ARCHDIOCESE OF DENVER CATHOLIC SCHOOLS
ANNUAL REPORT 2013
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The “door of faith” is opened at one’s baptism, but during
this Year of Faith Catholics are called to open it again, walk
through it and rediscover and renew their relationship with
Christ and his Church. Our Catholic schools are indeed fertile
Catholic schools. ground for the Year of Faith because they are nourished by the
word of God every day and by the sacramental view of human
The Year of Faith. experience; that is, seeing the world as a place where God is
actively present and revealed. In this sense, each year is a year
Opportunity to deepen knowledge. of faith in a Catholic school. This year, however, is a very special
time “to help us understand more profoundly not only the
content of faith, but also the act by which we choose to entrust
A special time to share the faith. ourselves fully to God, in complete freedom.” (Porta Fidei)
The Year of Faith began on October 11, 2012, the 50th anni-
versary of the opening of Vatican II and the 25th anniversary
of the Catechism of the Catholic Church. In this year we are
asked to study and reflect on the documents of Vatican II
and the catechism so that they may deepen our knowledge
MOST REV. SAMUEL J. AQUILA of the faith. One such document is the Declaration on Chris-
tian Education (Gravissiumum Educationis). This is the ninth
Catholic Schools of sixteen documents produced by the Bishops; one of three
Declarations produced by the council; and addresses the
importance of education.
As a young man in California, I attended both Catholic elementary
and high schools. Like millions of American children, I beneﬁted THE DOORS OF FAITH One section of the document states the respective responsibili-
greatly from the academic and faith formation Catholic schools
have to offer. As a priest of the Archdiocese of Denver, I was in our Catholic Schools ties of four authors of education: Parents, Church, school, and
teachers. These four authors are exhorted to fulfill their respective
Assistant Secretary and then Secretary of Catholic Education
from 1991 to 1999. Each day nearly 10,000 children and youth enter through responsibilities in the duty of educating children and youth. We
the doors of 38 Archdiocese of Denver Catholic Schools. To have chosen to highlight and share the thoughts and spirit
I am deeply grateful for what Catholic education has meant in
ensure the safety of students, each of these doors is secured and of these authors of education in our Annual Report. Together
my own life. As a priest I saw ﬁrsthand the tremendous effort, they address the call of this Sacred Council—earnestly entreat-
commitment, and sacriﬁce that so many people have made to
only opened when some type of electronic “announcement” is
made and verified. A decade or two ago this was not the proto- ing pastors and all the faithful to “spare no sacrifice in helping
safeguard and promote Catholic education. As the Archbishop of Catholic schools fulfill their essential function in a continually
Denver I am proud of the contribution that Catholic schools make to col for entering a school; it is necessitated by the realities of
society today. more perfect way.”
people’s lives and to the community at large. I am committed to the
success of Catholic schools and to their excellence.
Upon entering the school though, students pass through a very
Catholic education boasts a long history in the United States. Catholic special door that is always open—“the door of faith.” This door,
schools and universities predate even the birth of our nation. By reach- not available to students in public charter schools, is “...ushering Richard L. Thompson
ing out to all people in this country, Catholic education has helped to us into the life of a communion with God...It is possible to cross that Superintendent, Archdiocese of Denver Catholic Schools
impart the knowledge and the virtues necessary for a healthy society. threshold when the word of God is proclaimed and the heart allows
The goal of Catholic education is a true human ﬂourishing that embrac- itself to be shaped by transforming grace.” (Porta Fidei)
es the entire person. This includes: knowledge, skills, and a trained
mind; virtues and maturity; generosity and a commitment to the
The human person is more than a productive and decent citizen, for
every human being is created by God and is offered eternal salvation
THE DOORS OF THE CATHEDRAL BASILICA
through Jesus Christ. True human ﬂourishing recognizes God as the
good and wise creator of our nature and that the deepest purpose of
of the Immaculate Conception
our existence is communion with Him. It is essential, all the more in
these days, that our children encounter Jesus Christ and live with their In keeping with our Holy Father’s letter on the Year of Faith, Second, “Cathedral” is derived from the Latin cathedra,
hearts resting in His. Discipleship encompasses all of life, and that Porta Fidei, (door of faith) we have chosen a photo of the meaning chair or throne. It houses the Archbishop’s chair,
includes our growth and training for adulthood. The truly unique contri- Cathedral doors as the cover of our Annual Report for two and the Catholicity of our schools depends largely on the
bution of Catholic education is this: we prepare not only graduates but main reasons. bond of ecclesial communion between bishops and Catholic
disciples. This is the primary mission, partnering with parents who are educators. Our school communities are thus linked in trust
First, the Cathedral is celebrating her one-hundredth year as and communion with our Archbishop. We serve our Arch-
the ﬁrst entrusted with this great responsibility by God and His Church.
