation and sustainable seed utilization of plant genetic policies, seed security, resources. germplasm exchange, testing, processing, quality control, storage and utilization.

Seed and Plant Genetic Resources Service (AGPS)
III.WIEWS/SIS
- The World Information and Early Warning System (WIEWS ) on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (PGRFA), has been established by FAO, as a world-wide dynamic mechanism to foster information exchange among Member Countries, by gathering and disseminating information on PGRFA, and as an instrument for the periodic assessment of the state of the world's PGRFA. - The Seed Information System (SIS), was initially developed by the Seed and Plant Genetic Resources Service (AGPS) in the 1970s as a supporting tool to the seed-exchange activities carried out by the Seed Laboratory of the Service and to satisfy specific requests for information on varieties and seed suppliers. SIS is currently being included under the new version of WIEWS.

http://apps3.fao.org/wiews/

Case Study…
Aftermath of an attack.
- The local and global importance of Afghanistan’s agriculture includes at least 18 crops domesticated by local Afghan farmers over the centuries. - September 10, 2002– Looters have destroyed Afghanistan’s largest collection of crop seeds used to develop new crop varieties with improved yield as well as disease and pest resistance. Fortunately, an international consortium of international crop genebanks is working to restore Afghanistan’s valuable gene bank as well as its agriculture.

What they lost ? Hundreds of samples of wheat, barley, chickpea, lentil, melons, pistachio, almond, pomegranate, other fruits, and pasture crops were destroyed. Many of the seed samples were of traditional farmers’ varieties, bred over generations to prosper under particular local conditions, and tailored to the tastes of Afghan consumers.

Response to this emergency,

The Future Harvest research centers of the CGIAR.
ICARDA(International Center for Agricultural Research, Syria) ICRISAT(International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid
Tropics, India),

CIMMTY(International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center,
Mexico)

 Producing each sample of seed from that stored in their own crop gene banks.

Rebuilding Afghanistan’s agriculture

A significant percentage of the population has been displaced and resettled in areas. The areas may not be suitable for producing their traditional crop varieties. These farmers will need plant types adapted to their new conditions.

Seed to farmers…

(http://www.icarda.cgiar.org/afghanistan/Images/PhotoGallery/Seed_Program/Seed.htm)l

Websites
CGIAR : http://www.cgiar.org/research/index.html IPGRI : http://www.ipgri.cgiar.org/ ICARDA : http://www.icarda.cgiar.org FAO –AGP : http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/Default.htm AGJOURNAL : http://www.agjournal.com/story.cfm?story_id=2172


				
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