Document Sample
ENERGY STAR® Powered By Docstoc


ENERGY STAR Refrigerators and Freezers
Richard H. Karney, US DOE July 18, 2001

Structure of Discussion
• For each category, discuss
• Should there be an ENERGY STAR specification? • If so, at what level

• Categories
• • • • Mid-size refrigerators Freezers Compacts Manual and partial-auto defrost models (refrigerator/freezers and freezers, all sizes)

History of the ENERGY STAR Refrigerator Specification

NAECA Standard
• Congress passed the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) in 1987 • NAECA set federal energy standards for products and allowed the Department of Energy to amend and set new energy standards

NAECA Refrigerator Level
• NAECA set the maximum federal energy consumption for 18 different product classes of refrigerators • The original NAECA level applied to models manufactured after January 1, 1990 • The standards were amended to be approximately 30% more restrictive for models manufactured after January 1, 1993 • The standards were amended again to be approximately another 30% more restrictive for models manufactured after July 1, 2001

ENERGY STAR Specification
• The ENERGY STAR level was originally set at 20% below the NAECA standard in 1997 • ENERGY STAR covers product classes 3-7 (refrigerator-freezers with automatic defrost) • On January 1, 2001 the ENERGY STAR level changed to 10% below the 2001 NAECA standard • On January 1, 2004, the ENERGY STAR level will change to 15% below the 2001 NAECA standard

Refrigerator Categories
Product Class Current NAECA maximum energy use (kWh/year)

3. Top Mount Freezer without through the door ice
4. Side Mount Freezer without through the door ice 5. Bottom Mount Freezer without through the door ice 6. Top Mount Freezer with through the door ice 7. Side Mount Freezer with through the door ice

9.8 * AV + 276
4.91 * AV + 507.5 4.6 * AV + 459 10.2 * AV + 356 10.1 * AV + 406

AV = Adjusted Volume = Fresh Volume + 1.63 * Freezer Volume

• Top freezer models must be at least 12.5 cubic feet in total interior volume to qualify • Bottom freezer and side-by-side models must be at least 18.5 cubic feet in total interior volume to qualify • The EPA has a specification covering commercial solid door refrigerators and freezers

Review of ENERGY STAR Specification Setting

• Preventing pollution through energy savings • Section 103 of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (EPA ENERGY STAR) • Promoting development and commercialization of energy efficient appliances • Section 127 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (DOE ENERGY STAR) • Legislation directs agencies to establish voluntary programs that promote products more efficient than minimum Federal or State codes

ENERGY STAR Fundamentals
• • • • Voluntary Reduces Energy Use Prevents Pollution Profitable for partners

National Energy Policy
• Expand the ENERGY STAR program beyond office buildings to include schools, retail buildings, health care facilities, lodging, restaurants, and homes • Extend the ENERGY STAR program to additional products, appliances and services • Strengthen public education programs relating to energy efficiency

Theory of Specification Setting

Building Codes and Standards
Market Transformation

Number of Unit Sales


Increasing Energy Efficiency (Metrics)

Specification Setting Criteria
• Energy Efficiency
• product should be among the most efficient in its class

• Commercial Availability
• must be readily available in the market, cannot rely on proprietary technology owned by one manufacturer

• Cost effectiveness of price premium
• if there is a premium, should be justified to the consumer based on cost savings or other benefits

• Performance
• qualified models must perform as well or better than other models on the market

Specification Setting in Practice
Not all products will qualify…
• Clothes Washers were added to program in 1997 – only 6.5% of models, representing less than 1% of market share qualified • Industry estimates that ENERGY STAR qualified central HVAC models will have only 4% market share when new specification takes effect in October 2002 • Current ENERGY STAR Appliances market share 10 – 30%

Next Steps
• 8/2: Comments due to DOE • 8/30: DOE issues final specification

Review of Analysis Methodology

Expansion of Coverage and Eligibility • Why expand?
•Industry/Utility/Consumer interest
•New Models Available

•Provide motivation to increase product efficiency
•Provide more efficient option for common household purchase

Current Refrigeration Spec
• Standard size refrigerators only
• >12.5 ft3 for top-mount freezer
• >18 ft3 for side-by-side, bottom

• Initial specification intended to include most common sizes

Proposed Addition to Specification Coverage
• Mid-sized refrigerators
• 6.5 to 18.5 ft3, all configurations