the Mother Church of the Archdiocese of Denver. The letter bishop and rely on him as our Shepherd, so it is appropriate
Faith is not simply a matter of the individual. This grace of God is given, Monsignor Tom Fryar wrote for the anniversary program that we center on and celebrate the cathedra, the chair from
strengthened, and expressed in a unique community created by Him, states, “The Lord has blessed the Church of Denver and the which he speaks, in our report to the archdiocese.
the Church. Our children beneﬁt greatly by experiencing a community people of God with this precious setting for prayer, solace,
of faith through Catholic schools. In this Year of Faith, please join me in peace, and challenge for a century, and it is good for us to
supporting and praying for Catholic education, so our children may fully pause and say ‘Thanks be to God.’”
ﬂourish and the journey of faith may be a vibrant reality in our schools.
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Parents, bound by the serious obligation to
educate their offspring, are thus the primary
and principle educators of their children.
- Gravissimum Educationis proclaimed by His Holiness Pope Paul VI
Parents served as members of their School
Families entrusted their children to the
Archdiocese of Denver Catholic Schools Advisory Council, High School Boards,
during the 2011-12 school year. Enrollment Management Teams, Core Teams,
Branding and Marketing teams.
“The Catholic tradition is very rich and has a lot more to offer than secular education, which in many ways today seems very artiﬁcial…
in Catholic school our children can enter into this 2,000 year old tradition, this living history that we are a part of. We want them to
be exposed to this great legacy of Catholicism.”
- Ann and R. Jared Staudt, parents of two students at Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic School
PARENTS: PRIMARY EDUCATORS
of their Children
The following three stories were written by Jean Torkelson ‘Blessing more than sacriﬁce’ ‘God ﬁrst’
and published in the October 31, 2012 edition of the Denver When John and Elizabeth Labenski of Edwards researched Mary, 43, may be among the more financially pressured, and
Catholic Register. These stories are a reflection of the great charter schools for their three kids, now ages 3 to 7, nothing also among the most loyal, of Catholic school parents. “I grew
sacrifices that 6,674 families make on a daily basis but we clicked. Then they found St. Clare of Assisi Catholic School. up surrounded by God my whole life,” she said. She wanted
are sure that there are as many rewards returned two -fold. no less for her children. When her eldest child was just 3, she
“We think that was God’s plan,” Elizabeth said. “Blessed as we put him on a Catholic school waiting list.
‘We don’t back down’ are to live in this country, it’s so secularized now that we feel
Becky and Chris Morley, both 38, grew up together in the it would be confusing to send our children to a school system The commitment grew harder when she got divorced six years
same neighborhood and graduated in 1992 from Chatfield where God is not welcome. We want this to be in their lives ago and her ex-husband didn’t care to contribute to Catholic
Senior High School. But after they married, they agreed that 24 hours a day—to be able to pray and talk about their faith education for their four kids, who now are ages 10 to 18.
the choice for their four boys, now ages 2 to 10, was Catholic and be around other children who are able to love Jesus the So Mary works—currently at three jobs. Over the years those
school. When they moved back from the Boston area, they same way.” jobs have included teaching, hanging dry wall and working
knew St. Vincent de Paul School in Denver was the place as a private chef. And she applies for every scholarship she can.
for them. School loomed just as the economy collapsed, forcing John
out of his real estate career. He has since opened an insurance The result? All four kids have attended, or are attending,
“We feel our world has become much more secularized and agency, but years of financial uncertainty have taken their toll. Notre Dame School in Denver. John recently graduated from
we’re not interested in exposing our children to the relativism The school “has been generous with tuition assistance,” Eliza- Machebeuf High School in Denver, and her oldest daughter,
that’s being taught in the public schools,” said Becky. “It’s a beth said. “We are obligated to volunteer a certain amount of Madison, is a sophomore there. “I believe that it is important to
case of drawing the line in the sand—morally, ethically and time but I have found that to be a blessing more than a sacrifice.” have God in their lives every single day to help them on their jour-
religiously. We don’t back down from our beliefs and we ney,” she said. The key is to prioritize. “We rent a town home,
want to teach our kids the truth.” Still, John points out that Elizabeth—a highly trained musi- we don’t use credit cards, we don’t have the normal luxuries
cian and former music teacher at Iowa State University—has most people do. The priority in my home is, “God first, always.”
