"America Moves into the City_ 1865-1900"
Chapter 25 America Moves into the City, 1865-1900 The Urban Frontier - By 1900, 4 out of 10 Americans lived in a city. People were lured in by industrial jobs. It was a whole different kind of lifestyle. Steel and perfection of the electric elevator allowed for the building of skyscrapers. Commuters were carted to their jobs on mass-transit trolley lines. Electricity, indoor plumbing, telephones, and the glitter of city lights all seemed more attractive than life on a farm. Problems - Cramped living arrangements (the Dumbbell Tenement), garbage, and animal waste were new to the urban dwellers. There was no system of collecting trash other than the pigs that wondered the streets. Other animals that pulled carts and people (no cars yet) left their "stuff" in piles. On the farm this would simply be manure, in the city it was a problem. The New Immigration - Until the 1880s most immigrants had come from Britain and Western Europe. In the years until leading up to World War I most immigrants came from Southern and Eastern Europe. Despite government encouragement to settle in the open rural areas of the U.S., most congregated together in the bigger cities. They left Europe because the population was swelling and they had heard of the opportunities in America. Some fled to avoid persecution such as the Jews. About 25% of all immigrants from 1820-1900 never intended to become citizens, but simply made as much money as possible then returned to their native countries. American reactions – Political bosses thrived on immigration by finding jobs and housing in return for votes. Several Protestant clergymen attempted to tackle the problems of the cities and immigrants in what was known as the “Social Gospel.” In 1889, Jane Addams opened the most prominent settlement house (Hull House). Anti-foreignism was revisited in the 1880s with the new immigration. The American Protective Association (APA) was created in 1887 and urged voting against Roman Catholic candidates for office. Labor leaders argued that the government protected big business with tariffs, but didn't protect workers from cheap immigrant labor. The first restrictive laws against immigration were passed in 1882. First criminals and Chinese were denied entry, next foreign contract labor, followed later by the insane, polygamists, alcoholics, prostitutes, anarchists, and people carrying contagious diseases. Religion - Churches found themselves in a struggle with industrialization. They were slow to respond to economic and social issues because their more wealthy parishioners funded them. In 1890 Americans could chose from 150 different religious denominations including the new Salvation Army and Church of Christ, Scientist (Christian Science). By 1900 the Roman Catholics had taken the lead as the largest single denomination, nearly 9 million. Religion also found itself at odds with Charles Darwin. Education - Tax-supported schooling continued to rise after the Civil War. By 1870 most states had made a grade school education mandatory and the number of high schools in the nation rose dramatically. This required more teacher-training called "normal schools" and adults were assisted by the Chautauqua movement with courses for home study as well as traveling public lectures. Booker T. Washington led the fight for black education but stopped short of social equality. Other black leaders sought more including W.E.B. Du Bois who started the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the NAACP. The Morrill Act of 1862 expanded the nation’s university by granting land expressly for this purpose. These are the "land grant" colleges. Bennett 2001-02 Chapter 25 The New Press – The increased literacy of Americans combined with new wealth and free time led to the increased circulation of newspapers and the building of libraries. Andrew Carnegie donated $60 million to libraries for youth and the huge Library of Congress was completed in 1897. Sensationalistic news began to rule the day as publishers like Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst (rent Citizen Kane) built powerful chain papers on scandals with big headlines. Literary Landmarks – Authors and their contributions Henry George – Progress and Poverty: tax the wealthy Edward Bellamy – Looking Backward: futuristic look at nationalized big business Harlan F. Halsey – 650 dime-store paperbacks Horatio Alger – juvenile fiction about virtue an honesty leading to success and wealth Emily Dickinson – amazing poetry discovered after her death Kate Chopin – The Awakening: daring feminist author wrote about adultery and female ambition **Mark Twain – The Gilded Age, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, The Adventures of Huck Finn: perhaps America’s greatest author Stephen Crane – The Red Badge of Courage: died too young Henry James – Daisy Miller, The Portrait of a Lady, The Bostonians: master of “psychological realism” Jack London – The Call of the Wild: nature writer Theodore Dreiser – Sister Carrie: social novelist Women and the New Morality – The new morality of the age was reflected in soaring divorce rates (see table on p. 588), the practice of birth control, and frank discussions about sexual topics. Prominent in this battle were Victoria Woodhull (feminist) and Anthony Comstock (the Comstock Law) the self-appointed defender of sexual purity. The work of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony was continued by Carrie Chapman Catt, the new leader of the National Women’s Suffrage Association. The first state to grant women the right to vote was Wyoming (1869). Other western states would follow in the years to come. Social Progress – Organizations such as the National Prohibition party, the Women’s Christian Temperance Union, and the Anti- Saloon League would eventually lead to passage of the 18th Amendment in 1919 prohibiting alcohol in the U.S. Other organizations got their start during this time including the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (1866) and the American Red Cross (1881) launched by Clara Barton. American Artists – Again, new wealth and free time led to diversions such as art and sports. George Eastman (Kodak) made photography easy and affordable with his “brownie” camera. Notable artists included John Singer Sargent, James Whistler, Thomas Eakins, and Winslow Homer. Symphony orchestras in New York, Boston, and Chicago gained popularity. American architecture received recognition with the work of Louis Sullivan and Henry H. Richardson. Other amusements such as Vaudville, the Circus (Barnum & Bailey), Wild West Shows, and spectator sports like football, baseball, boxing, and horse racing also became popular. Bennett 2001-02