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									    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH 0976
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN IN –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME
              ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET)

ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print)
                                                                         IJARET
ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online)
Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October 2013, pp. 57-61                   ©IAEME
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.asp
Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI)
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             USES OF MEMS ACCELEROMETER IN SEISMOLOGY

                                           Sanjib Kalita
           Final Year Student (Master of Engineering-VLSI & Embedded System Design),
 Dept of Electronics & Telecommunication, Godavari College of Engineering, Jalgaon, Maharashtra.


ABSTRACT

        Life and property has been damaged due to the large magnitude earthquake in the world. It is
necessary to develop some system to predict the time of the earthquake using some modern
technology. MEMS Accelerometer is one of the modern technologies used for detecting the early
information of earthquake. In this paper, the review of current trend of uses of MEMS Accelerometer
for detecting and predicting of earthquake has been discussed.

KEY WORDS: Earthquake, MEMS Accelerometer, Line Graph.

1.0. INTRODUCTION

         Earthquake is occurred within the earth’s crust by the sudden release of large amount of
energy. This energy produces some destructive waves which are called as the seismic wave. It has
been found that the seismic wave includes shear-wave, longitudinal wave and surface wave.
Longitudinal wave’s vibration direction and of the forward motion are found to be same whose speed
is 5.5-7 km/s and the destructive force is small. However, shear wave’s vibration is perpendicular to
the forward direction whose speed is 3.2-4 km/s and the destructive force is high. The surface wave
is the slowest wave and the most destructive.
         Due to the urbanization, the earthquake offers serious threat to lives and properties.
Earthquake Early Warning(EEW) can be very useful tools for reducing life risks happens due to
earthquakes [1] Different types EEW design have been focused in different parts of the world by
various author [2-7].
         It has been reported that various types instrument have been used for different types of
scientific experiments. One of the emerging instruments is MEMS (Micro-Electro Mechanical
System) Accelerometer, which can be used for measuring proper acceleration. However, it can
measure vibration, shock etc. Recently, it has been found that MEMS Accelerometers are used for
many mobile applications [8]. Holland, A. used MEMS Accelerometer for recording the earthquake
data in 2003[9]. Again a few application of MEMS Accelerometer relating to land seismic
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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME

acquisition was focused by Farine, M. et al. in 2004[10]. Many research works are still going on for
the earthquake early warning system using MEMS Accelerometer. So, the MEMS Accelerometers
will play a vital role in future to detect the earthquake and it can save many lives.

1.1. GLOBAL SEISMIC ZONE

       Due to the modern technological development it is possible to familiar the seismic zones of
the world. There are various resources found from many research level articles regarding the seismic
zonal area in the world. The most important and familiar global seismic zone has been found from
Global Seismic Hazard Map [11]. Major and minor seismic zone are also found from this map.
Besides, it shows the 10% probability of ground motion during next 50 years. Some of the major
seismic zones which are found from Global Seismic Hazard Map are Japan, Philippines, Indonesia,
Himalayan Ranges, Iran, Western part of North America & South America etc.

1.2. MEMS ACCELEROMETER

        Let us remind an important device used for various experiments, called MEMS
accelerometer. It is known that an accelerometer is a device which measures acceleration force.
Many types of accelerometer have been developed. But these accelerometers are bulky. Hence it is
necessary to develop some smaller accelerometer which can be used in many fields of applications. It
has been found that 1st Micro Machined Accelerometer was designed in 1979 [12]. Many electrical
devices namely gyroscope, pressure sensors, inkjet printer etc have been used in MEMS technology.
Further, in 1990 car airbags are modernized by using MEMS Accelerometer. More recently, it has
been used in smart phones, washing machines etc [13]. Now many leading companies such as
Analog Devices, ST Microelectronics, Freescale etc. have produced MEMS accelerometer of
different sensitivity level.
        MEMS Accelerometers can be divided in various type, such as capacitive, electromagnetic,
piezoelectric, ferroelectric, optical etc [14]. Out of these, capacitive MEMS accelerometer is most
successful type. Many specification of MEMS Accelerometer are bandwidth, noise, cross-axis,
sensitivity, drift, linearity, dynamic range, shock survivability and power consumption, which have
to consider when choosing an accelerometer.