She added, “We’re trying to get our kids to heaven, and we want shouldered the bigger sacrifice, which is time away from her
to do it with other parents who feel same way.” Becky is a home- professional work. But their kids’ success makes the sacrifice
maker and Chris a telecom executive, so their most significant worth it. Or as Elizabeth put it, “As an educator, I see them
sacrifice isn’t financial as much as it is time. “You have to growing spiritually, intellectually and socially.”
volunteer; it’s what we do to serve the Lord,” she said. “We’re
called to help our community, to keep it functioning, and,
hopefully, we are evangelizing through our children.”
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The Church is bound as a mother to give
these children of hers an education imbued
with the spirit of Christ.
- Gravissimum Educationis proclaimed by His Holiness Pope Paul VI
79% of 5th graders and 78% of 8th graders say they attend Saturday evening or Sunday Mass
compared to 37% of people over 18 who say they attend Mass weekly.
It is the gift of the Holy Spirit that makes us ﬁt for mission and strengthens our witness, making it frank and courageous. (Porta Fidei)
Education imbued with the spirit of Christ
The Archdiocese of Denver boasts of the largest system of In one school, the students who plan and serve at the school Parents and families often return to the Church because of the
private schools in the state of Colorado. Mass are also “stewards of trash” for that week. They pick up influence of their students in the Catholic school. Students
trash around the whole block of the church and school. and school communities evangelize parents to become Catholic.
36 Archdiocese of Denver parishes operating Catholic elementary Two of our newest Catholic school principals are converts to
schools. the faith through this influence.
The Catholic school is one of the catechetical instruments
101 (72% of archdiocesan parishes) Archdiocese of Denver of the parish. 6th graders and high school juniors have the opportunity to seri-
parishes sending students to archdiocesan Catholic schools. Many schools have students pray the rosary on a regular basis. ously consider a vocation to the priesthood or religious life
Several schools have a living rosary in October and May. through a day-long event co-sponsored by the Archdiocesan
The local Church teaches children about the life of the parish Vocation Office, Knights of Columbus and Serran Clubs in
and the ministries available within the Church. It trains them, Students participate in seasonal liturgical devotions such as the metro area.
and allows them to practice ministries as part of the school Stations of the Cross during Lent and May Crowning in the
experience. spring. Parishioners are often invited to pray with the students 5th graders join the Archbishop for Mass at the Cathedral, learn-
during these devotions. ing about their extended community and their relationship to
690 boys and girls in 17 Catholic elementary schools and Bish- the wider Church community.
op Machebeuf High School are altar servers for school Masses. Students and parishioners who attend daily Mass develop
They are as young as 3rd grade. Most of them are in 6th and 7th a relationship. This often results in parishioners becoming
grade. They also serve at Sunday Mass in their home parishes. volunteers in the school. At Notre Dame Catholic School classes On the Assessment of Catechetical and Religious Education (ACRE) more
These students may also serve at funerals in their parishes. “adopt” parish organizations such as the Knights of Columbus, than 90% of 5th graders and 8th graders in Archdiocesan schools say:
the Altar and Rosary Society, etc. Classes invite their “organiza-
Students in Catholic schools serve at school Masses as lectors, • that being Catholic is important to them;
tion” to Mass when it is their turn to plan, to holiday parties in
ushers, cantors, take up the gifts at the offertory, and help the classroom, and to other school events. A relationship devel- • they participate in the Sacrament of Reconciliation;
clean the church after Mass. Training in these ministries often ops over time between these church groups and the students. • they belong to an excellent parish;
allows students to participate in these ministries on the week- • people in their parish care about helping others;
ends in their home parishes. Eight Catholic school students came into the church at St. Therese
• they see Jesus as a Savior and friend;
during the 2011-12 school year and were baptized during school
St. Louis Catholic School in Louisville and All Souls Catholic Masses. Classmates have an opportunity to participate in this • they believe their relationship with Jesus helps them.
School train student sacristans. Sacrament of Initiation on a personal level.
In several schools, students from 4th - 8th grade participate in
choirs for school Masses.
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and the Contemporary World
The Archdiocese of Denver Catholic Schools is recognized as a Blessed Sacrament Catholic School iPad Project
school system committed to continual improvement through Funded through a grant from the Catholic Schools Assistance Fund
the AdvancED accreditation. In the 2012 -13 school year the This program provides iPads to each Junior High student as
Archdiocese of Denver Office of Catholic schools adopted the part of the 1-1 iPad Initiative. The iPads will increase student
National Standards and Benchmarks for Effective Catholic engagement and address the needs of students across the learn-
Elementary and Secondary Schools, published by the NCEA ing spectrum.
as a guide for continual improvement and the evaluation of
the schools. St. Rose of Lima Catholic Academy and Annunciation Catholic
School Expeditionary Learning Schools
The contemporary world demands innovation in teaching and Funded through a grant from the Catholic Schools Assistance Fund
learning, in response to that demand five of the Archdiocese of This is a model that requires a strong commitment to profes-
Denver Catholic Schools are engaged in pilot programs featur- sional development and high expectations for all student schol-
ing innovation. ars. The project is in its first year at Annunciation and second
year at St. Rose of Lima; it will take five years to fully imple-
St. Francis de Sales Catholic School iPad Project ment the expeditionary learning model.
Funded by a private donor
The project provides every student and teacher with an Apple Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic School Classical Education
iPad to enhance their learning experience with 21st century Funded through a grant from the Catholic Schools Assistance Fund
technology. The program is also being implemented to improve The school is in the first year of a three - year pilot program “We have been given great gifts from the school as we proceed forward, gifts which have certainly changed the courses of our lives. The ﬁrst
faculty communication and enhance classroom instruction. of these is the gift of faith and reason bound together—as they should be. As strange as it seems, an overwhelming majority of schools
introducing a classical curriculum to the school. have forgone faith altogether, presenting only half of education and learning—that is, reason alone. It is like having pepper on the table
but no salt. The frame of a bicycle but no wheel.”
- Salutatory Address by Breaden J. Fallet of Holy Family High School
The school is bound to be open to the situation of STUDENTS EVANGELIZING
the contemporary world while also preparing children in the name of the Gospel
for service in the spread of the Kingdom of God. Rigorous academics and innovative methods of instruction Students at St. Vincent de Paul Catholic School have a long
- Gravissimum Educationis proclaimed by His Holiness Pope Paul VI prepare students of the Archdiocese of Denver for futures we standing tradition of collecting food and distributing it to
cannot predict, but this is only one part of our mission. Our impoverished families in the Ft. Lupton area. Additionally,
students are taught that we are called to serve others and to each of our schools conducts some sort of food collection
spread the Kingdom of God. Each of our Catholic schools for food banks throughout the state of Colorado.
engages in service learning that allows students to share their
gifts of time, talent, and treasure with others in a spirit of The gift of serving seniors in our communities is embraced by
thanksgiving for all God has given them. The following exam- many of the schools. St. Therese Catholic School in Aurora has
ples give only a glimpse into the multitude of service projects a ten-year tradition of working with other charitable organiza-
in which the Archdiocese of Denver Catholic Schools partici- tions to prepare and serve Thanksgiving dinner to more than
pate each year. 4,000 senior citizens.
Bishop Machebeuf High School and Holy Family High School Students at St. Mary Catholic School in Littleton and Our Lady
students traveled to Peru on a mission trip in the summer of of Fatima Catholic School prepare care boxes and correspon-
2012. The students worked with the Christian Life Movement dence for United States Military personnel serving over seas.
on a variety of service projects in Lima.
Grade school children across the Archdiocese make rosaries for
Students at Holy Trinity, Most Precious Blood, and Sts. Peter and missions, cards for the elderly and infirm, baby blankets for the
Paul Catholic School prepare sack lunches to be distributed at Gabriel house, special gifts for first responders, clean commu-
area shelters throughout the year. Archdiocesan schools have nity grounds and collect food, diapers, medicine, clothing and
raised money for the Quarters for Kids Campaign for several money for those in need on a regular basis.
years. This program helps to fund programs that feed children
Each of our schools provides regular opportunities to practice
in the metropolitan Denver area.
the corporal works of mercy and every day we practice the spiri-
Several of the schools participate in the Fr. Woody Christmas tual works of mercy through our prayers for all in need.
project as well as Operation Christmas Child.
