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Solar-Ready-Passive-Solar-EDC-2013-Miller

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									Solar Ready and Passive
   Solar in Minnesota
       February 27, 2013
• Solar energy options
• Solar ready design principles
• Passive solar design principles
• Resources


                                    2
• Division of Energy Resources
  • State Energy Office
• Providing sound information
 for 35+ years on:
  • Energy conservation
  • Energy efficiency
  • Renewable technologies

                                 3
When you design or build a
 home, how long will it last?

  • 10 years?
  • 100 years?
  • Longer?

                                4
5
• Information technology
• Increasing fuel costs
• Electric vehicles
• More Solar!


                           6
7
• A builder can add value by:
  • Building energy efficient homes that
   save $$ for decades

  • Considering environmental impacts

  • Anticipating future technology options
   and plan for them today!
                                             8
Photo Credit: Dennis Schroeder




                                 9
Photo credit: Solar Skies


                            10
Photo credit: Rural Renewable Energy Alliance




                                                11
Photo credit: Rachel Wagner

                              12
Solar resource varies by:
  • Time of day
  • Season
  • Local Weather
  • Local Landscape



                      Slide credit: Eric Buchanan, UM Morris
                                                           13
Is There Shading?
  • Are there onsite obstructions
  • Shading from adjacent land?
  • A resource assessment quantifies
   the current solar resource profile




                                        14
• Solar is a resource for both urban
 and rural applications
• The resource varies seasonally by
 a factor of ~2
• There is <15% difference in solar
 resource statewide


                                      15
16
• Electric Vehicles
• Energy Storage
• Falling price of solar
• Rising conventional fuel costs
• Third party ownership

                                   17
• 13 Megawatts
• 1,100 systems
• 70% residential

                    Photo Credit: Powerfully Green




                         19
                6000           Minnesota's Solar Capacity               14000.0

                                          and Annual Installations
                                                   as of January 2013   12000.0
                5000    Non-profit
                        Business
                        Residential




                                                                                  Cumulative (kW)
                        end-use sector unknown                          10000.0
Annual (kWDC)




                4000    Cumulative

                       Current capacity: 13,000 kWDC                    8000.0

                3000   Large installations:
                       * St. John's University = 400kW (2009)           6000.0
                       * Mpls Convention Center = 600kW (2010)
                       * IKEA = 1,014 kW (2012)
                2000
                       * Slayton Solar = 2,000 kW (2013)
                                                                        4000.0


                1000
                                                                        2000.0



                   0                                                    0.0




                                                                                  20
Minneapolis Convention Center
  • 600 kW capacity
  • 3rd largest PV installation
  • City of Minneapolis
  • Xcel RDF Fund
  • Developer:
    • Best Power Int’l


                                                        21
                           Photo Credit: City of Minneapolis
Cherokee Park United Church
• 21 kilowatts
• St. Paul, MN




                        Photo Credit: SunDial Solar; Silicon Energy


                                                               22
• 40 Amp service
• 240 Volt outlet
• Conduit and
 wiring to the
 parking area       Photo Credit: www.dailycamera.com/boulder-county-news




                                                                        23
• US Dept. of
 Energy
• Plug-In Electric
 Vehicle
 Handbook for
 Electrical
 Contractors
                     Photo Credit: MN Dept. of Natural Resources




                                                                   24
• Most versatile end use
• Utility incentives widely available




               Photo Credit: James Gage   Photo Credit: Powerfully Green
• Fewer utility incentives
• Small market in MN
• 1897: 1/3 of homes in
                                          Photo Credit: Solar Skies


  Pasadena had Solar Water Heating

• 1941: SWH in ½ the homes in FL

                                     26
Photo Credit: Powerfully Green


                          27
Photo credit: Applied Energy Innovations


                                           28
Photo Credit: Conservation Technologies

                                          29
•   Most efficient
•   Most shade tolerant


                                                 Photo credit: Energy Concepts




                     Photo credit: Solar Skies
Photo credit: Rural Renewable Energy Alliance


                                                31
• Least expensive
• Simple to install
• Easy to maintain




                      Photos credit: Rural Renewable Energy Alliance
33
34
Building design and construction that
enables straightforward installation of
solar energy systems after the building
is constructed




                                      35
1. Orient and Design for solar benefit
2. Plan STRUCTURE for future solar
  equipment

3. Plan SPACE for future solar equipment
4. Make product and location choices to
  accommodate future solar equipment

5. Design for minimal building energy loads!
                                               36
FACTORS
         •    Seasons
         •    Spaces
         •    Views
         •    Wind
         •    Overhangs
         •    Glare
         •    Heat Gain
         •    Heat Loss
         •    Adjacent features
ENERinfo
www.gov.ns.ca/natr/meb/energy.htm




                                    37
Elements that can support solar:
  • Window overhangs
  • Deck railings
  • Walls
  • Roofs



                     Photo courtesy Mike LeBeau, Conservation Technologies   38
Allowable load calculated by an engineer
• A single plane facing south




                                           39
Allowable load calculated by an engineer
• A single plane facing south
• A steep pitch to shed snow and capture
  sunlight
   • Latitude or rule of thumb 10:12 – 12:12




                                           40
Allowable load calculated by an engineer
• A single plane facing south
• A steep pitch to shed snow and capture
  sunlight
   • Latitude or rule of thumb 10:12 – 12:12
• No roof vents, dormers, chimneys or
  obstructions that will shade the array




                                           41
Allowable load calculated by an engineer
• A single plane facing south
• A steep pitch to shed snow and capture
  sunlight
   • Latitude or rule of thumb 10:12 – 12:12
• No roof vents, dormers, chimneys or
  obstructions that will shade the array
• Unshaded by trees or nearby buildings
   • Minimum 60’ clear to anything 20’ taller
     than roof
                                            42
Leave Space for
  SWH Equipment
  •   Mechanical room
      (min. 100 ft2)

  •   SWH tanks can be
      quite large
       • 30” – 48” in
         diameter
       • 48” – 90” tall


                          43
Chases
  • Solar hot water needs space for
    insulated piping
  • Create a path from mechanical
    space to attic for Solar Hot Water
  • Have access to the space for later
    work



                                         44
Electrical for solar electric
   • PV: run ¾” flexible
     conduit from attic to
     terminate near
     electrical panel
   • 2” diam. sleeve
     through the wall
     or rim
   • Access to electrical
     panel
                                Photo credit: Silicon Energy and Blue Horizon




                                                                                45
Plumbing
  • There are solar-ready water
    heaters
  • “Solar control module” kit
        – an add-on for a tank water
          heater
  • Plan for building penetrations

                                       46
Heating
  • Hydronic systems are most
    adaptable
  • Boiler can accommodate solar hot
    water




                                   47
                 Efficient
                equipment
                                 Short
       Solar-
                              mechanical
      managed
                             and plumbing
      windows
                                 runs



                Building
  Super-         needs                Solar-
insulated                            oriented
   shell          less              space plan
                energy



                                                 48
Building form, space plan and construction methods let
 the sun contribute desired heat, light, and ventilation.
        Uses no equipment; very cost effective


                                                       49
                                                    Considerations:
                                                    Site constraints

                                                    Building
                                                    constraints

                                                    Geometric
                                                    constraints

                                                    Existing
                                                    obstacles
                      Photo credit: Rachel Wagner


Orient within 30 degrees of south


                                                                   50
•   South-facing building facade, within 30 degrees

•   Solar-oriented space planning

•   Design for super insulated shell

•   Window shading & cross ventilation

•   Proper window glazing selection

•   Design for daylight

                                                      51
                           N


•   Morning spaces
    east/southeast
•   Daytime spaces
    south
•   Evening spaces west
•   Utility spaces north
•   Open plan




                               52
• Favor open floor plan with living areas to the south
 • Allow heat to circulate throughout the living areas


                                                         53
•   Limited direct sun in summer months
•   Ample direct sun in winter months
•   Roof overhangs = shading
                                          54
OVERHANGS allow south
windows to admit lower
altitude winter sun while
shading higher summer
sun
Know your solar altitude
www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/grad/solcalc/

Solar altitude in Duluth:
Dec. 21 = 19.5 degrees
Jan. 21 = 23
June 21 = 66.5

                                 http://www.nesea.org/buildings/passive.html
                                                                           55
Many options:
• Integral Roof Overhangs
• Trellis or pergola elements
• Sun-shades (awnings)
• Decks

                                56
•   Calculated south facing
    glass: usually 9-12% of
    floor area
•   High SHGC > 0.4
•   Low U-value < 0.3
•   Usually, in our climate,
    triple pane glazing
•   Be careful with west-
    facing glass



                               57
             Designed for natural daylight
           Reduced use of artificial lighting
Proper shading & cross ventilation eliminate need for AC


                                                           58
       Brought to you (in this house) by the SUN:
Space Heat....Light.…Ventilation.…Electricity….Hot Water

            Using what the SUN can provide


                                                           59
1.    Solar Ready Building Design Guidelines
     mn.gov/commerce/energy/images/Solar-Ready-Building.pdf



2.    Solar Ready Construction Specification Report
      mn.gov/commerce/energy/images/Solar-Ready-Construction.pdf




                                                                   61
1.   ENERGY STAR Solar Ready
     Photovoltaic (PV)
     Specification

2.   Solar Water Heating (SWH)
     Specification


                                 62
Questions?

								
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