1.3. SEISMOLOGY AND MEMS ACCELEROMETER

        In 2003 Chung et al. developed MEMS-type accelerometer which can monitor vibration of
large-scale structures. In addition to that the same author used MEMS Accelerometer for real time
seismic monitoring of bridges [15]. This system has been installed at the pedestrian bridge in the
Peltason Street on the University of California, Irvine campus. Again for seismic data acquisition C.
P. Singh uses MEMS Digital Geophone. This geophone is based on the MEMS Accelerometer and
onboard sigma delta modulator which is very useful for exploration in the oil fields [14].
        Further Takao Aizawa et al. [16] performed some field experiment using MEMS
Accelerometer for seismic survey. In this survey the authors use conventional geophone, C-brand 1-
C, C-brand 3-C and S-brand 3-C MEMS. It has been reported that the property of MEMS
Accelerometers which were used in the experiment were similar and they are found to be more
sensitive than conventional geophone for seismic survey.
        Adam Pascale in 2009 explained some advantages of MEMS Accelerometer for earthquake
monitoring [17]. Recently, the Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) is used to minimize the gap between
the traditional seismic stations. MEMS Accelerometer sensors have been used in Quake-Catcher

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME

Network (QCN) to detect the vibration of local seismic waves (0.1-20 Hz). In addition to that
distributed computing plays a vital role in QCN [18]. The use of QCN for recording earthquake also
explains the behavior of P- and S-wave [19].
         Huayin Zeng et al. [20] recently designed a wireless earthquake alarm system using MEMS
Accelerometer. The MEMS Accelerometer used in the system detects the longitudinal wave which
travels faster than the other wave. If the acceleration is higher than the threshold value then the
system alert the people by playing the alarm to leave the building as soon as possible, since the
destructive share wave is followed by the longitudinal wave. MMA7260Q MEMS Accelerometer of
Freescale was used in this design. This is a 3-axis accelerometer with very low power consumption.
Besides, CC1100 and C8051F330 were used for the wireless transmission and signal processing
respectively. According to the author, this system will play very important role in near future since
its cost will be low.
         Tu R. et al. also do some field experiments using MEMS Accelerometer with Single-
frequency GPS for monitoring ground motion generated due to earthquake, landslides and volcanic
activity in 2013 [21].

1.4. TREND OF RESEARCH                  IN    SEISMOLOGY          AND      THE     USES      MEMS
ACCELEROMETER

        The current trend of research in seismology and the uses of MEMS Accelerometer in it are
not satisfied as compared to the other branches science and technology for detecting early
information of earth quake. In the present’s day context, the data available in the form of research
articles and research letters relating to seismology, gives an over view of application of MEMS
Accelerometer in seismology. The following graph [Figure-1] is an approximate idea of research
done in seismology during the year 2003 to 2013, only where the application of MEMS
Accelerometer have been found. Here the x-axis represents the years and the y-axis represents the
published research works.




 Figure-1: Line Graph of Approximate idea of research in seismology using MEMS Accelerometer


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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME

1.5. CONCLUSION

       Through the above article, an idea of the direction of research regarding to the uses of MEMS
Accelerometer in detecting the early information of earth quake are studied only during the year
2003 to 2013. This study shows that, the instantaneous research on MEMS Accelerometer in
earthquake prediction compared to others is found to be less. It needs further research on this line.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

       I am grateful to the project guide Mrs. J.N.Borole, Assistant Professor and Dr. K.P. Rane,
HOD, Department of Electronics & Telecommunication, Godavari College of Engineering, Jalgaon
(Maharashtra) for encouraging to prepare this paper. I am also thankful to Dr. Bichitra kalita, HOD,
Department of Computer Application, Assam Engineering College, Guwahati (Assam) for valuable
suggestions for completing the paper.

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