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A SPECIAL THANK YOU Anniversaries Honored in the 2011-2012 School Year
Teachers are bound to be carefully prepared to the following teachers Years of service # of teachers Total years honored
5 years 55 275
in both secular and religious knowledge and by 40 year anniversary
Elaine Tucker, St. Francis de Sales Catholic School
10 years 19 190
15 years 9 135
their life and instruction to bear witness to Christ, 35 year anniversary 20 years 10 200
the master Teacher. Sr. Dolores Bland, Holy Family High School
Kathy Plevniak, St. Therese Catholic School
- Gravissimum Educationis proclaimed by His Holiness Pope Paul VI 35 years 2 70
30 year anniversary
40 years 1 40
Robyn Nason, Holy Family High School
Robyn Whelan, St. Mary Catholic School, Littleton Total 103 1,095
829 Teachers in the Archdiocese of Denver
Catholic Schools (K-12) 23 Religious teachers, which includes 4 brothers,
15 sisters and 2 priests (K-12) 1,095 Total number of years of service
honored in 2011-2012. 103 Teachers honored from 5-40 years of service
Professional Licensure and Certiﬁcation
All teachers employed by the Archdiocesan Catholic
schools shall hold a current and valid state license or
certificate. Secondary and elementary schools impose
additional qualifications or requirements as to areas of
TEACHERS endorsement for teaching assignments. Schools comply
with the AdvancED standards regarding teacher qualifi-
Education as a Ministry cations and preparation. Teachers who hold a degree in
Catholic theology and teach only religion and /or theol-
ogy cannot qualify for state licensure and therefore are
Elias Moo Bob Comeaux
exempt from the state requirements. Theology and Reli-
Assistant Principal at St. Rose of Lima Catholic Academy Physics and Chemistry teacher at Holy Family High School
gion teachers exempt from the state requirements must
The greatest strength I have is my desire to want to lead a In my previous career, I worked at IBM for 30 years in various
comply with the Religious Education Requirements.
profoundly Christian life in service of my school community engineering, software development, and management roles.
and my commitment to the New Evangelization. This is not to As I approached retirement, I was able to take advantage of Policy 3370
say I have perfected my Christian life by any means. I want my a wonderful IBM program, called Transition-to -Teaching, Each teacher, full or part-time, will plan and engage in
students, parents, and faculty to believe they are in a Catholic in which IBM paid for my schooling to get certified to teach programs of religious and professional growth as part
school to receive more than a great academic education. I want science at the secondary level. This has been the fulfillment of their own continuing education and professional
them to come to know, love and serve Christ on the road to saint- of a life-long dream. When I was a high school senior, my first development.
hood. This means I need to be the first in line to want to know, choice for a career was to be a high school math or science
love and serve Christ and his Church. I will work endlessly to teacher. However, once I discovered what teachers were paid The Catechetical School at the Archdiocese of Denver
create an educational center where our faith is fully integrated in those days, I decided to apply my love of math and science provides catechetical certification for all principals and
into every movement and breath of school life. I will not rest in pursuit of an engineering degree. teachers as part of the teaching requirements in the
until we are truly the best Catholic school and it starts with Archdiocese of Denver Catholic Schools.
me and the personal witness I give. I can no longer recall the author of a quote I once read that says,
“To study physics is to peer into the mind of God.” That encapsu- Provisional Certiﬁcation
Sister Rose Mary Balappa, S.O.L.M. lates why I love teaching physics and chemistry in a Catholic All principals and teachers are required to earn a provi-
Principal at St. Joseph Catholic School high school. When I help my students discover the order and sional certificate (36 class hours) from the Catechetical
I try to live my vocation by a clear witness of poverty, of detach- symmetry of the universe, along with the beauty, simplicity, and School within 18 months of their hire date. Provisional
ment, of purity, and of self-denial, and evangelizing effort of harmony of the natural laws which describe it, I feel like I’m certification includes:
my fellow sisters. I try to value and live the rule and constitu- convincing them of the infinite intelligence of its Designer.