• Freezers (manual & auto)
• All residential sizes

• Compact refrigerators/freezers
• < 6.5 ft3

• Manual & partial defrost
• All sizes

Proposed ENERGY STAR Levels for Expansion
• 10% below NAECA standard
• No change • Maintain consistency with current specification • Consistency aids consumer understanding

• Exception
• Compact refrigerators/freezers • 20% below NAECA proposed

Mid-size Refrigerators: Market Overview • Estimated annual sales: 1.9 million • Top mount freezer most common

Top Mount Freezer Performance vs NAECA
550 500 450 Top Mount Freezer Performance NAECA Points Energy Star Points Current Average Performance NAECA Standard 10.50 Size (ft3) 15.50 Proposed Energy Star Level (10%)


400 350 300 250 5.50

Proposed ENERGY STAR Level: Mid-sized Refrigerators • 10% below NAECA standard • Consistent with current speciation

Compacts: Market Overview • Annual Sales: 2.4 million • Mostly Manual Defrost • Sales Volume Doubled in Last Five Years

NAECA and ENERGY STAR: Compacts
Small Refrigerator Efficiency by Volume


350 kWh/year


330 Federal Minimum Standard 310 Proposed 10% ENERGY STAR level Proposed 15% ENERGY STAR level Proposed 20% ENERGY STAR level 290


250 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 Adjusted Volume 5.00 6.00

Proposed ENERGY STAR Level: Compacts • 20% below NAECA standard • Why not 10%?
• 20% created better differentiation • Greater energy savings

Freezers: Market Overview • 2 million units/year sales • 36 million unit stock
• 1 in 3 households

• Two manufacturers have 99% of market

Upright Freezers
Upright Manual Defrost Freezer Performance (AHAM-2001*)

k W 500 h/ yr 400 300 200 3 8 13 Size-ft


DOE standard Proposed Energy Star Spec. Current Averaged Performance DOE Standard Proposed Energy Star Level (10% reduction)



Chest Freezers
Chest-Manual Defrost Freezers Performance (AHAM-2001)
650 550

Chest-Manual DOE standard Proposed Energy Star Spec. Current Averaged Performance


450 350 250 150 3 13 Size-ft3 23

DOE Standard Proposed Energy Star Level (10% reduction)

Proposed ENERGY STAR Levels: Freezers
• 10% below current NAECA standard • Currently, freezers at 10% below NAECA do not exist • Manufacturers stated they will produce more efficient product upon introduction of ENERGY STAR expansion

Estimated Energy Savings • Assume 10% market penetration in first year
• Freezers: • Compacts: • Mid-sized: 13.6 GWh 8.2 GWh 8.7 GWh

Estimated Energy Savings Formula
Model technique:
• Weighted average size (ft3) times average unit energy consumption improvement times annual shipments of Energy Star Units • Give aggregate annual consumption

Options to Improve Performance
• Improve insulation
• HCFC blown Ins. ends in 2004 • New materials being considered

• Improve compressor performance • ECMs for condenser/evaporator • Onboard demand management

Conclusion • These are proposed performance levels • Please make comments today • Reminder: Final comments due August 2

Review of Comments Received

• Received written comments from over a dozen stakeholders • Overwhelming support for refrigerator and freezer expansion • Majority support compact addition, but less consensus

Refrigerators: Pro • Respond to consumer preference while promoting energy efficiency • Support regardless of size, type or defrost as long as it helps attain program goals

Freezers: Pro • Opportunity for significant energy savings • Any product with FTC EnergyGuide should have ENERGY STAR label

Compacts: Con
• Technology not available to meet 20% goal • Dilutes program and loses credibility due to limited savings on consumer utility bill (annual and lifetime) • Products not as durable, inherently less efficient

Compacts: Pro
• Without label, no incentive for mfrs to produce or consumers to buy most energy efficient product • Consumers should consider energy efficiency • Mfrs would like to promote most efficient products

Manual/Partial Auto Defrost: Pro
• Achieve substantial energy savings • Deserve to be able to market energy efficiency • Manual defrost chest freezers constitute 50%+ of market



ENERGY STAR Refrigerators and Freezers
Richard H. Karney, US DOE July 18, 2001

Shared By: