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					Elements
Concept:
Concept: Elements

               Periodic table
               Group/family
               period
               Metalloid
               Metal
               Transition
                element
               Non-metal
Concept: Elements
LEQ: What are the chemical symbols for the most
commonly used elements?

 History of Periodic Table
 Mendeleev (1869) arranged elements based on
  atomic mass
 Anton van den Broek proposed that elements
  should be arranged to nuclear charge instead of
  atomic mass
 Moseley confirmed these findings with x-ray
  spectra and arranged them by atomic number.
  Therefore, atomic number will increase from left
  to right.
Concept: Elements
LEQ: What are the chemical symbols for the most
commonly used elements?
                            Si - Silicon
                             H - Hydrogen
                            Li - – Germanium
                             Ge Lithium
                            Na - Tin
                             Sn - Sodium
                            K - - Lead
                             Pb Potassium
                            Be- -Beryllium
                             N Nitrogen
                            MgPhosphorus
                             P - - Magnesium
                            Ca -Arsenic
                             As - Calcium
                            Sb - Barium
                             Ba – Antimony
                            Bi - Iron
                             Fe– Bismuth
                            Ni-–Oxygen
                             O Nickel
                            S Platinum
                             Pt- -Sulfur
                            Cu - Selenium
                             Se Copper
                            Ag Fluorine
                             F - -Silver
                            Au-– Gold
                             Cl Chlorine
                            Br Zinc
                             Zn--Bromine
                            Hg - Mercury
                             I - Iodine
                            B - Boron
                             He - Helium
                            Ar - Aluminum
                             Al – Argon
                            Kr Carbon
                             C -–Krypton
                            Ne – Neon
Concept: Elements
LEQ: What are the distinguishing characteristics of
metals, nonmetals, and metalloids?

                   metals
 (blue area; groups 1-12 except H, and under
  stair-step line groups 13-15)
 Good conductors of heat and electricity
 Solid at room temperature (except for Hg)
 Reflects light (luster)
 Malleable (hammered into sheets)
 Ductile (stretched/drawn into wire)
Concept: Elements
LEQ: What are the distinguishing characteristics of
metals, nonmetals, and metalloids?

 Alkali Metals
 Group 1 (one valence electron)
 Softer than most other metals
 Silvery/shiny
 Most reactive of all metals (reacts rapidly
  with oxygen and water)
 Do not occur in nature in elemental form
 Stored (kerosene)
 Fr - radioactive
Concept: Elements
LEQ: What are the distinguishing characteristics of
metals, nonmetals, and metalloids?

 Alkaline Earth Metals
 Group 2 (2 valence electrons)
 Not found as free elements in nature
 Gives fireworks color, bright red lights,
  aircraft
Concept: Elements
LEQ: What are the distinguishing characteristics of
metals, nonmetals, and metalloids?

 Transition elements
 Groups 3-12 (elements in transformation)
 Form colored compounds
 Often occur in nature as uncombined elements
 “Iron Triad” (Fe, Co, Ni – 8, 9, 10)
   Used to make steel and other metal mixtures
 “Coinage Metals” (Cu, Ag, Au – 11)
   Stable, malleable, found in nature as free elements
Concept: Elements
LEQ: What are the distinguishing characteristics of
metals, nonmetals, and metalloids?

 Zn, Cd, Hg (group 12)
   Used to coat other metals
   Cd – rechargeable batteries
   Hg – liquid thermometers
Concept: Elements
LEQ: What are the distinguishing characteristics of
metals, nonmetals, and metalloids?

Inner Transitional Metals
 ALL are radioactive and unstable
 Lanthanides (Atomic Number 58-71)
 Actinides (Atomic Number 90-103)
Concept: Elements
LEQ: What are the distinguishing characteristics of
metals, nonmetals, and metalloids?

              nonmetals
 Gases or brittle solids at room temperature
 Can form ionic or covalent bonds
 Not malleable
 Not ductile
 Most do not conduct heat or electricity
 Generally not shiny
 All, except H, are found on right of periodic
  table (in yellow)
Concept: Elements
LEQ: What are the distinguishing characteristics of
metals, nonmetals, and metalloids?

 Group 17 “Halogens”
 Most reactive non-metal
 7 electrons in outer nrg level, one needed to
  make it complete
 Gains an electron from metal  forms a salt
 In gaseous state form reactive diatomic covalent
  molecules (identified by distinctive colors)
 F – most chemically active of all elements
 Cl – most abundant halogen
 Br – only nonmetal that is liquid at room temp
Concept: Elements
LEQ: What are the distinguishing characteristics of
metals, nonmetals, and metalloids?

 Group 18 “Noble gases”
 Full outer energy level “happy” so they exist
  as isolate atoms
 Stable & Relatively unreactive
Concept: Elements
LEQ: What are the distinguishing characteristics of
metals, nonmetals, and metalloids?

                metalloids
 Elements along stair-step line (except for Al)
 Can form ionic and covalent bonds with other
  elements
 metallic and nonmetallic properties
 Semiconductors
Concept: Elements
LEQ: What are the distinguishing characteristics of
metals, nonmetals, and metalloids?

 Mixed groups
 Group 13 – Boron Group (Al most abundant
  metal)
 Group 14 – Carbon group
 Group 15 – Nitrogen Group
 Group 16 – Oxygen Group
Concept: Elements
LEQ: What are the distinguishing characteristics of
metals, nonmetals, and metalloids?

 Synthetic Elements
 Elements not typically found on Earth
 Made in a lab
 With exception to Technetium 43 and
  Promethium 61, each synthetic element has
  more than 92 protons
Concept: Elements
LEQ: What are the distinguishing characteristics of
metals, nonmetals, and metalloids?

 Plutonium (94) used in bombs and control
  rods of nuclear reactors
 Americium – smoke detectors

 Transuranium Elements – elements with 92+
 Synthetic and unstable; disintegrate quickly
 Not considered metals, nonmetals, or
  metalloids
Concept: Elements
LEQ: How does an element’s location on periodic
table relate to valence electrons?

 Period
   Horizontal rows (across)
   Use to tell energy level

 Group
   Vertical columns (down)
   Elements within a group have similar properties due to valence
    electrons
   Use to tell valence electrons

 Valence electrons
   the electrons in the outer most energy level that are available to
    chemically react
   Correlates to the group number for main group elements
Concept: Elements
LEQ: How does an element’s location on periodic
table relate to valence electrons?

 Energy levels (nrg)
 1-7 Correlate to periods (rows) on table
 1st nrg level can only hold 2 e. 8 e are needed for
  each nrg level to make that level complete and
  stable. Nrg levels closest to nucleus have lower
  nrg
 Level 1 up to 2 e
 Level 2 up to 8 e
 Level 3 up to 18 e
 Level 4 up to 32 e
Concept: Elements
LEQ: How does an element’s location on periodic
table relate to valence electrons?

 Valence electrons for main group elements
 Group 1 – 1; give up 1
 Group 2 – 2; give up 2
 Group 13 – 3; give up 3
 Group 14 - 4
 Group 15 – 5; gain 3
 Group 16 – 6; gain 2
 Group 17 – 7; gain 1
 Group 18 – 8; gain 0
Concept: Elements
LEQ: How does an element’s location on periodic
table relate to valence electrons?

 Electron cloud structure




 Lewis Dot structure

				
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