tions of the Congregation of the Sisters of Our Lady of Mercy, Pillar I: The Creed: What Catholics Believe
to which I belong. As a principal my mission is to live and teach Pillar II: Sacraments and Liturgy
the Gospel. To evangelize, nurture, and protect God’s given free- Pillar III: Life in Christ - Christian Morality
dom of the human person rooted in a Eucharistic-Marian spirit Pillar IV: Christian Prayer - Prayer, Spirituality
of Mercy, through a quality education based on Catholic and Full-day attendance at Living the Catholic Faith
Mercedarian tradition, collaborating with the other teachers Conference (required)
and parents as educators.
Parish School annual retreat (required)
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2012 Fiscal Year
Educating young people continues to be one of the key available to as many families as possible, through better fund-
missions throughout northern Colorado. Catholic schools raising efforts and greater commitment from the whole Catho-
rely for their survival on tuition, fundraising, parish support lic community.
and philanthropy. Monies collected through the Archbishop’s
Catholic Appeal (ACA) campaign help fund services provided For the 2012-13 school year, Catholic schools serving similar
by the archdiocesan Office of Catholic Schools. In contrast families will receive more than $5.3 million in grants and other
most revenue for public education comes from taxpayers, support. Yet even with the generous investment of time, talent
whether they use public schools or not. and treasure from a great many people, the Archdiocese of
Denver deals with the same financial burdens the nation at
The cost of supporting this mission has tried the resources of large carries in the current economic unknowns. As a result,
many families, parishes and benefactors in recent years. Even we cannot guarantee a sufficient funding stream to keep all
so, wonderful financial help has been made available through of our parish schools sustainable.
organizations like Seeds of Hope Charitable Trust, The Catholic
Foundation, the Catholic Schools Assistance Fund (CSAF), the
ACA campaign and, of course, the 36 parish communities who
directly support a school. We seek to make Catholic education
$4,155 Average tuition K-8 for Afﬁliated
Catholic families during 2011-12 $8,350 Average tuition 9-12 for Afﬁliated
Catholic families during 2011-12
Grants and Other Funding to Parish Schools Tuition revenue for the 38 Archdiocese of
Years ended June 30, 2011, June 30, 2012 and forecasted for 2013 Denver Catholic Schools for the 2011–12 school
year was approximately $59,000,000 representing
Total $6,102,600 the generous investment by thousands of parent
$6,000,000 Total $5,948,000
Archdiocese of Denver †
Archdiocese of Denver
Archdiocese of Denver $730,300
The Catholic Foundation Other private funding sources not included in graph
$5,000,000 The Catholic Foundation
The Catholic Foundation $665,000
$1,053,000 ACE McCallin Family
Seeds of Hope Daniels Fund Peterson Memorial
$4,000,000 Seeds of Hope $1,277,700
Seeds of Hope $1,371,300 Fox Family Foundation Shannon Foundation
Knights of Columbus Schmitz Family Foundation
$3,000,000 Martin Family Foundation *
And several unnamed private donors
*as reported by schools in the 2011-12 demographic report.
$2,000,000 * Catholic School
* Catholic School * Catholic School
Assistance Fund Assistance Fund
* Catholic School Assistance Fund is an investment from
$3,088,000 offertories of every parish in the Archdiocese.
† Archdiocese of Denver amount includes Youth Ministry
and ACA funding of the Ofﬁce of Catholic Schools.
2011 Actual 2012 Actual 2013 Forecast
“The burden of supporting our Catholic schools can no longer be placed exclusively on the individual parishes that have schools and on
parents who pay tuition. This will require all Catholics, including those in parishes without schools, to focus on the spirituality of stewardship.
The future of Catholic school education depends on the entire Catholic community embracing wholeheartedly the concept of stewardship
of time, talent, and treasure and translating stewardship into concrete action. “
— Renewing Our Commitment to Catholic Elementary & Secondary Schools in the Third Millennium
USCCB July 2005
PHOTO CREDITS: Cover and pg. 3 by Deidre Moog • Archbishop Aquila’s photo by Haney’s Photography, Moorhead, Minn. • pgs. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 11 by James Baca • pgs. 5 and 9 provided by Bishop Machebeuf High School
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